List of papal elections

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The first papal election following In Nomine Domini (1059) took place in San Pietro in Vincoli ("Saint Peter in Chains") rather than Old St. Peter's Basilica due to intense secular opposition to the new papal selection process.

There have been 110 papal elections that have produced popes currently recognized by the Catholic Church as legitimate. There was no fixed process for papal succession before 1059 and popes were often selected with substantial secular involvement, if not outright appointment. Since the promulgation of In nomine Domini (1059), however, suffrage has been limited to the College of Cardinals.[1]

Papal elections since 1276 have taken the form of papal conclaves, which are elections that follow a set of rules and procedures developed in Ubi periculum (1274) and later papal bulls; observance of the conclave varied until 1294, but all papal elections since have followed relatively similar conclave procedures.

Although the cardinals have historically gathered at a handful of other locations within Rome and beyond, only five elections since 1455 have been held outside the Apostolic Palace.[2] Twenty-eight papal elections have been held outside Rome, in: Terracina (1088), Cluny (1119), Velletri (1181), Verona (1185), Ferrara (October 1187), Pisa (December 1187), Perugia (1216, 1264–1265, 1285, 1292–1294, 1304–1305), Anagni (1243), Naples (1254, 1294), Viterbo (1261, 1268–1271, July 1276, August–September 1276, 1277, 1281–1282), Arezzo (January 1276), Carpentras/Lyon (1314–1316), Avignon (1334, 1342, 1352, 1362, 1370), Konstanz (1417) and Venice (1799–1800). Three elections moved between locations while in progress: the elections of 1268–71, 1292–94, and 1314–16.

Papal elections

Contents
1059–1100 · 1100–1200 · 1200–1300 · 1300–1400 · 1400–1500 · 1500–1600 · 1600–1700 · 1700–1800 · 1800–1900 · 1900–2000 · 2000–present
Elections that elected papal claimants currently regarded by the Catholic Church as antipopes are italicized.
SS. Pietro e Cesareo in Terracina, the site of the first papal election outside Rome
The 1119 papal election took place in Cluny Abbey as a result of the expulsion of Pope Gelasius II from Rome by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor following the Investiture Controversy.
Senator Matteo Rosso Orsini confined the cardinals to the Septizodium during the 1241 election.
The Magistrates of Viterbo removed the roof of the Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo during the 1268–71 election and removed two cardinal electors from the Palace during the 1280–81 election.
The Palais des Papes, the site of most papal conclaves during the Avignon Papacy
The Konstanz Minster, the site of the Council of Constance, the last papal election outside Italy
The 1492 conclave was the first held in the Sistine Chapel of the Apostolic Palace, the site of all conclaves since 1878.
All but five papal conclaves since 1455 have been held in the Apostolic Palace.
The papal conclave, 1799–1800 was held in San Giorgio Monastery in Venice, the last papal election site outside of Rome.
The Quirinal Palace was the site of the four conclaves prior to the seizure of Rome by the forces of the Italian unification.
Election Elected Pope Location Ref(s)
Papal election, 1061 Pope Alexander II San Pietro in Vincoli (Rome) [3]
Papal election, 1073 Pope Gregory VII San Pietro in Vincoli (Rome) [4]
Papal election, 1086 Pope Victor III S. Lucia in Sepitisolio (Rome) [5]
Papal election, 1088 Pope Urban II SS. Pietro e Cesareo (Terracina) [6]
Papal election, 1099 Pope Paschal II Basilica di San Clemente (Rome) [6]
Papal election, 1118 Pope Gelasius II Benedictine monastery on Palatine Hill (Rome) [7]
Papal election, 1119 Pope Callixtus II Cluny Abbey (France) [8]
Papal election, 1124 Pope Honorius II San Pancrazio (Rome) [9]
Papal election, 1130 Pope Innocent II SS. Andrea e Gregorio in clivo scauri (Rome) [10]
Papal election, 1130 Antipope Anacletus II San Marco (Rome) [10]
Papal election, 1143 Pope Celestine II Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome) [11]
Papal election, 1144 Pope Lucius II (Rome) [11]
Papal election, 1145 Pope Eugene III San Cesareo in Palatio (Rome) [11]
Papal election, 1153 Pope Anastasius IV (Rome) [11]
Papal election, 1154 Pope Adrian IV Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome) [12]
Papal election, 1159 Pope Alexander III Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome) [13]
Papal election, 1159 Antipope Victor IV Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome) [13]
Papal election, 1181 Pope Lucius III (Rome) [14]
Papal election, 1185 Pope Urban III (Verona) [14]
Papal election, October 1187 Pope Gregory VIII (Ferrara) [15]
Papal election, December 1187 Pope Clement III (Pisa) [16]
Papal election, 1191 Pope Celestine III (Rome) [16]
Papal election, 1198 Pope Innocent III Septizodium (Rome) [16]
Papal election, 1216 Pope Honorius III Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia) [16]
Papal election, 1227 Pope Gregory IX Septizodium (Rome) [17]
Papal election, 1241 Pope Celestine IV Septizodium (Rome) [18]
Papal election, 1243 Pope Innocent IV (Anagni) [19]
Papal election, 1254 Pope Alexander IV (Naples) [20]
Papal election, 1261 Pope Urban IV Viterbo Cathedral [20]
Papal election, 1264–65 Pope Clement IV Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia) [21]
Papal election, 1268–71 Pope Gregory X Viterbo Cathedral
Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo
[22]
Papal conclave, January 1276 Pope Innocent V Arezzo Cathedral [23]
Papal conclave, July 1276 Pope Adrian V Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome) [24][25]
Papal election, September 1276 Pope John XXI Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo [26]
Papal election, 1277 Pope Nicholas III Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo [26]
Papal election, 1280–81 Pope Martin IV Palazzo dei Papi di Viterbo [27]
Papal election, 1285 Pope Honorius IV Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia) [28]
Papal election, 1287–88 Pope Nicholas IV Corte Savella, near Santa Sabina (Rome) [29]
Papal election, 1292–94 Pope Celestine V Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (Rome)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome)
Palazzo delle Canoniche (Perugia)
[30]
Papal conclave, 1294 Pope Boniface VIII Castel Nuovo (Naples) [31]
Papal conclave, 1303 Pope Benedict XI Basilica of St. John Lateran (Rome) [32]
Papal conclave, 1304–05 Pope Clement V Perugia Cathedral [33]
Papal conclave, 1314–16 Pope John XXII Carpentras Cathedral
Dominican house in Lyon
[34]
Papal conclave, 1334 Pope Benedict XII Palais des Papes (Avignon) [35]
Papal conclave, 1342 Pope Clement VI Palais des Papes (Avignon) [36]
Papal conclave, 1352 Pope Innocent VI Palais des Papes (Avignon) [37]
Papal conclave, 1362 Pope Urban V Palais des Papes (Avignon) [38]
Papal conclave, 1370 Pope Gregory XI Palais des Papes (Avignon) [39]
Papal conclave, 1378 Pope Urban VI Old St. Peter's Basilica (Rome) [40]
Avignon papal conclave, 1378 Antipope Clement VII (Fondi) [40]
Papal conclave, 1389 Pope Boniface IX Apostolic Palace (Rome) [41]
Avignon papal conclave, 1394 Antipope Benedict XIII Palais des Papes (Avignon) [42]
Papal conclave, 1404 Pope Innocent VII (Rome) [43]
Papal conclave, 1406 Pope Gregory XII (Rome) [44]
Council of Pisa, 1409 Antipope Alexander V (Pisa) [45]
Pisan papal conclave, 1410 Antipope John XXIII San Petronio Basilica (Bologna) [46]
Council of Constance, 1417 Pope Martin V Konstanz Minster [47]
Avignon papal conclave, 1423 Antipope Clement VIII (Peñíscola) [48]
Papal conclave, 1431 Pope Eugene IV Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome) [49][50]
Council of Florence, 1439 Antipope Felix V Basel Münster [51]
Papal conclave, 1447 Pope Nicholas V Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Rome) [50][52]
Papal conclave, 1455 Pope Callixtus III Apostolic Palace (Rome) [50][53]
Papal conclave, 1458 Pope Pius II Apostolic Palace (Rome) [2][54]
Papal conclave, 1464 Pope Paul II Apostolic Palace (Rome), Capella Parva (voting) and Capella Magna (cardinals' cells) [50][55]
Papal conclave, 1471 Pope Sixtus IV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [56]
Papal conclave, 1484 Pope Innocent VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [57]
Papal conclave, 1492 Pope Alexander VI Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel [58]
Papal conclave, September 1503 Pope Pius III Apostolic Palace (Rome) [59]
Papal conclave, October 1503 Pope Julius II Apostolic Palace (Rome) [60]
Papal conclave, 1513 Pope Leo X Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel [50][61]
Papal conclave, 1521–22 Pope Adrian VI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [62]
Papal conclave, 1523 Pope Clement VII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [63]
Papal conclave, 1534 Pope Paul III Apostolic Palace (Rome), Cappella Parva [50][64]
Papal conclave, 1549–50 Pope Julius III Apostolic Palace (Rome), Cappella Paolina [65]
Papal conclave, April 1555 Pope Marcellus II Apostolic Palace (Rome) [66]
Papal conclave, May 1555 Pope Paul IV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [67]
Papal conclave, 1559 Pope Pius IV Apostolic Palace (Rome), Cappella Paolina [50][68]
Papal conclave, 1565–66 Pope Pius V Apostolic Palace (Rome) [69]
Papal conclave, 1572 Pope Gregory XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [70]
Papal conclave, 1585 Pope Sixtus V Apostolic Palace (Rome) [71]
Papal conclave, September 1590 Pope Urban VII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [72]
Papal conclave, Autumn 1590 Pope Gregory XIV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [73]
Papal conclave, 1591 Pope Innocent IX Apostolic Palace (Rome) [74]
Papal conclave, 1592 Pope Clement VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [75]
Papal conclave, March 1605 Pope Leo XI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [76]
Papal conclave, May 1605 Pope Paul V Apostolic Palace (Rome) [77]
Papal conclave, 1621 Pope Gregory XV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [78]
Papal conclave, 1623 Pope Urban VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [79]
Papal conclave, 1644 Pope Innocent X Apostolic Palace (Rome) [80]
Papal conclave, 1655 Pope Alexander VII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [81]
Papal conclave, 1667 Pope Clement IX Apostolic Palace (Rome) [82]
Papal conclave, 1669–70 Pope Clement X Apostolic Palace (Rome) [83]
Papal conclave, 1676 Pope Innocent XI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [84]
Papal conclave, 1689 Pope Alexander VIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [85]
Papal conclave, 1691 Pope Innocent XII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [86]
Papal conclave, 1700 Pope Clement XI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [87]
Papal conclave, 1721 Pope Innocent XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [88]
Papal conclave, 1724 Pope Benedict XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [89]
Papal conclave, 1730 Pope Clement XII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [90]
Papal conclave, 1740 Pope Benedict XIV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [91]
Papal conclave, 1758 Pope Clement XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome) [92]
Papal conclave, 1769 Pope Clement XIV Apostolic Palace (Rome) [93]
Papal conclave, 1774–75 Pope Pius VI Apostolic Palace (Rome) [94]
Papal conclave, 1799–1800 Pope Pius VII San Giorgio Monastery (Venice) [95]
Papal conclave, 1823 Pope Leo XII Quirinal Palace (Rome) [96]
Papal conclave, 1829 Pope Pius VIII Quirinal Palace (Rome) [97]
Papal conclave, 1830–31 Pope Gregory XVI Quirinal Palace (Rome) [98]
Papal conclave, 1846 Pope Pius IX Quirinal Palace (Rome) [99]
Papal conclave, 1878 Pope Leo XIII Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel [100]
Papal conclave, 1903 Pope Pius X Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel [101]
Papal conclave, 1914 Pope Benedict XV Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel [102]
Papal conclave, 1922 Pope Pius XI Apostolic Palace (Rome), Sistine Chapel [103]
Papal conclave, 1939 Pope Pius XII Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel [104]
Papal conclave, 1958 Pope John XXIII Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel [105]
Papal conclave, 1963 Pope Paul VI Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel [106]
Papal conclave, August 1978 Pope John Paul I Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel [107]
Papal conclave, October 1978 Pope John Paul II Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel [107]
Papal conclave, 2005 Pope Benedict XVI Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel [108]
Papal conclave, 2013 Pope Francis Apostolic Palace (Vatican City), Sistine Chapel [109][110]

Notes

  1. ^ Johannes Baptist Sägmüller, "Cardinal" in Catholic Encyclopedia (1913).
  2. ^ a b Baumgartner, Frederic J. (2003). ""I Will Observe Absolute and Perpetual Secrecy:" The Historical Background of the Rigid Secrecy Found in Papal Elections". Catholic Historical Review. Vol. 89, Issue 2. pp. 165–181.
  3. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 19–24.
  4. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 24–25.
  5. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 25–26.
  6. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, p. 26.
  7. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 26–27.
  8. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 27–28.
  9. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 28–29.
  10. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 29–31.
  11. ^ a b c d Baumgartner, 2003, p. 31.
  12. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 31–32.
  13. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 32–33.
  14. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, p. 33.
  15. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 33–34.
  16. ^ a b c d Baumgartner, 2003, p. 34.
  17. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 34–35.
  18. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 35.
  19. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 35–36.
  20. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, p. 36.
  21. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 36–37.
  22. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 37–39.
  23. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 40.
  24. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 40–41.
  25. ^ Walsh, Michael J. (2003). The Conclave. ISBN 1-58051-135-X. p. 86
  26. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, p. 41.
  27. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 42.
  28. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 42–43.
  29. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 43.
  30. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 43–45.
  31. ^ Baumgatner, 2003, pp. 45–46.
  32. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 47–48.
  33. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 48–49.
  34. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 49–50.
  35. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 50–51.
  36. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 51.
  37. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 52–53.
  38. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 54.
  39. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 54–55.
  40. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 55–60.
  41. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 60–61.
  42. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 61.
  43. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 62.
  44. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 62–63.
  45. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 63.
  46. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 63–64.
  47. ^ Baumgatner, 2003, pp. 64–66.
  48. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 67.
  49. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 68–69.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g Chambers, DS. 1978. "Papal Conclaves and Prophetic Mystery in the Sistine Chapel". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 41: pp. 322–326.
  51. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 69.
  52. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 70.
  53. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 71–73.
  54. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 73–77.
  55. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 77–79.
  56. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 79–81.
  57. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 81–83.
  58. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 84–85.
  59. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 86–89.
  60. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 89.
  61. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 91–93.
  62. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 95–98.
  63. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 98-101.
  64. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 102–103.
  65. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 104–110.
  66. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 111–112.
  67. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 112–113.
  68. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 116–120.
  69. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 121–123.
  70. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 125–126.
  71. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 127–130.
  72. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 132–134.
  73. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 134–135.
  74. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 136.
  75. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 136–138.
  76. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 139–142.
  77. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 142.
  78. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 143–145.
  79. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 147–149.
  80. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 153–154.
  81. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 155–157.
  82. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 157–159.
  83. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 159–161.
  84. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 161–162.
  85. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 163–164.
  86. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 164–166.
  87. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, p. 167.
  88. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 168–170.
  89. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 170–171.
  90. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 171–173.
  91. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 173–175.
  92. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 175–176.
  93. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 176–178.
  94. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 179–180.
  95. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 182–184.
  96. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 186–187.
  97. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 188–189.
  98. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 189–190.
  99. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 191–193.
  100. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 195–199.
  101. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 201–204.
  102. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 206–208.
  103. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 209–210.
  104. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 212–213.
  105. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 215–218.
  106. ^ Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 219–222.
  107. ^ a b Baumgartner, 2003, pp. 223–227.
  108. ^ Greeley, Andrew M. 2005. The Making of the Pope: 2005. Brown, Little. ISBN 0-316-86149-9.
  109. ^ Lyman, Eric J. (1 March 2013). "Vatican summons cardinals for conclave". USA Today. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
  110. ^ http://cnsblog.wordpress.com/2013/03/13/argentine-cardinal-bergoglio-elected-pope-takes-name-francis-i/

References

  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. 2003. Behind Locked Doors: A History of the Papal Elections. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-29463-8.

External links

  • Papal elections and conclaves by century including lists of cardinals known to have attended each conclave
  • Notes, by J. P. Adams, on Papal Elections and Conclaves from the 11th to the 21st Centuries
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