List of nuclear weapons tests of North Korea

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Nuclear tests
Information
Country North Korea
Test site Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site, North Korea
Period 2006–present
Number of tests 6
Test type underground
Max. yield [4]

North Korea has conducted six nuclear tests, in 2006, 2009, 2013, twice in 2016, and 2017.

Location of North Korea's Nuclear tests[5]

Testing

North Korea's nuclear tests series tests and detonations
Sequence Date time (UT) Local time zone[note 1][6] Location Elevation, depth Delivery Yield [note 2] Fallout [note 3] References
(1) 9 October 2006 01:35:27 KST
(+9 hrs)
Punggye-ri Test Site, North Korea 41°17′06″N 129°06′30″E / 41.28505°N 129.1084°E / 41.28505; 129.1084 ((1)) 1,340 m (4,400 ft), 310 m (1,020 ft) underground 0.7 - 2 kt [7]
(2) 25 May 2009 00:54:43 KST
(+9 hrs)
Punggye-ri Test Site, North Korea 41°17′29″N 129°04′54″E / 41.29142°N 129.08167°E / 41.29142; 129.08167 ((2)) 1,340 m (4,400 ft), 490 m (1,610 ft) underground 2 - 5.4 kt [10][11]
(3) 12 February 2013 02:57:51 KST
(+9 hrs)
Punggye-ri Test Site, North Korea 41°16′05″N 129°04′51″E / 41.26809°N 129.08076°E / 41.26809; 129.08076 ((3)) 1,340 m (4,400 ft), 1,000 m (3,300 ft) underground 6 - 16 kt [10][12]
(4) 6 January 2016 01:30:01 PYT
(+8:30 hrs)
Punggye-ri Test Site, North Korea 41°18′32″N 129°02′02″E / 41.30900°N 129.03399°E / 41.30900; 129.03399 ((4))

1,340 m

(4,400 ft),

1,000 m

(3,300 ft)

underground 7 - 16.5 kt [14][15]
(5) 9 September 2016 00:30:01 PYT
(+8:30 hrs)
Punggye-ri Test Site, North Korea 41°17′53″N 129°00′54″E / 41.298°N 129.015°E / 41.298; 129.015 ((5))[note 4]

1,340 m

(4,400 ft),

1,000 m

(3,300 ft)

underground 15 - 25 kt [18][19][20]
(6) 3 September 2017 03:30:01.940 PYT
(+8:30 hrs)
Punggye-ri Test Site, North Korea 41°20′35″N 129°02′10″E / 41.343°N 129.036°E / 41.343; 129.036 ((2)) 1,340 m (4,400 ft), 0 m (0 ft) underground 50 - 250 kt [24][25][26][27][28]
  • Claimed to be a hydrogen bomb (but may only be a boosted fission weapon rather than an actual staged Teller–Ulam thermonuclear weapon).[29]
  • On 3 September, South Korea’s weather agency, the Korea Meteorological Administration, estimated that the nuclear blast yield of the presumed test was between 50 and 60 kilotons based on a magnitude 5.6 detection.[30]
  • South Korean Government's initial yield estimate is 100 kt,[25] and it detected a 5.7 magnitude earthquake,[31]
  • NORSAR Seismology Center initial estimate is 120 kt,[26] based on a magnitude 5.8 tremor. On 12 Sept 2017, it has since revised the estimates to 250 kt based on a magnitude 6.1 instead.[4]
  • The German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources estimate is "a few hundred kt",[27] based on a 6.1 detected tremor. The Japan Meteorological Agency also detected a 6.1 magnitude tremor.[32]
  • from USGS: "[Magnitude] 6.3 Explosion ... Possible explosion, located near the site where North Korea has detonated nuclear explosions in the past. If this event was an explosion, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center cannot determine its type, whether nuclear or any other possible type." Depth and lat/lon location approximate.
  • The China Earthquake Administration also detected a 6.3 magnitude earthquake.[33]
  • The University of Science and Technology of China[34] estimated the yield at 108.1 ± 48.1 kt.
  • The Geophysical Service of the Russian Academy of Sciences registered a 6.4 magnitude earthquake.[35]
  • Paul Richards, nuclear seismic research scientist at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory said, "The explosion appears to be the largest since China surprised the world with a magnitude 6.5 nuclear test in May 1992...The main point: this was a huge explosion, probably hundreds of kilotons, and larger than any of those conducted by the Soviet Union and the United States since 1976." He also said that "Tentatively, I'd put today's test at around 250 kilotons with a factor of uncertainty around 2 until we get better information on the depth at which it was carried out"[28]
  • U.S. intelligence: 140kt with unspecified margin of error.[1]
  • Japanese Government: 160kt [2]
  1. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. North Korea changed from UTC+9 hours to UTC+8:30 hours on 15 August 2015. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  2. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  3. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.
  4. ^ Location from seismic data, about 6.4 km west northwest Punggye-ri and locus of previous tests.

Summary

North Korea's nuclear testing series summary
Series or years Years covered Tests [Summ 1] Devices fired Devices with unknown yield Peaceful use tests Non-PTBT tests [Summ 2] Yield range (kilotons) [Summ 3] Total yield (kilotons) [Summ 4] Notes
nuclear tests 2006–2017 6 6 0.7 to 250 197.8
Totals 2006-Oct-9 to 2017-Sep-3 6 6 0.7 to 250 197.8 (Based on average yield from lower to upper estimates as the Government of DPRK does not announce the exact yield.) Total country yield is 0.03% of all nuclear testing.
  1. ^ Includes all tests with potential for nuclear fission or fusion explosion, including combat use, singleton tests, salvo tests, zero yield fails, safety experiments, and bombs incapacitated by accidents but still intended to be fired. It does not include hydronuclear and subcritical tests, and misfires of a device which was subsequently fired successfully.
  2. ^ Number of tests which would have been in violation of the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963, such as atmospheric, space or underwater tests. Some "peaceful use" cratering tests which should have been violations were protested, and later quietly dropped.
  3. ^ "Small" refers to a value greater than zero but less than 0.5 kt.
  4. ^ Some yields are described like "< 20 kt"; such are scored at one half of the numeric amount, i.e., yield of 10k in this example. "Unknown yield" adds nothing to the total.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Panda, Ankit (6 September 2017). "US Intelligence: North Korea's Sixth Test Was a 140 Kiloton 'Advanced Nuclear' Device". The Diplomat. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b "North Korean nuke test put at 160 kilotons as Ishiba urges debate on deploying U.S. atomic bombs". The Japan Times. 5 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  3. ^ http://www.38north.org/2017/09/punggye091217/
  4. ^ a b "The nuclear explosion in North Korea on 3 September 2017: A revised magnitude assessment". NORSAR. 12 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017. 
  5. ^ "Search Results". USGS. 
  6. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  7. ^ USGS Earthquake Hazards Program (9 October 2006). "Magnitude 4.7–North Korea". USGS. Archived from the original on 27 April 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Nordkorea: BGR registriert vermutlichen Kernwaffentest – BGR (In German), 12 Feb 2013
  9. ^ a b c d Nordkorea: BGR registriert vermutlichen Kernwaffentest – BGR, 6 Jan 2016
  10. ^ a b Kalinowski, Martin (25 May 2009). "Second nuclear test conducted by North Korea on 25 May 2009" (PDF). Arms Control Wonk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  11. ^ USGS Earthquake Hazards Program (26 May 2009). "Magnitude 4.7–North Korea". USGS. Retrieved 20 January 2014. 
  12. ^ Davenport, Kelsey (March 2013). "North Korea Conducts Nuclear Test". Arms Control Association. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  13. ^ "Chinese underground nuclear test North Korea reached an unprecedented precision measurement". 19 June 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  14. ^ "North Korean carries out fourth nuclear test". The Guardian. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  15. ^ "North Korea Tests Nuclear Device, Claims Successful Thermonuclear Detonation". The Diplomat. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  16. ^ a b Nordkorea: BGR registriert vermutlichen Kernwaffentest – BGR (In German), 9 Sep 2016
  17. ^ "North Korea’s January 6 2016 Nuclear Test Location and Yield: Seismic Results from USTC". 6 January 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2016. 
  18. ^ "M5.3 Explosion – 19km ENE of Sungjibaegam, North Korea". United States Geological Survey. 9 September 2016. Retrieved 9 September 2016. 
  19. ^ "North Korea nuclear test: Japan confirms huge quake caused by explosion". The Guardian. 9 September 2016. 
  20. ^ North Korea conducts fifth and largest nuclear test – South Korea and Japan – Reuters, Sep 9, 2016 5:39am British Standard Time
  21. ^ The Latest: N. Korea Confirms 'Successful' Nuclear Test – Associated Press, 2016 Sep 9, 12:52 AM EDT
  22. ^ "North Korea has made a nuclear weapon small enough to fit on a missile. How worried should the world be?". Los Angeles Times. 9 August 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017. 
  23. ^ "North Korea’s September 9 2016 Nuclear Test Location and Yield: Seismic Results from USTC". 10 September 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016. 
  24. ^ "M 6.3 Explosion - 22km ENE of Sungjibaegam, North Korea". 
  25. ^ a b "N. Korea's apparent sixth nuke test estimated to have yield of 100 kilotons: lawmaker". 
  26. ^ a b "Large nuclear test in North Korea on 3 September 2017". 
  27. ^ a b "BGR registers a presumed nuclear test in North Korea". 
  28. ^ a b "Seismic Detective Weighs In on North Korea's Latest Nuclear Test". 
  29. ^ Buckley, Chris (September 3, 2017). "What’s the Difference Between a Hydrogen Bomb and a Regular Atomic Bomb?". New York Times. Retrieved September 6, 2017. 
  30. ^ "North Korea nuclear test: what we know so far". Guardian. 3 September 2017. 
  31. ^ "The Latest: EU calls on U.N. to adopt further NK sanctions". New York Daily News. Associated Press. September 3, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  32. ^ "North Korea tests most powerful nuclear bomb yet". ABC. CNN, Scripps National Desk. September 3, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  33. ^ Wen, Philip (September 2, 2017). "China Earthquake Administration detects 'suspected explosion' in North Korea". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 
  34. ^ "North Korea's 3 September 2017 Nuclear Test Location and Yield: Seismic Results from USTC". Lianxing Wen's Geography. University of Science and Technology of China. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  35. ^ "North Korea likely to have conducted another nuclear test — Japanese TV". TASS. Government of Russia. September 3, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017. 

Sources

  • Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  • Andryushi, LA; Voloshin, N.P.; Ilkaev, R.I.; Matushchenko, A.M.; Ryabev, L.D.; Strukov, V.G.; Chernyshev, A.K.; Yudin, Yu.A., Mikhailov, V.N., ed., Catalog of Worldwide Nuclear Testing, archived from the original on 19 December 2013, retrieved 4 March 2013 
  • Wm Robert Johnston, PhD, Johnston Archive of Nuclear Weapons, retrieved 31 December 2013 
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