List of new churches by John Douglas

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Old grainy photograph of the head and shoulders of a bearded man wearing a three-piece suit, tie and high collar
John Douglas in late middle age

John Douglas (1830–1911) was an English architect based in Chester, Cheshire. His output included new churches, alterations to and restoration of existing churches, church furnishings, new houses and alterations to existing houses, and a variety of other buildings, including shops, banks, offices, schools, memorials and public buildings. Perhaps his best-known design is that for the Eastgate Clock in Chester.[1] His architectural styles were eclectic, but as he worked during the period of the Gothic Revival much of his output incorporates elements of the English Gothic style. He was also influenced by architectural styles from the mainland of Europe, and frequently included elements of French, German, and Netherlandish architecture.[2] Douglas is probably best remembered for his incorporation of vernacular elements in his buildings, in particular half-timbering,[3] in which he was influenced by the black-and-white revival in Chester.[4] Other vernacular elements he employed included tile-hanging, pargeting, and the use of decorative brick in diapering and the design of tall chimney stacks.[5] Of particular importance is Douglas' use of joinery[6] and highly detailed wood carving.[7]

John Douglas was born in the Cheshire village of Sandiway and was articled to the Lancaster architect E. G. Paley, later becoming his chief assistant. He established an office in Chester in either 1855 or 1860, from where he practised throughout his career.[1] Initially he ran the office himself but in 1884 he appointed his assistant, Daniel Porter Fordham, as a partner. When Fordham retired in 1897, he was succeeded by Charles Howard Minshull. In 1909 this partnership was dissolved and Douglas ran the office alone until his death in 1911.[8] As his office was in Chester, most of his works were in Cheshire and North Wales, although some were further afield, in Lancashire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, and Scotland.[9]

From an early stage in his career, Douglas attracted commissions from wealthy and powerful patrons, the first of which came from Hugh Cholmondeley, 2nd Baron Delamere. His most important patrons were the Grosvenor family of Eaton Hall, namely Richard Grosvenor, 2nd Marquess of Westminster, Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster, and Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster. Douglas designed a large number and variety of buildings in the family's Eaton Hall estate and the surrounding villages. Other important patrons were William Molyneux, 4th Earl of Sefton, Rowland Egerton-Warburton of Arley Hall, George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley, and Francis Egerton, 3rd Earl of Ellesmere. Later in his career Douglas carried out commissions for W. E. Gladstone and his family, and for W. H.Lever.

Most of Douglas' new churches have been recognised as listed buildings. In England and Wales a Grade I listed building is one "of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important", Grade II* consists of "particularly important buildings of more than special interest", and in Grade II are buildings which "are nationally important and of special interest".[10] In Scotland, Category A contains "buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic, or fine little-altered examples of some particular period, style or building type", Category B consists of "buildings of regional or more than local importance, or major examples of some particular period, style or building type which may have been altered", and in Category C are "buildings of local importance, lesser examples of any period, style, or building type, as originally constructed or moderately altered; and simple traditional buildings which group well with others in categories A and B".[11]

This list includes the 40 new churches designed by Douglas that were built. The details are taken from the Catalogue of Works in the biography by Edward Hubbard.[9] Churches attributed to Douglas by Hubbard on stylistic grounds together with evidence of a local association are included, even though they are not confirmed by other reliable evidence.[12] Where this is the case, it is stated in the Notes column. Unexecuted schemes are not included.


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Grade Criteria[10]
Grade I Buildings of exceptional interest, sometimes considered to be internationally important.
Grade II* Particularly important buildings of more than special interest.
Grade II Buildings of national importance and special interest.
"—" denotes a work that is not graded.

New churches

Name Location Photograph Date Notes Grade
St John the Evangelist's Church Over, Winsford, Cheshire
53°11′32″N 2°32′53″W / 53.1922°N 2.5481°W / 53.1922; -2.5481 (St John the Evangelist's Church, Winsford)
The west end, with a rose window, and the steeple of a Gothic style church, with a clock face; gravestones in the foreground and a leafless tree to the left
1860–63 This was Douglas' first church and was designed as a memorial to the first wife of the 2nd Baron Delamere. It is in Gothic Revival style.[13][14] II[15]
Congregational Chapel Over, Winsford, Cheshire
53°11′18″N 2°32′24″W / 53.1883°N 2.5399°W / 53.1883; -2.5399 (Over United Reformed Church)
A chapel with rows of red and white bricks; the entrance porch has three arches and there are three windows above 1865 This church is built in polychromatic brick with some red sandstone dressings. Pevsner describes it as being "very ugly" while Hubbard describes it as being "experimental" and presenting "an astonishing sight". It is now a United Reformed church.[16][17] II[18]
St John the Baptist's Church Aldford, Cheshire
53°07′44″N 2°52′11″W / 53.1290°N 2.8698°W / 53.1290; -2.8698 (St John the Baptist's Church, Aldford)
A sandstone church with, on the left a tower with a spire and a stair turret, and on the right the body of the church with a clerestory 1. 1865–66
2. c.1872–76
3. 1902
St John's was the first church commissioned by the Grosvenor family
1. A new church was built on the site of an earlier church.
2. Additions were made including a spire and a reredos.
3. A vestry was converted into a chapel and another vestry was added.[19][20]
St Bartholomew's Church Sealand, Flintshire
53°12′46″N 2°58′15″W / 53.2128°N 2.9709°W / 53.2128; -2.9709 (St Bartholomew's Church, Sealand)
A photograph of a grey-bricked, many-windowed church with a slanted roof in a grassy field surrounded by green trees all under a bright sky 1865–67 This is a small church designed for the River Dee Company in Early Decorated style. Douglas paid for the stained glass by Hardman & Co. in the east window.[22][23] II[24]
St Ann's Church Warrington, Cheshire
53°23′48″N 2°35′41″W / 53.3967°N 2.5947°W / 53.3967; -2.5947 (St Ann's Church, Warrington)
A church tower topped with a pyramidal spire and a round stair turret behind; to the right is an apse with buttresses; a car and a white van pass in front
1868–69 The church is in bold High Victorian style with a broad aisleless nave. It is now redundant and has been used as an indoor climbing centre since 1996.[25][26] II*[27]
St Paul's Church Helsby, Cheshire
53°16′39″N 2°45′40″W / 53.2775°N 2.7612°W / 53.2775; -2.7612 (St Paul's Church, Helsby)
A church see from the side with a gabled extension to the left and a small spire on the right; trees and a grassy bank in the foreground 1. 1868–70
2. 1909
1. This is a small church with a western bell-turret in the form of a flèche.
2. A south aisle was added.[28][29]
St John the Baptist's Church Hartford, Cheshire
53°14′45″N 2°32′39″W / 53.2458°N 2.5441°W / 53.2458; -2.5441 (St John the Baptist's Church, Hartford)
A substantial church from the northwest with a clerestory, chancel to the left, protruding vestry and aisle, and a castellated tower to the right 1. 1873–75
2. 1885–87
1. A new church was built on the site of an older church.
2. A tower was added at the west end.[31][32]
St Paul's Church Marston, Cheshire
53°16′30″N 2°29′46″W / 53.275°N 2.496°W / 53.275; -2.496 (St Paul's Church, Marston)
1874 This was a small church with much moulded brick, lancet windows, a small west tower and spire. It has been demolished.[34]
Presbyterian Chapel Rossett, Wrexham County Borough
53°06′27″N 2°57′09″W / 53.1076°N 2.9524°W / 53.1076; -2.9524 (Presbyterian Chapel, Rossett)
Cropped image of Presbyterian Chapel, Rossett - - 969364.jpg 1875 This is a church with lancet windows, a timber porch and a flèche.[35][36]
Christ Church Gloucester Street,
Chester, Cheshire
53°11′49″N 2°53′19″W / 53.1969°N 2.8885°W / 53.1969; -2.8885 (Christ Church, Chester)
A church without tower or steeple seen from the side with clerestory; a porch and the aisle protrude; in front is a road with parked vehicles 1. 1876
2. 1893
3. 1897
4. 1898
5. 1900
1. A new church was built to replace a previous one on the site.
2–5. During these years a new sanctuary was added, then the porch, the pulpit and the southeast chapel. Later the vestry and organ chamber were added, work was done on the chancel, and the nave was completed.[37][38]
St Stephen's Church Moulton, Cheshire
53°13′22″N 2°31′00″W / 53.2227°N 2.5168°W / 53.2227; -2.5168 (St Stephen's Church, Moulton)
The west end of the church showing the porch and small tower; part of a gatepost intrudes on the right
1876–77 The exterior of this church is built in stone while the interior is in two kinds of brick. It has a green slate roof and a lead spire.[40][41] II[42]
St Barnabas' Mission Church and Curate's House Sibell Street, Chester, Cheshire
53°11′48″N 2°52′58″W / 53.1967°N 2.8828°W / 53.1967; -2.8828 (St Barnabas' Church, Chester)
St Barnabas1.jpg 1877 The church was built a mission church with an adjacent house for the curate, It is now used as offices.[43] II[44]
Church of St Mary the Virgin Halkyn, Flintshire
53°13′54″N 3°11′10″W / 53.2316°N 3.1862°W / 53.2316; -3.1862 (Church of St Mary the Virgin, Halkyn)
A large broad church seen from the northwest showing a large chancel, the nave, a porch and a broad castellated tower beyond the chancel; a wall in the foreground 1877–88 The church was built for the 1st Duke of Westminster. Hubbard considers it to be "one of the best Victorian churches in Clwyd" which "sets the tone for virtually all his [Douglas'] subsequent churches".[45][46] I[47]
St Michael's Church Altcar, Lancashire
53°33′03″N 3°01′42″W / 53.5509°N 3.0283°W / 53.5509; -3.0283 (St Michael and All Angels Church, Altcar)
A small black and white half-timbered church showing the nave with a porch, a small chancel beyond and a small spire on the nearside of the roof; some gravestones visible in the churchyard. 1878–79 This church was designed for the 4th Earl of Sefton and is unique in Douglas' output in being entirely half-timbered. In the Buildings of England series it is described as "an utterly charming church".[48][49] II*[50]
Welsh Church of St John the Evangelist Mold, Flintshire
53°10′07″N 3°08′28″W / 53.1686°N 3.1410°W / 53.1686; -3.1410 (St John the Evangelist's Church, Mold)
St John's Church, Mold.jpg
1878–79 This church is broad without aisles but is now redundant. It has been divided and is used as a church hall.[51][52] II[53]
Grosvenor Park Baptist Chapel Grosvenor Road, Chester, Cheshire
53°11′30″N 2°52′55″W / 53.19169°N 2.88192°W / 53.19169; -2.88192 (Grosvenor Park Baptist Chapel, Chester)
A red brick chapel with stone dressings with a small spire in the foreground and a noticeboard announcing "Zion Tabernacle"
1879–80 This was built in association with a terrace of houses in the same road. It was originally a Baptist chapel but is now known as Zion Tabernacle.[54][55] II[56]
St Chad's Church Hopwas, Staffordshire
52°38′36″N 1°44′30″W / 52.6433°N 1.7418°W / 52.6433; -1.7418 (St Chad's Church, Hopwas)
St Chad's Church, Hopwas.jpg 1881 The church was built for Rev W. MacGregor. It is in brick and half-timber with a timber-framed porch and has an octagonal flèche.[57] II[58]
St Mary's Church Pulford, Cheshire
53°07′21″N 2°56′05″W / 53.1224°N 2.9348°W / 53.1224; -2.9348 (St Mary's Church, Pulford)
A church with a red roof, and red body with yellow bands, the tower is to the right with a spire, four pinnacles and a clock face; in front is a wall and a surfaced car park 1881–84 The church was built for the 1st Duke of Westminster in red sandstone with bands of lighter stone. It is cruciform in plan with a northwest tower which incorporates the porch.[59][60] II*[61]
St Werburgh's New Church Warburton, Greater Manchester
53°23′54″N 2°26′43″W / 53.3984°N 2.4454°W / 53.3984; -2.4454 (St Werburgh's Church, Warburton)
A castellated tower with the nave of the church to the right; a tree is to the left and the churchyard is grassed
1. 1882–85
2. 1899
1. This was a new church built for Rowland Egerton-Warburton in sandstone to replace St Werburgh's Old Church but on a different site.
2. The chancel stalls were replaced.[62][63]
Holywell Workhouse Chapel Holywell, Flintshire
53°15′59″N 3°13′00″W / 53.2663°N 3.2168°W / 53.2663; -3.2168 (Lluesty Chapel)
The end of a chapel with five windows and a small spire; in front is a bush and a wall
1883–84 A chapel with a shingled flèche for the workhouse which later became Lluesty Hospital.[65][66] II[67]
Chapel of the Good Shepherd Carlett Park, Eastham, Merseyside
53°19′23″N 2°57′33″W / 53.3230°N 2.9593°W / 53.3230; -2.9593 (Chapel of the Good Shepherd, Carlett Park)
A photograph of a brown building with a sloped roof and a tower protruding from the right portion of the roof all surrounded by green grass
1884–85 This was a family chapel for Rev W. E. Torr who lived at the manor house. It is a simple building in stone with lancet windows and a northwest turret.[68][69][70] II[71]
St Deiniol's Church Criccieth, Gwynedd
52°55′13″N 4°13′52″W / 52.9202°N 4.2310°W / 52.9202; -4.2310 (St Deiniol's Church, Criccieth)
St Deiniol's Church Criccieth geograph-2708382-by-Alan-Fryer.jpg 1884–87 This was a cruciform church with a short spire. It closed in 1988 and has been converted into residential flats.[68]
Christ Church Rossett, Wrexham County Borough
53°06′28″N 2°56′56″W / 53.1078°N 2.9490°W / 53.1078; -2.9490 (Christ Church, Rossett)
A cruciform church with a broad central tower; this is crenellated and has prominent buttresses; in front is a lych gate and a white railing; in the foreground is a lamppost and a road with traffic islands 1886–92 This is a church built to replace an earlier church in the site. It is cruciform in plan and built in stone with a green slate roof. It was planned in 1886 but not built until 1891–92.[72][73] II[74]
St Paul's Church Colwyn Bay, Conwy County Borough
53°17′38″N 3°43′35″W / 53.2939°N 3.7265°W / 53.2939; -3.7265 (St Paul's Church, Colwyn Bay)
A church seen from the southeast, in light stone with darker bands; the tower is just visible; in front of the church are two parked cars 1. 1887–88
2. 1894–95
3. 1910–11
The church was built in three stages.
1. In the first stage the nave was built.
2. The chancel was built.
3. The tower was added.[75][76]
St Andrew's Church West Kirby, Merseyside
53°22′34″N 3°11′09″W / 53.3761°N 3.1858°W / 53.3761; -3.1858 (St Andrew's Church, West Kirby)
1. 1889–91
2. 1907
The church was built in two stages:
1. The nave was built.
2. The church was completed.[78][79]
St John's Church Barmouth, Gwynedd
52°43′24″N 4°03′17″W / 52.7233°N 4.0548°W / 52.7233; -4.0548 (St John's Church, Barmouth)
A church seen from the south at a distance with a tree-covered rocky hillside beyond; the church is large with a clerestory, a castellated tower with a small pyramidal spire and clock faces on the two visible sides 1889–95 This church was built for Mrs. F. S. Perrins and is set on a hillside overlooking the town. During its construction the tower collapsed and had to be rebuilt.[81] II*[82]
St James' Church Haydock, Merseyside
53°28′04″N 2°39′34″W / 53.4678°N 2.6595°W / 53.4678; -2.6595 (Church of St James the Great, Haydock)
1891–92 c. 1891–92 The church incorporated part of the previous church as a Lady chapel. It was built with timber framing to give protection against possible mining subsidence.[83][84]
St Wenefrede's Church Bickley, Cheshire
53°02′11″N 2°41′32″W / 53.0364°N 2.6922°W / 53.0364; -2.6922 (St Wenefrede's Church, Bickley)
A tower with a broach spire partly obscured by bushes with a lych gate to the right and a wall and road in the foreground
1892 The church was built for the 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley in sandstone with a roof of green slates and terracotta ridge tiles. Inside the church is a hammerbeam roof.[85][86] II[87]
St David's Welsh Church Rhosllannerchrugog, Wrexham County Borough
53°00′41″N 3°03′25″W / 53.0115°N 3.0569°W / 53.0115; -3.0569 (St David's Welsh Church, Rhosllannerchrugog)
St. David's Parish Church, Rhosllanerchrugog - - 830159.jpg 1892–93 Douglas & Fordham designed a church with a nave and a north aisle. The chancel was added later. It was intended to have a northeast steeple, but this was never built.[88][89]
All Saints Church Higher Kinnerton, Flintshire
53°08′38″N 3°00′16″W / 53.1439°N 3.0044°W / 53.1439; -3.0044 (All Saints Church, Higher Kinnerton)
A lych gate with a hedge on each side; behind is the end of a polygonal apse with a pointed roof and beyond that a tower with a broach spire
1893 The church has a central spire, and another smaller spire above the chancel.[90][91]
Christ Church Bryn-y-Maen, Colwyn Bay, Conwy County Borough
53°16′10″N 3°44′47″W / 53.2695°N 3.7465°W / 53.2695; -3.7465 (Christ Church, Bryn-y-Maen)
A low cruciform pale-coloured church seen from the southeast with the chancel prominent, beyond which is a broad castellated tower; in the foreground is the trunk of a tree standing in a grassed area 1896–99 The church was built in memory of Eleanor Frost's husband, Charles, in a small village to the south of Colwyn Bay. It is known locally as the "Cathedral of the Hills".[92][93] II*[94]
Congregational Church Great Crosby, Merseyside
53°29′29″N 3°01′30″W / 53.4914°N 3.0250°W / 53.4914; -3.0250 (Congregational Church, Great Crosby)
Crosby URC.jpg 1897–98 The church is built in sandstone with green slate roofs. Originally a Congregational church, it is now a United Reformed Church.[95] II[96]
St John the Evangelist's Church Weston, Runcorn, Cheshire
53°19′08″N 2°44′20″W / 53.3190°N 2.73885°W / 53.3190; -2.73885 (St John the Evangelist's Church, Weston)
A church seen from the southwest with a low broach spire, the chancel higher than the nave and the porch protruding from the south; in front is a wall, a notice board and a flagpole; to the left a house 1. 1897–98
2. 1900
It is known as the "choirboys' church", because the choirboys wrote thousands of letters to raise money for it.
1. The church was built.
2. The tower was added.[97][98][99]
All Saints Church Deganwy, Conwy County Borough
53°17′39″N 3°49′37″W / 53.2941°N 3.8270°W / 53.2941; -3.8270 (All Saints Church, Deganwy)
A church seen from the south with the edge of a hillside beyond; it has a clerestory and, to the left a tower with a short spire; in front is a wall with two gates and the whole is framed by trees on each side 1897–99 This is a memorial church built for Lady Augusta Mostyn on a site overlooking the Conwy estuary. It has a clerestory, a chancel higher than the nave and a west tower.[101] II*[102]
St Ethelwold's Church Shotton, Flintshire
53°12′35″N 3°02′05″W / 53.2096°N 3.0346°W / 53.2096; -3.0346 (St Ethelwold's Church, Shotton)
1898–1902 Although the church was partly financed by W. E. Gladstone, its building did not start until after his death.[23][103] II[104]
St John the Baptist's Church Old Colwyn, Conwy County Borough
53°17′26″N 3°41′51″W / 53.2906°N 3.6974°W / 53.2906; -3.6974 (St John the Baptist's Church, Old Colwyn)
1. 1899–1903
2. 1912
The church was built for the English-speaking community of Colwyn Bay.
1. The church was built.
2. The tower was added (after Douglas' death).[105][106]
St David's Welsh Church Colwyn Bay, Conwy County Borough
53°17′37″N 3°43′36″W / 53.2937°N 3.7268°W / 53.2937; -3.7268 (St David's Welsh Church, Colwyn Bay)
Eglwys Dewi Sant - - 1206350.jpg
1902–03 The church was built close to St Paul's Church to serve the Welsh-speaking community.[108][109] II[110]
St John the Evangelist's Church Sandiway, Cheshire
53°14′09″N 2°35′32″W / 53.2359°N 2.5921°W / 53.2359; -2.5921 (St John the Evangelist's Church, Sandiway)
A church see from the south with a castellated tower at the left, roses and a grassed area in the foreground and trees to the left and beyond 1. 1902–03
2. Undated
1. The church was built on land owned by Douglas who also paid for the chancel and lych gate.
2. The tower was added after Douglas' death.[111][112]
All Saints Church Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway
55°07′26″N 3°21′40″W / 55.124°N 3.361°W / 55.124; -3.361 (All Saints Church, Lockerbie)
A small church with a tower and broach spire to the left, trees are to the left and overlapping to the front and autumn leaves lie on the grassed area in the foreground 1903 This is Douglas' only Scottish Episcopal Church. It is built in ashlar stone with a red tile roof and has a west tower with a broach spire.[114] B[115]
Congregational Church Hoylake, Merseyside
53°23′24″N 3°10′50″W / 53.3900°N 3.1805°W / 53.3900; -3.1805 (Congregational Church, Hoylake)
Hoylake Chapel - IMG 0820.JPG 1905–06 Built in brick with sandstone dressings, it is in Perpendicular style. It originally had a spire, but this sustained war damage, and has not been replaced.[116] II[117]
St Matthew's Church Saltney, Flintshire
53°10′59″N 2°56′49″W / 53.183°N 2.947°W / 53.183; -2.947 (St Matthew's Church, Saltney)
A small church in red brick with a grey roof seen from the side; protruding is a gabled wing with a chimney; the glass in the lancet windows is broken; bushes are in the foreground and leafless trees to the sides 1910–11 This was a mission church to St Mark's Church, Saltney. It was closed in 2000 and destroyed by fire in 2008.[118][119]

See also



  1. ^ a b Howell, Peter (2004) 'Douglas, John (1830-1911)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press [1], Retrieved on 22 January 2008. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
  2. ^ John Douglas, Dictionary of Scottish Architects, retrieved 19 December 2016
  3. ^ Hubbard 1991, p. 95.
  4. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, pp. 56–57.
  5. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 77–80.
  6. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 84–87.
  7. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 189–190.
  8. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 6–7.
  9. ^ a b Hubbard 1991, pp. 238–279.
  10. ^ a b Listed Buildings, Historic England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  11. ^ What is listing?, Historic Scotland, retrieved 28 July 2009
  12. ^ Hubbard 1991, p. 238.
  13. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 27, 238.
  14. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, p. 680.
  15. ^ Historic England, "Church of St John the Evangelist, Winsford (1329818)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  16. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, pp. 680–681.
  17. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 43–44, 229.
  18. ^ Historic England, "The Congregational Church, Winsford (1160821)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  19. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 48, 239, 244, 273.
  20. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, pp. 94–95.
  21. ^ Historic England, "Church of St John the Baptist, Aldford (1135984)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  22. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 48–50, 239.
  23. ^ a b Hubbard 1986, p. 420.
  24. ^ Church of St Bartholomew, Cadw, retrieved 19 December 2016
  25. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 55–57, 240.
  26. ^ Pollard & Pevsner 2006, p. 621.
  27. ^ Historic England, "Church of St Ann, Warrington (1161591)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  28. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 54–55, 203, 240, 276.
  29. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, p. 394.
  30. ^ Historic England, "Church of St Paul, Helsby (1253457)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  31. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 130–131, 244, 255.
  32. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, p. 390.
  33. ^ Historic England, "Church of St John, Hartford (1228363)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  34. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 131, 245.
  35. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 131, 246.
  36. ^ Hubbard 1986, p. 267.
  37. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 131, 246–247, 262–263, 268, 269, 271–272.
  38. ^ Hartwell et al. 2011, pp. 240–241.
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  52. ^ Hubbard 1986, p. 392.
  53. ^ Church Hall, Mold, Cadw, retrieved 19 December 2016
  54. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 114, 249–250.
  55. ^ Protestant Nonconformity, British History Online, retrieved 14 March 2008
  56. ^ Historic England, "Zion Chapel, Chester (1375836)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
  57. ^ Hubbard 1991, pp. 127, 251.
  58. ^ Historic England, "Church of St Chad, Wigginton and Hopwas (1038801)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 29 March 2015
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