List of military occupations

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This article presents a list of military occupations. Only military occupations since the customary laws of belligerent military occupation were first clarified and supplemented by the Hague Convention of 1907[1] are included In this article.

Military occupation is a type of effective control of a certain power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign, and provisional in nature.[2][3][4] Military occupation is distinguished from annexation[a] by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population.[3][5][6][7]

Ongoing military occupations

Current military occupations and their occupying powers
Territory occupied Since Occupied state Occupying state Status
East Jerusalem 1967  Palestine[b] (declared in 1988)  Israel Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; de facto annexed in 1980 via the Jerusalem Law
Gaza Strip Seized during the Six-Day War from Egypt; In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. Gaza's border crossings with Israel and maritime and air space are controlled by Israel. The United Nations “continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory”.[c][dubious ]
West Bank Seized during the Six-Day War from Jordan; administered by the Israeli Civil Administration. The Oslo II Accord, officially signed on 28 September 1995, divided the West Bank into the Area C administered by Israel and the Area A and B administered by the Palestinian National Authority.
Golan Heights  Syria Seized during the Six-Day War; de facto annexed in 1981 via the Golan Heights Law. Lebanon also claims the Shebaa farms and sees the territory as being under Israeli occupation.
Northern Cyprus 1974  Cyprus  Turkey Declared state:  Northern Cyprus

Seized during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus; administered as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a state with no international recognition

Southern Provinces
(80% of Western Sahara)
1975  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (declared in 1976)  Morocco Seized during the Western Sahara War; de facto annexed; administered as the Southern Provinces; claimed by Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, a state with limited international recognition
Transnistria 1992  Moldova  Russia Declared state:  Transnistria

Seized during the Transnistria War; administered as the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, a state with limited international recognition.

(and surrounding territories)
1994  Azerbaijan  Armenia Declared state:  Artsakh

Seized during the Nagorno-Karabakh War; administered as the Republic of Artsakh, a state with limited international recognition

Abkhazia 2008  Georgia  Russia Declared state:  Abkhazia

Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of Abkhazia, a state with limited international recognition.

South Ossetia Declared state:  South Ossetia

Seized during the Russo-Georgian War; administered as the Republic of South Ossetia, a state with limited international recognition.

Parts of Donetsk region 2014  Ukraine  Russia Declared states:  Donetsk People's Republic;  Lugansk People's Republic

See 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, Russian military intervention in Ukraine, War in Donbass and Minsk Protocol

Parts of Luhansk region
Northern parts of Aleppo Governorate 2016  Syria  Turkey See Turkish military intervention in Syria and Syrian Civil War

Past military occupations

Events before the Hague Convention of 1907 are out of scope.


Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Conflict Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Libya 1911–1912  Ottoman Empire  Italy Invasion of Libya Italo-Turkish War Yes
Albania 1912–1913  Albania  Serbia Occupation of Albania Balkan Wars No
Nicaragua 1912–1933  Nicaragua  United States Occupation of Nicaragua Banana Wars No
Veracruz 1914  Mexico  United States Occupation of Veracruz Mexican Revolution No
Albania 1914–1918[10]  Albania  Austria-Hungary Occupation of Albania World War I No
Eastern Galicia 1914–1915  Austria-Hungary  Russia Occupation of Eastern Galicia No
Belgium 1914–1918  Belgium  Germany Occupation of Belgium No
Northeastern France 1914–1918  France Invasion of Northeastern France No
Luxembourg 1914–1918  Luxembourg Occupation of Luxembourg No
Congress Poland 1914–1918  Russia Invasion of Russian Poland No
Parts of Russia 1914–1919  Germany Invasion of Baltic Russia No
German South West Africa 1914–1915  Germany  South Africa South West Africa campaign Yes
Serbia 1915–1918  Serbia  Austria-Hungary
Invasion of Serbia No
Albania 1915–1917[10]  Albania  Bulgaria Occupation of Albania No
Montenegro 1916–1918  Montenegro  Austria-Hungary Invasion of Montenegro No
Haiti 1915–1934  Haiti  United States Occupation of Haiti Banana Wars No
Dominican Republic 1916–1924  Dominican Republic Occupation of the Dominican Republic No
Cuba 1917–1922  Cuba Sugar Intervention No
Northeastern Italy 1917–1918  Italy  Austria-Hungary Invasion of Northeastern Italy World War I No
Ukraine 1918 Ukraine  Germany
Invasion of Ukraine No
Montenegro 1918–1919  Montenegro  Kingdom of Serbia
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Christmas Uprising Yes
1918–1925[d]  Russian SFSR
 Soviet Union
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Russian Civil War No
Constantinople 1918–1923  Ottoman Empire Occupation of Constantinople Aftermath of World War I No
Smyrna 1919–1922  Greece Occupation of Smyrna No
Rhineland 1918–1930  Germany  France
 United Kingdom
 United States
Occupation of the Rhineland No
Eastern Galicia and Volhynia 1918–1919 West Ukrainian People's Republic  Poland Polish-Ukrainian War Yes


Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Conflict Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Transcaucasia 1920 Azerbaijan  Russia Invasion of Azerbaijan Russian Civil War Yes
1921  Georgia Invasion of Georgia Yes
Ruhr 1923–1924  Germany Occupation of the Ruhr Aftermath of World War I No
Manchuria[PMO 1] 1931–1945  China  Japan Invasion of Manchuria Second Sino-Japanese War No
Xinjiang 1934  Soviet Union Invasion of Xinjiang Kumul Rebellion No
Ethiopia 1935–1941  Ethiopia  Italy Invasion of Ethiopia Second Italo-Ethiopian War No
Parts of China[PMO 2] 1937–1945  China  Japan Second Sino-Japanese War World War II No
Shanghai[PMO 3] 1937–1945 No
Austria 1938–1945  Austria  Germany Anschluss Interwar period Yes
Sudetenland 1938–1945  Czechoslovakia Occupation of Czechoslovakia Yes
Bohemia and Moravia 1939–1945 Partial
Memel Territory 1939–1945  Lithuania Occupation of Memel Yes
Albania 1939–1945  Albania  Italy Invasion of Albania No
Carpatho-Ukraine 1939–1944  Czechoslovakia  Hungary Invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine Yes
Poland 1939–1945  Poland  Germany Invasion of Poland World War II Partial
Eastern Poland 1939–1941  Soviet Union Annexation of Polish territories Partial
parts of Finland 1939–1940  Finland Winter War Partial


Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Conflict Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Belgium 1940–1945  Belgium  Germany Invasion of Belgium World War II No
Denmark 1940–1945  Denmark Invasion of Denmark No
Faroe Islands 1940–1945  United Kingdom Occupation of the Faroe Islands No
Greenland 1940–1945  United States No
Hankoniemi 1940–1941  Finland  Soviet Union Winter War No
Iceland[e] 1940–1945  Denmark  United Kingdom Occupation of Iceland No
 Iceland  United States[f] No
Northern France 1940–1944  France  Germany Invasion of Northern France No
Southeastern France 1940–1943  Italy Italian invasion of France No
Vietnam 1940–1945  Japan Invasion of French Indochina No
Estonia 1940–1941  Estonia[g][h]  Soviet Union Occupation of the Baltic states Yes
Latvia 1940–1941  Latvia[g][h] Yes
Lithuania 1940–1941  Lithuania[g][h] Yes
Luxembourg 1940–1945  Luxembourg  Germany Occupation of Luxembourg No
Netherlands 1940–1945  Netherlands Invasion of the Netherlands No
Norway 1940–1945  Norway Invasion of Norway No
Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1940  Romania  Soviet Union Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Yes
Channel Islands 1940–1945  United Kingdom  Germany Occupation of the Channel Islands No
Cambodia 1941–1945  France  Japan Invasion of Cambodia No
Greece 1941–1944  Greece Occupation of Greece No
Iran 1941–1946  Iran Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran No
Belarus 1941–1944  Soviet Union /  Poland  Germany Occupation of Belarus No
Ukraine 1941–1944  Soviet Union /  Poland Occupation of Ukraine No
Estonia 1941–1944  Soviet Union /  Estonia[g][h] Occupation of Estonia No
Latvia 1941–1944  Soviet Union /  Latvia[g][h] Occupation of Latvia No
Lithuania 1941–1944  Soviet Union /  Lithuania[g][h] Occupation of Lithuania No
Western Russia 1941–1944  Soviet Union Occupation of parts of Russia
Eastern Karelia 1941–1944  Finland Occupation of Eastern Karelia/Continuation War No
Guam 1941–1944  United States  Japan Occupation of Guam No
Transnistria 1941–1944  Soviet Union  Romania Operation Barbarossa No
Borneo 1941–1945  United Kingdom  Japan Occupation of British Borneo No
Hong Kong 1941–1945 Occupation of Hong Kong No
Malaya 1941–1945 Occupation of Malaya No
Yugoslavia 1941–1945  Yugoslavia Military operations in the territory of Yugoslavia No
New Guinea 1942–1945  Australia  Japan New Guinea campaign No
Nauru 1942–1945 Occupation of Nauru No
Andaman Islands 1942–1945  British Raj Occupation of the Andaman Islands No
Dutch East Indies 1942–1945  Netherlands Occupation of Dutch East Indies No
Philippines 1942–1945  Philippines Occupation of the Philippines No
Burma (Myanmar) 1942–1945  United Kingdom Occupation of Burma No
Singapore 1942–1945 Occupation of Singapore No
Kiska 1942–1943  United States Occupation of Kiska No
Attu 1942–1943 Occupation of Attu No
Italian Libya 1943–1951  Libya Allied occupation of Libya No
Italy 1943–1945  Italy  Germany Occupation of Italy No
Hungary 1944–1945  Hungary Occupation of Hungary No
Estonia 1944–1991  Estonia[g][h]  Soviet Union Occupation of the Baltic states Yes
Latvia 1944–1991  Latvia[g][h] Yes
Lithuania 1944–1990/1991  Lithuania[g][h] Yes
Bulgaria 1944–1947  Bulgaria Occupation of Bulgaria No
Romania 1944–1958  Romania Occupation of Romania No
Poland 1944–1956/1989  Poland Soviet presence in Poland No
Porkkalanniemi 1944–1956  Finland Moscow Armistice Continuation War No
Austria 1945–1955  Austria Allied-occupied Austria No
Czechoslovakia 1945  Czechoslovakia  Soviet Union Occupation of Czechoslovakia No
Manchuria 1945–1946  Manchukuo Occupation of Manchuria in the Soviet–Japanese War No
Germany 1945–1949/1990  Germany Allied-occupied Germany No
West Berlin and East Berlin 1945–1990 No
Northern Iran 1945–1946  Iran  Soviet Union Iran crisis of 1946 No
Japan (mainland) 1945–1951  Japan  United States Occupation of Japan No
Iwo Jima and the Bonin Islands 1945–1968
Ryukyu Islands [i] 1945–1972
Taiwan, Pescadores, and Itu Aba 1945–1952[13]  Japan[13]  China History of Taiwan since 1945 Yes
Korea 1945–1948  Korea Occupation of Korea No
Parts of Vietnam 1945–1946  Vietnam  United Kingdom Britain in Vietnam War of Vietnam No
West Bank 1948–1967[14]  All-Palestine  Jordan Jordanian annexation of the West Bank 1948 Arab–Israeli War No
Gaza Strip 1948–1956
 Egypt Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt No
Tibet 1949–1951  Tibet  China Annexation of Tibet N/A Yes
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1954–1974  Portugal  India Annexation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli Decolonisation of Portuguese India Yes
Sinai 1956–1957  Egypt Suez Crisis Arab–Israeli conflict No
Gaza Strip 1956–1957  All-Palestine  Israel No
Hungary 1956  Hungary  Soviet Union Hungarian Uprising Hungarian Revolution of 1956 No
Laos 1959–1975  Laos  North Vietnam Invasion of Laos Laotian Civil War No


Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Conflict Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Goa, Daman and Diu 1961–1974  Portugal  India Annexation of Goa Decolonisation of Portuguese India Yes
Dominican Republic 1965–1966  Dominican Republic  United States Invasion of the Dominican Republic Dominican Civil War No
Sinai 1967–1982[k]  Egypt  Israel Six-Day War Arab-Israeli conflict No
Czechoslovakia 1968–1989[l]  Czechoslovakia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Prague Spring No
East Pakistan
(became Bangladesh)
1971  Pakistan  India Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War No
Parts of Angola 1975–1976  Angola  South Africa South African invasion of Angola South African Border War No
Tiris al-Gharbiyya 1975–1979  Western Sahara  Mauritania Battles of La Güera and Tichla (1975) Western Sahara War No
East Timor 1975–1999  East Timor  Indonesia Indonesian occupation of East Timor Invasion of East Timor Yes
Aouzou Strip 1976–1987  Chad  Libya Occupation of the Aouzou Strip Chadian–Libyan conflict No
Parts of Lebanon 1976–2005  Lebanon  Syria Syrian occupation of Lebanon Lebanese Civil War No
Kagera Region 1978  Uganda  Tanzania Ugandan invasion of Kagera Uganda–Tanzania War No
Southern Lebanon 1978–1984  Lebanon Free Lebanon State 1978 South Lebanon conflict Lebanese Civil War No
1984–2000  Israel Occupation of Southern Lebanon 1982 Lebanon War No
Parts of Vietnam 1979  Vietnam  China Invasion of Vietnam Sino-Vietnamese War No
Cambodia 1979–1989  Cambodia  Vietnam Invasion of Kampuchea Cambodian–Vietnamese War No
Afghanistan 1979–1989 Afghanistan  Soviet Union Invasion of Afghanistan Soviet–Afghan War No


Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Conflict Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
Falkland Islands 1982  United Kingdom  Argentina Occupation of the Falkland Islands Falklands War No
Grenada 1983  Grenada  United States Invasion of Grenada Grenadian Revolution No
Northern Province 1987–1990  Sri Lanka  India Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War Sri Lankan Civil War No
Maldives 1988  Maldives 1988 Maldives coup d'état No
Panama 1989–1990  Panama  United States Invasion of Panama War on Drugs No
Kuwait 1990–1991  Kuwait  Iraq Invasion of Kuwait Gulf War No
Haiti 1994–1995  Haiti Operation Uphold Democracy 1991 Haitian coup d'état No
Lesotho 1998–1999  Lesotho Operation Boleas Lesotho general election riots No
Parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998–2002[15]  Democratic Republic of the Congo Foreign support to the DR Congo Second Congo War No
Kargil District 1999  India  Pakistan Kargil War Indo-Pakistani Wars No


Occupied territory Years Occupied state Occupying state Conflict Part of war(s) Subsequently annexed?
2000–2018  Eritrea  Ethiopia Regions were seized at the end of the Eritrean–Ethiopian War in 2000, and subsequently delimited[16] and demarcated[17] by the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the Hague to be Eritrean territory.

Ethiopia returned all occupied territories in July 2018 following a peace summit between the two states.

Eritrean–Ethiopian War No
Iraq 2003–2011  Iraq Coalition Provisional Authority[18] 2003 Invasion of Iraq, Occupation of Iraq Iraq War No
Parts of Somalia 2006–2009[19]  Somalia  Ethiopia War in Somalia (2006–09) Somali Civil War No
Gori and Poti 2008  Georgia  Russia Occupation of Gori and Poti Russo-Georgian War No
Perevi 2008–2010 Occupation of Perevi No
Crimea 2014  Ukraine  Russia Annexation of Crimea 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine Yes
Socotra 2018  Yemen  United Arab Emirates Takeover of Socotra Yemeni Civil War No

See also

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ Annexation refers to de jure annexation or annexation as defined under international law.
  2. ^ East Jerusalem, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip have been occupied by Israel since 1967.[8] The State of Palestine, which claims these territories, did not declare its independence until 1988. See Palestinian Declaration of Independence. The State of Palestine is, as of November 2015, recognised by 136 countries and is a non-member observer state at the United Nations.[9]
  3. ^ In 2005, Israel disengaged its military forces from the Gaza Strip and no longer considers itself to be occupying the territory. However, in a Spokesperson's Noon Briefing" on 19 January 2012, Martin Nesirky, Spokesperson for the United Nations Secretary-General, stated "under resolutions adopted by both the Security Council and the General Assembly on the Middle East peace process, the Gaza Strip continues to be regarded as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory. The United Nations will accordingly continue to refer to the Gaza Strip as part of the Occupied Palestinian Territory until such time as either the General Assembly or the Security Council take a different view."
  4. ^ Most of the Allies had withdrawn by 1920, Japan continued to occupy Northern Sakhalin until 1925
  5. ^ On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic.
  6. ^ On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i On March 26, 1949, the US department of State issued a circular letter stating that the Baltic countries were still independent nations with their own diplomatic representatives and consuls.[11]
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i From Sumner Wells' declaration of July 23, 1940, that we would not recognise the occupation, the United States acted with a consistency and a tenacity of which we can all be proud. We housed the exiled Baltic diplomatic delegations. We accredited their diplomats. We flew their flags in the State Department's Hall of Flags. We never recognised in deed or word or symbol the illegal occupation of their lands.[12]
  9. ^ The Tokara Islands were restored to Japan in 1952. The Amami Islands were restored in 1953.
  10. ^ The All-Palestine government was de facto controlled by Egypt. Formal occupation occurred only from 1959–1967 after that government was dissolved.
  11. ^ Israel withdrew from Taba in 1989.
  12. ^ Government control ended with the Velvet Revolution in late 1989, and stationed Soviet troops departed peacefully over 1990–1991
Past Military Occupations
  1. ^ "Laws and Customs of War on Land (Hague IV); October 18, 1907". Archived from the original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  2. ^ A Roberts (1990). "Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967". Am. J. Int'l L. 84: 47. doi:10.2307/2203016.
  3. ^ a b Eyāl Benveniśtî (2004). The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 0-691-12130-3.
  4. ^ Eran Halperin; Daniel Bar-Tal; Keren Sharvit; Nimrod Rosler; Amiram Raviv (2005). "Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel". Journal of Peace Research. 47: 47, 59. doi:10.1177/0022343309350013.
  5. ^ David M. Edelstein (2004). "Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail". International Security. 29: 49–91. doi:10.1162/0162288041762913.
  6. ^ Phillipson, Coleman (1916). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. The Lawbook Exchange. p. 10. ISBN 9781584778608. The difference between effective military occupation (or conquest) and annexation involves a profound difference in the rights conferred by each
  7. ^ Stirk, Peter (2009). The Politics of Military Occupation. Edinburgh University Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780748636716. The significance of the temporary nature of military occupation is that it brings about no change of allegiance. Military government remains an alien government whether of short or long duration, though prolonged occupation may encourage the occupying power to change military occupation into something else, namely annexation
  8. ^ "Palestinian territories - Timeline". 8 July 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  9. ^ "Amid violence, 'glaring lack of hope,' UN deputy chief urges action to break Israeli-Palestinian impasse". UN News. 23 November 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  10. ^ a b Hugo Kerchnawe; Rudolf Mitzka; Felix Sobotka; Hermann Leidl; Alfred Krauss (1928). Die Militärverwaltung in den von den österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen besetzten Gebieten, Nide 4.
  11. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand (1985). Encyclopedia of Soviet law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. p. 461. ISBN 90-247-3075-9.
  12. ^ "U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship" (PDF) (Press release). U.S. Department of State. June 14, 2007. Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2015.
  13. ^ a b "Far East (Formosa and the Pescadores)". Hansard. U.K. Parliament. 540 (cc1870–4). May 4, 1955. Retrieved 2010-09-01. The sovereignty was Japanese until 1952. The Japanese Treaty came into force, and at that time Formosa was being administered by the Chinese Nationalists, to whom it was entrusted in 1945, as a military occupation.
  14. ^ Benvenisti, Eyal (2012-02-23). The International Law of Occupation. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780199588893.
  15. ^ "CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  16. ^ "Decision regarding delimitation of the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  17. ^ "Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission". Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  18. ^
  19. ^ "Ethiopia Marks Yearlong Occupation in Somalia". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
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