List of loanwords in Tagalog

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The Tagalog language has developed a unique vocabulary since its inception from its Austronesian roots. According to lexographer Jose Villa Panganiban, "of the 30,000 root words in the Tagalog language, there are close to 10,000 from Spanish, 3,000 from Malay, 2,000 from English, 200 from both Hokkien (Min Nan) and Yue Chinese dialects, 300 from Tamil and Sanskrit, 200 from Arabic, 10 percent of Tagalog is from Nahuatl origins[1], and a few hundred altogether from other languages". Linguists say that borrowings from Malay and Chamorro cannot be ascertained at this time, as words from the Old Austronesian language and those from Malay and Chamorro are still ambiguous and too similar to be distinguished.

Spanish

The Filipino language incorporated Spanish loanwords as a result of 333 years of contact with the Spanish language. In their review of a Pilipino-English dictionary, Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) point out that 40% of word roots are of Spanish origin.[2] An example is the sentence below in which Spanish–derived words are in italics (original in parentheses):

Tagalog: "Puwede (Puede) ba akong umupo sa silya (silla) sa tabi ng bintana (ventana) habang nasa biyahe (viaje) tayo sa eroplano (aeroplano)?"
Translation in English: ("May I sit on the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?")

The adoption of the Abakada alphabet in 1940[3] changed the spelling of most of the Spanish loanwords present in the Filipino language. The loanwords derived from the Spanish language have their original spellings indigenized according to the rules of the Abakada alphabet. Examples include alkalde (from Sp. alcalde), bakuna (from Sp. vacuna), banyo (from Sp. baño), biktima (from Sp. víctima), bintana (from Sp. ventana), bisita (from Sp. visita), biyahe (from Sp. viaje), braso (from Sp. brazo), demokrasya (from Sp. democracia), diyaryo (from Sp. diario), estudyante (from Sp. estudiante), heneral (from Sp. general), hustisya (from Sp. justicia), kama (from Sp. cama), kambyo (from Sp. palanca de cambios), keso (from Sp. queso), kutsara (from Sp. cuchara), kwarto (from Sp. cuarto), lababo (from Sp. lavabo), mensahe (from Sp. mensaje), mikrobyo (from Sp. microbio), niyebe (from Sp. nieve), panyo (from Sp. paño), pila (from Sp. fila), plema (from Sp. flema), presyo (from Sp. precio), prinsesa (from Sp. princesa), reseta (from Sp. receta médica), reyna (from Sp. reina), serbisyo (from Sp. servicio), sinturon (from Sp. cinturón), teklado (from Sp. teclado), telebisyon (from Sp. televisión), tinidor (from Sp. tenedor), trabaho (from Sp. trabajo), tuwalya (from Sp. toalla) and yelo (from Sp. hielo).[4][5][6]

Other loanwords derived from the Spanish language underwent spelling and pronunciation changes. Vowel changes can be observed to some of the Spanish words upon adoption into the Filipino language. For example, an /i/ to /a/ vowel shift can be observed in the Filipino word paminta, which came from the Spanish word pimienta.[4] A rare vowel change from /e/ to /u/ can be observed in the words unano (from Sp. enano) and umpisa (from Sp. empezar). Other words derived from Spanish underwent vowel deletion upon adoption into the Filipino language, such as the words pusta (from Sp. apostar), umento (from Sp. aumento), tarantado (from Sp. atarantado), kursonada (from Sp. corazonada), Pasko (from Sp. Pascua) and labi (from Sp. labio).[4] Consonant shifts can also be observed to some of the Spanish words upon their adoption into the Filipino language. The [r] to [l] consonant shift can be observed in the following words: alma (from Sp. armar) asukal (from Sp. azúcar), balbas (from Sp. barba), multo (from Sp. muerto), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), almusal (from Sp. almorzar), litrato (from Sp. retrato), dasal (from Sp. rezar), pasyal (from Sp. pasear) and nunal (from Sp. lunar). The loss of the /l/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino word kutson derived from the Spanish colchón. Some Spanish-derived words have also undergone consonant or syllable deletion upon introduction to Tagalog like in the case of diskaril (from Sp. descarrilar), limos (from Sp. limosna), masyado (from Sp. demasiado), posas (from Sp. esposas), sindi (from Sp. third-person singular present tense conjugation of the verb encender) and sintonado (from Sp. desentonado).[5]

The Spanish digraph [ll] is pronounced by the Spaniards as [j] during the Renaissance era and this reflected on the pronunciation and the spelling of Spanish-derived loanwords in Tagalog introduced before the 19th century, where the digraph [ll] becomes [y] in Tagalog.[7] Such is the case of the words barya (from Sp. barilla), kabayo (from Sp. caballo), kutamaya (from. Sp. cota de malla), lauya (a stew of meat and vegetables, from Sp. la olla), sibuyas (from Sp. cebollas) and tabliya or tablea (from Sp. tablilla de chocolate). Spanish loanwords in which the digraph [ll] is pronounced as <lj> in Tagalog were probably introduced (or reintroduced) during the 19th century by educated Peninsulares.[7] Examples include kalye (from Sp. calle), kutsilyo (from Sp. cuchillo), makinilya (from Sp. maquinilla de escribir), sepilyo (from Sp. cepillo de dientes), silya (from Sp. silla) and sigarilyo (from Sp. cigarrillo).[7]

Others have morphed like 'ku(ha)nin' (Sp.: 'coja' + Tag.: '–nin'), which has inconspicuously developed into another pure Tagalog–sounding word. Another one is maamong kordero (from Sp. amo & cordero). Combined together, it conveys the description of a meek, tame, harmless human with Tagalog adjective prefix and suffix added. The compound word batya't palo–palo, a must word in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick" or "beater", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all. Others are umpisa (empieza), pulubi (pobre), pader (pared).

Some have acquired an entirely new meaning, such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch"), which means "object of desire"; sospechoso is the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" as in the original; imbyerna (invierno) once meant 'winter' but is now a word for "bummer"; insekto ("insecto"), which still means "insect" but also refers to a "pesty clownish person"; or even sige (sigue), a Spanish word for "continue" or "follow", which is now widely understood to mean "all right" or "go ahead".

Others use Spanish prefixes and/or suffixes, combined from Tagalog or other languages, without which the word can not be completed and convey its meaning. For example, pakialamero (from Tag. pakialam, "to meddle" and the Sp. suffix –ero, masculine subject); same as majongero ("mahjong", a Chinese word and the Sp. suffix –ero). Daisysiete is a corruption and portmanteau of the English "daisy" and the Spanish diecisiete ("seventeen"), now meaning a sweet and sexually desirable underaged (below 18, hence the number) female. Bastusing katawán (Sp.: basto & Tag.: katawan) is an example of a two-word term for a bombshell body

Even after the Spanish era, Tagalog is still being influenced by Spanish as new words are coined, albeit along its own terms, viz., alaskadór ("Alaska" + Sp. suffix '–ador'); barkada (from Sp.: barca,"boat" to "clique"); bérde ("verde"="green", nuanced to "toilet humour" or "blue joke"); which are not readily understood in Spain or any Latin American country. In a strange twist, even if Filipinos have a chance to Tagalized words using foreign words, currently English—their most accessible influence—they coin words in a uniquely Hispanizing way i.e. "boksingero" (from Eng. "boxing") instead of using the Spanish "boxeador". Or "basketbolista" (from Eng. "basketball"), instead of borrowing from Spanish "baloncesto" to make it say "baloncestista" or "baloncestador" (although basketball "básquetbol" in many Latin American countries).

Here are some examples of Spanish–derived Tagalog words in the following format: Word (Etymology – Original Definition/s if different from Nuanced Definition. = Derivative Definition if Compound Words) – Nuanced Definition. Shared Definition precedes Nuanced Definition if both exist.

Tagalog Spanish Meaning Native equivalent(s)
Abante Avante Ahead; Forward Pasulóng, Pausad
Abelyana[8] Avellana Common hazel (Corylus avellana)
Abiso Aviso Warning Babalâ
Ahedres Ajedrez Chess
Ahente Agente Agent Kinatawán
Alemanya Alemania Germany
Amarilyo Amarillo Yellow Dilaw
Antena Antena Antenna
Aparadór Aparador Closet
Asoge Azogue Mercury (Hg)
Asul Azul Blue Bughaw
Asupre Azufre Sulfur (S) Sangyawa
Atenas Atenas Athens
Baryo Barrio Village Barangay, Bukid, Nayon
Baso Vaso Drinking glass
Basura Basura Garbage, Trash, Waste Kalat, Dumi
Bentilador Ventilador Electric fan
Bisikleta Bicicleta Bicycle
Bruha Bruja Witch; Woman with unpleasant personality Mangkukulam
Bulsá Bolsa Pocket
Busina Bocina Car horn
Britanya Britania Britain
Datos Datos Datum/Data
Departamento Departamento Department Kagawarán
Dinero Dinero Money Pera, salapi
Diskaril Descarrilar To derail
Diyos Dios God Panginoon
Ebanghelyo Evangelio Gospel Mabuting Balita
Edad Edad Age Gulang
Ekolohiya Ecologia Ecology
Ekonomiya Economia Economy Kabuhayan, Pagtitipid, Katipirán
Ekwador Ecuador Equator
Elyo Helio Helium (He)
Embahada Embajada Embassy Pasuguan
Embahador Embajador Ambassador
Ensalada Ensalada Salad
Eroplano Aeroplano Airplane
Espanyol/Español Español Spanish
Espongha Esponja Sponge
Estados Unidos Estados Unidos United States
Estadístika Estadística Statistics
Estúpido Estúpido Stupid Tanga
Garahe Garaje Garage Taguán (lit. "hiding place")
Gasolina Gasolina Gasoline
Gastos Gastos Expenses
Gitara Guitarra Guitar
Gobyerno Gobierno Government Pamahalaan
Gwapo/Guwapo Guapo Handsome Makisig, Magandang lalaki
Giyera Guerra War Digmaan
Hapón Japón Japan
Haponés Japonés Japanese
Hardin Jardín Garden Halamanan
Hardinero Jardinero Gardener
Hepe Jefe Chief of police
Idroheno Hidrógeno Hydrogen (H)
Industriya Industria Industry
Ingles Inglés English
Inglatera Inglaterra England
Intindí Entiende Understand Unawà
Kalabasa Calabaza Squash (Cucurbita maxima)
Kaloriya Caloría Calorie (unit of energy or heat)
Kamelyo Camello Camel
Kampeon Campeón Champion
Kandidato Candidato Candidate
Kapasidad Capacidad Capacity Kakayahán
Kapilya Capilla Chapel
Kerosina Querosina Kerosene
Kloro Cloro Chlorine (Cl)
Kobalto Cobalto Cobalt (Co)
Koléhiyo Colegio College Dalubhasaan
Kolesterol Colesterol Cholesterol
Konstitusyón Constitución Constitution Saligang Batás (lit. "basic/foundational law")
Kontrabando Contrabando Contraband, Smuggled Goods
Konsepto Concepto Concept Dalumat
Kordero Cordero Lamb Batang tupa
Kotse/Awto Coche/Auto Car/Auto Sasakyán (lit. the more general "vehicle")
Kulebra Culebra Shingles
Kumusta ¿Cómo está? How is/are? (interrogative word used as a substitute for an adjective of quality)[9]
Kwento/Kuwento Cuento Story Salaysáy ("narrative"), Kathâ ("tale", often fictional)
Libra Libra Pound (unit of measurement)
Linggwistika Lingüística Linguistics
Loko Loco Crazy Balíw, sira-ulo
Lugar Lugar Place Poók
Luhò Lujo Luxury Rangyâ, Karangyaan
Maleta Maleta Suitcase, luggage
Mantikà Manteca Cooking oil
Margarina Margarina Margarine
Matemátika Matemática Mathematics
Matemátiko Matemático Mathematician
Memorya Memoria Memory Alaala, Gunita
Militar Militar Military Hukbo, Sandatahan
Minuto Minuto Minute (unit of time)
Miyembro Miembro Member Kasapi, Kagawad
Monarkiya Monarquía Monarchy Kaharián (lit. "kingdom")
Motorsiklo Motocicleta Motorcycle
Musika Música Music Tugtugin
Nasyonalista Nacionalista Nationalist Makabayan, Makabansâ
Obispo Obispo Bishop
Oksiheno Oxígeno Oxygen (O)
Olanda Holanda Netherlands
Onsa Onza Ounce (unit of measurement)
Opisyal Oficial Official
Otél Hotel Hotel
Pabrika Fábrica Factory Pagawaan
Pamilya Familia Family
Panderetas Panderetas Tambourine
Papél Papel Paper
Paról Farol Star-shaped Christmas lantern
Pasaporte Pasaporte Passport
Pelikula/Penikula Película Movie
Pilduras Pildora Medicinal pill
Pilipinas Filipinas Philippines
Piso Peso Philippine Peso
Porke Porque Because
Probinsiya/Probinsya Provincia Province Lalawigan
Presidente Presidente President Pangulo
Presko Fresco Fresh Sariwa
Protina Proteina Protein
Pulgada Pulgada Inch (unit of measurement)
Pulisya Policía Police
Pwede/Puwede Puede Can, Could, May, Might Kaya, Maaarì (denotes permission. i.e., more like "may")
Pwera/Puwera[10] Fuera Except (preposition) Maliban sa, Maliban kay
Radyo Radio Radio
Realidad Realidad Reality Katunayan, Katotohanan
Reló, Relos, Rilos Reloj Clock (or any instrument used to track time) Orasán
Repúblika República Republic
Sabadista Sabadista Member of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church
Sapatos Zapatos Shoes
Sardinas Sardinas Sardines (any fish belonging to the family Clupeidae)
Sarado Cerrado Closed Nakapinid
Selyo Sello Seal (the Tagalog "selyo" usually refers to postage stamp) Tatak (also means "brand", "label" and "mark")
Sentimyento (or "senti") Sentimiento To be sentimental
Senyales Señales Signs Tanda
Sikolohiya Psicologia Psychology
Sim Zinc Zinc (Zn)
Simple Simple Simple Payak
Siyudad Ciudad City Lungsod
Sundalo Soldado Soldier Kawal
Sustansya Sustancia Food nutrient
Sustento Sustento Financial support
Sweldo/Suweldo Sueldo Salary Sahod
Tableta Tableta Tablet
Tangke Tanque Tank
Tarheta Tarjeta Card
Tasa Taza Mug, Cup
Teklado Teclado Keyboard Tipaan (usu. for computers)
Tela Tela Cloth, Fabric
Telebisyón Televisión Television
Telepono Teléfono Telephone
Tiya Tía Aunt
Tiyo Tío Uncle
Tsino Chino Chinese Intsík (mildly derogatory), Tsekwa (Filipino slang)
Tsinelas Chinelas Slippers, flip-flops (contrast with bakya which refers to wooden clogs)
Tsismis Chismes Gossip Satsát (also "chatter")
Tumbaga Tumbaga Gold-copper alloy
Unibersidad Universidad University Pamantasan
Welga Huelga Industrial strike
Yelo Hielo Ice
Yeso Yeso Chalk Tisa
Yodo Yodo Iodine (I)

Note that the first syllable of loanwords from Spanish that start with /aw/ are also sometimes pronounced and spelled /o/ (e.g. 'otonomiya' rather than 'awtonomiya') due to the predominance of pronunciation of loanwords from English.

Latin/Spanish

Tagalog Spanish Latin Meaning Native equivalent
Ahensya Agéncia Agēns Agency Sangáy, Sukursal
Ambisyoso Ambicioso Ambitiose Ambitious Mapaghangád, Mapangarap
Andar Andar Ambiō To turn on or to start an engine (usually of the car)
Arina Harina Farīna Flour
Arko Arco Arcus Arch Balantók
Armás Armas Arma Arms (Weapon) Sandata
Asno Asno Asinus Donkey
Baka Vaca Vacca Cow
Bakasyón Vacación Vacatio Vacation Magliwaliw (meaning "to do a leisure trip")
Barko Barco Barca Ship Layag
Basura Basura Verrō Garbage/Trash/Waste Kalat, Dumi
Berde Verde Viridis Green Luntian
Bulkán Volcán Vulcānus Volcano
Diperensya Diferencia Differentia Difference Pagkakaibá
Direktor Director Directus Director Tagapangasiwa
Diyós Dios Deus God Bathalâ (via Sanskrit), Panginoón ("Lord") or Maykapal ("Creator")
Ebanghelyo Evangelio Ēvangelium Gospel
Edad Edad Aetate Age Gulang
Edukasyón Educación Ēducātiō Education Pag-aaral
Ehersisyo Ejercicio Exerceō Exercise Galaw, Kilos
Espanya España Hispānia Spain
Estudyante Estudiante Studēns Student Mag-aarál
Pwersa/Puwersa Fuerza Fortis Force Lakás (also translated as "strength", "energy", "vigor", etc.)
Hustisya Justicia Iūstitia Justice Katárungan [1]
Impluwensya/Impluwensiya Influencia Potentiam Influence Lakas, Kapangyarihan
Impyerno/Impiyerno Infierno Infernum Hell
Inutil Inútil Inūtilis Useless, Worthless
Kabalyero Caballero Caballārius Knight
Kabayo Caballo Caballus Horse
Kalbo Calvo Calvus Bald
Kampana Campana Campana Bell Batingáw (also refers to a gong or any instrument that makes a distinctive sound when stroke)
Karne Carne Carō Meat Lamán ("flesh")
Kasál Casar Casa Marry Pag-iisang-dibdib
Keso Queso Cāseus Cheese
Kwadrado/Kuwadrado Cuadrado Quadrātus Square Parisukat
Labi Labio Labium Lip
Lenggwahe/Lengguwahe Lenguaje Lingua Language Wika
Makina Máquina Machina Machine
Mansanas Manzana Māla Apple (Malus domestica)
Merkado Mercado Mercatus Market/merchant Pamilihan, palengke
Mundó Múndo Mundus World Daigdíg, Sanlibutan
Negosyo Negocio Negōtium Business Pangangalakal
Número Número Numerus Number Bilang
Oras Horas Hōra Time, Hour Panahón ("time")
Ordinaryo Ordinario Ordinarius Ordinary Karaniwan
Ospitál Hospital Hospitālis Hospital Pagamútan
Padre Padre Pater Priest Pari
Pistá/Piyesta Fiesta Fēstum Feast Kaarawán (lit. "anniversary"; colloquially used mostly for "birthday" from the longer "Kaarawán ng kapanganakan"), Pagdiriwang (Celebration)
Reyna Reina Rēgīna Queen
Sabón Jabón Sāpō Soap
Sebo Sebo Sēbum Grease, Oil, Fat, Lard, Tallow Taba
Selebrasyon Celebracion Celebratio Celebration Pagdiriwang, Pagdaraos, Diwang
Sementeryo Cementerio Caemeterium Cemetery Libingan
Serbesa Cerveza Cervisia Beer
Sereso Cerezo Cerasus Cherry
Saserdote Sacerdote Sacerdōs Priest Pari
Silya Silla Sella Chair Upuan (lit. more general "seat")
Simbolo Simbolo Symbolum Symbol Sagisag
Sinturón Cinturón Cingulum Belt
Siyensya/Siyensiya Ciencia Scientia Science Aghám (via Sanskrit "Agama")
Swerte/Suwerte Suerte Sors Good fortune, good luck Mapalad
Transportasyón Transportación Comportatio Transportation Sasakyan
Triánggulo Triángulo Triangulum Triangle Tilasitha; Tatsulok
Trigo Trigo Trīticum Wheat
Ubas Uvas Uva Grapes
Unibersidad Universidad Ūniversitās University Pamantasan
Yero Hierro Ferrum Iron (the element or material) Bakal

Greek/Spanish

Tagalog Spanish Greek symbol Greek equivalent Meaning Native equivalent
Angklá Ancla ἄγκυρα Ánkura Anchor Sinipete
Balyena Ballena φάλλαινα Phállaina Whale Tandayag
Bibliya Biblia βίβλος Bíblos Bible Banal na Kasulatan
Biblyioteka Biblioteca βιβλιοθήκη bibilotheka Library Aklatan
Biyolohiya Biología βίος and λογία bíos and logía Biology
Bodega Bodega ἀποθήκη apothḗkē Storehouse Kamalig, Pintungan
Katoliko Católico καθολικός Katholikós Catholic
Kristo Cristo Χριστός Khristós Christ
Kristyano/Kristiyano Cristiano Χριστιανός Khristianós Christian
Eksena Escena σκηνή Skēnḗ Scene Tagpô
Eskuwela/Eskwela Escuela σχολεῖον Skholeîon School Páaralán
Obispo Obispo επίσκοπος Epískopos Bishop
Parokya Parroquia παροικία Paroikía Parish
Teknolohiyá Tecnología τεχνολογία tekhnología Technology

Hebrew/Spanish

Tagalog Spanish Hebrew symbol Hebrew equivalent Meaning
Hesus Jesús יֵשׁוּעַ Yēšū́aʿ Jesus
Paskó Pascua פסח Pesakh Christmas

English

English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. This kind of conversation is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:

Tagalog English Traditional Word(s)
Adik Drug addict Durugista
Adyenda Agenda
Bag Bag Supot
Bakwit Evacuate Lumikas
Barbikyu Barbecue
Basketbol Basketball
Beysbol Baseball
Bilyar Billiard
Biskwit Biscuit
Bistek Beef steak
Bodabíl Vaudeville
Boksing Boxing
Bolpen Ballpoint pen
Drayber Driver Tsuper
Dyaket Jacket
Dyakpat Jackpot
Dyip/Dyipni Jeep/Jeepney
Gradweyt Graduate Nakapagtapos ng pag-aaral
Hayskul High school Paaralang sekundarya
Helikopter Helicopter
Interbyu Interview Panayam, Entrebista
Internet Internet
Iskolar Scholar
Iskor Score Puntos (Sp. Punto)
Iskul School Paaralan
Iskrip Script
Iskrin Screen Tábing
Iskuter Scooter
Iskuwater/Iskwater Squatter
Ispayral Spiral Balisungsong
Ispiker Speaker (person) Tagapagsalita, Tagatalumpati, Mananalumpati
Isponsor Sponsor Tagatangkilik
Isport Sport Palaro, Palakasan, Paligsahan (also translates as "contest" or "tournament")
Isprey Spray Wisik
Istandard Standard Pamantayan, Panukatan
Kabinet Cabinet Aparador (Sp.)
Kalkyuleytor Calculator Kalkulador (Sp.)
Kambas Canvass
Kapirayt Copyright Karapatang-ari
Karot Carrot Asinorya, Asanorya
Kemikál Chemical
Kendi Candy Minatamis (Eng. "sweets")
Ketsap Ketchup Sawsawan (condiments such as sūka "vinegar", patis "fish sauce", toyo "soy sauce", bagoong "fermented shrimp paste")
Keyk Cake
Kompyuter Computer
Korek Correct Ayos, Tama, Tumpak
Kyut Cute Lindo(m) & Linda(f) (Sp.)
Lider Leader Pinuno
Lobat[11] Low battery
Madyik Magic Salamangka
Miskol[11] Missed call
Miting Meeting Pulong
Nars Nurse
Okey OK, Okay Sige
Plastik Plastic
Pulis Police
Rali Rally
Tambay Stand by
Tenis Tennis
Titser Teacher Guro (Sansk. "guru"), Maestro(m) & Maestra(f)(Sp.)
Tisyu Tissue
Traysikel Tricycle Trisiklo
Trey Tray
Wais Wise Mautak, Maabilidad

Indo/Malay

Tagalog is an Austronesian language and so is closely related to Malay dialects in Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei and Indonesia. Because of the close relationship, there are many cognates between the two languages stretching back many millennia. Many cognates were re-borrowed into the language when Old Malay became the official language of trade and documentation during the pre-colonial era of Philippine history, as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country five centuries later. This is a small sample of the thousands of cognates between Tagalog and Malay:

Tagalog word Malay word (M)/Indonesian Word (I) Meaning
Ako Aku I (first person)
Anak Anak Child
Anim Enam Six
Apat Empat Four
Araw Hari Day
Bahagì Bahagian (M)
Bagi (I)
Portion, Part
Bahay Balai House
Balík Balik Return
Balimbing Belimbing Starfruit, Perfidious, Disloyal (owing to the fruit's ability to land on any side)
Balita Berita News
Balot Balut To wrap
Bangkay Bangkai Corpse, Carcass
Bangis Bengis Fierce, Ferocious
Bangon Bangun To awaken/rouse
Bansa Bangsa Nation
Bato Batu Stone
Bawang Bawang putih Garlic
Bayad Bayar Pay
Bibig Bibir Mouth
Bili Beli Buy
Bukas/Buka Buka Open (v.)
Bunso Bongsu (M)
Bungsu (I)
Youngest child
Buntis Bunting
Hamil (I)
Pregnant
Buto Buta Bone
Buwan Bulan Moon, Month
Buwaya Buaya Crocodile
Daan Jalan Street, Road, Way
Dalamhatì Dalam + hati Grief
Dahon Daun Leaf
Dingding Dinding Wall
Durian Durian Durian
Ganap Genap Exact, Complete
Gulay Gulai Vegetables
Gulong Gulung To roll, Vehicle Tire
Gunting Gunting Scissors
Halaga Harga Price
Hangin Angin Wind
Harapan Hadapan In front, The front of
Hirám Pinjam To borrow
Ikaw Kau You
Itik Itik Duck
Itim Hitam Black
Kahoy Kayu Wood
Kalapati Merpati Pigeon
Kambing Kambing Goat
Kami Kami We (excludes addressee)
Kanan Kanan Right
Kangkong Kangkung Water Spinach
Kapag Kapan When, If
Karayom Jarum Needle
Kawali Kuali Frying pan, Wok
Kawani Kerani
Pramuniaga/i (I)
Clerk
Kita Kita We (Dual first person pronoun)
Ko Ku mine/my
Kuko Kuku (finger/toe)nail
Kulang Kurang Less, Lacking
Kulong Kurung Jailed, Caged
Laban Lawan Oppose (v.), Opposition (n.)
Lagok Teguk Gulp
Lalakì Lelaki, Laki–laki Male
Lambot Lembut Soft
Lamok Nyamuk insect
Landas Landasan
Lintasan (I)
Track (n.)
Langka Nangka Jackfruit
Langit Langit Sky, Heaven
Laot Laut Sea
Lasa Rasa Taste, Flavour
Libo Ribu Thousand
Lima Lima Five
Linggo Minggu Sunday/Week
Luma Lama Old
Luwalhatì Luar + hati Glory
Mahal Mahal Expensive, Highly treasured
Maharlika Merdeka/Meherdeka Free men
Mangga Mangga Mango
Mangkok Mangkuk Bowl
Mata Mata Eye
Mukha Muka Face
Mula Mula From
Mura Murah Cheap, Young
Pako Paku Nail
Palayok Periuk Cooking pot
Pangulo Penghulu President
Paso Pasu Flowerpot
Pasok Masuk Enter
Payong Payung Umbrella
Pili Pilih Choose
Pinggan Pinggan
Piring (I)
Plate
Pinto Pintu Door
Pulo Pulau Island
Puno Penuh Full
Puti Putih White
Rambutan Rambutan Rambutan
Sakit Sakit Illness (n.), painful (adj.)
Saksí Saksi Witness
Sala Salah Wrong
Salamin Cermin Mirror, Glass, Eyeglasses
Sama Sama Together/To join
Samantala Sementara Meanwhile,
Sampu Sepuluh Ten
Sandata Senjata Weapon
Sarap Sedap Delicious
Sandok Senduk
Sendok (I)
Ladle
Silaw Silau Dazzled
Singsing Cincin Ring
Sinta Cinta Love (possessive)
Siyasat Siasat Investigate
Sukat Sukat Measure
Sulat Surat Letter (n.), Write (v.)
Sumpa Sumpahan (M)
Sumpah (I)
Oath, curse
Taas Atas Top, Height
Tae Tai Excrement
Tainga Telinga Ear
Takot; Takót Takut Fear (n.); Afraid (adj.)
Tali Tali String, Rope (n.)
Tamis Manis Sweet
Tanggal Tanggal To remove, To take off
Tanghali Tengah + hari Noon
Tangis Tangis Cry (n.)
Taon Tahun Year
Tawad Tawar To bargain, To forgive (v.), discount (n.)
Talong Terong Eggplant/Aubergine
Tulak Tolak Push, Shove
Tulong Tolong Help (n., v.)
Tusok Tusuk Pierce, Prick, Stab
Tuwa/Tawa Tawa laughter
Uban Uban Grey hair
Ulan Hujan Rain (n.)
Utak Otak Brain
Utang Hutang Debt

Sanskrit

As in most Austronesian languages, the Sanskrit vocabulary incorporated into Tagalog are mostly borrowed indirectly via Malay or Javanese.[12] Examples include:

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning in Tagalog
Agham Āgama (आगम), meaning acquisition of knowledge, science Science
Asal Ācāra (आचार), meaning manner of action, conduct, behavior Behaviour; Character
Bagyo Vāyu (वायु), meaning wind Typhoon
Bahala Bhara (भार), meaning burden, load, weight, heavy work To manage; to take care of; to take charge
Balita Vārtā (वार्ता), meaning account, report News
Bansa Vaṃśa (वंश), meaning bamboo cane, genealogy, dynasty, race, Country
Banyaga Vaṇijaka (वणिजक), meaning merchant, trader Foreigner
Basa Vaca (वच), meaning voice, speech To read
Bathalà Batthara (भट्टार), meaning noble lord, venerable Supreme Being; God
Bihasa Abhyasa (अभ्यास), meaning habit Accustomed
Budhi Bodhi (बोधि), meaning understanding Conscience
Dala Dhara (धर), meaning bearing, supporting To carry; to bring
Dawa[13] Yava (यव), meaning Hordeum vulgare Panicum miliaceum
Daya Dvaya (द्वय), meaning twofold nature, falsehood Cheating; Deception
Dila Lidha (लीढ), meaning licked, tasted, eaten Tongue
Diwa Jīva (जीव), meaning the principle of life, vital breath Spirit; Soul
Diwata Devata (देवता), meaning divinity Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Dukha Dukkha (दुःख),meaning sorrow, misery, hardship Poverty
Dusa Doṣa (दोष), meaning harm, damage, bad consequence Suffering
Dusta Dūṣita (दूषित), meaning defiled, violated, injured Ignominiously insulted
Gadya Gaja (गज), meaning elephant Elephant
Guro Guru (गुरु), meaning master, teacher Mentor; Teacher
Halaga Argha (अर्घ), meaning value Price; Value
Halata Arthaya (अर्थय), meaning perceive Noticeable; Perceptible; Obvious
Kasubha Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ), meaning Carthamus tinctorius Carthamus tinctorius
Kastuli Kastūrī (कस्तूरी), meaning Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus
Katha Kathā (कथा), meaning a feigned story, fable Literary composition; Fiction; Invention
Kalapati; Palapati Pārāpataḥ (पारापत), meaning pigeon Pigeon
Kuba Kubja (कुब्ज), meaning hunchback Hunchback
Kuta Kota (कोट), meaning fort, stronghold Fort
Ladya Raja (राज), meaning king, chief, sovereign Raja
Lagundi Nirgundi (निर्गुण्डि), meaning Vitex negundo Vitex negundo
Laho Rāhu (राहु), meaning eclipse Eclipse,; to vanish
Lasa Rasa (रस), meaning taste, savour Taste
Lathala Yantrālaya (यन्त्रालय), meaning printing office, press To print
Likha Lekhā (लेखा), meaning drawing, figure To create
Lisa Likṣā (लिक्षा), meaning egg of a louse Egg of a louse
Madla Mandala (मण्डल), meaning circle, multitude The general public
Maharlika Maharddhika (महर्द्धिक), meaning prosperous Nobility; Prehispanic Tagalog social class composed of freedmen
Mukha Mukha (मुख), meaning face Face
Mula Mula (मूल), meaning basis, foundation, origin, beginning From; since; origin
Mutya Mutya (मुत्य), meaning pearl Amulet; Charm; Jewel; Pearl
Palakol Paraśu (परशु), meaning axe Axe
Palibhasa Paribhasa (परिभाषा), meaning speech, censure, reproof Irony; Sarcasm; Criticism
Pana Bana (बाण), meaning arrow Arrow
Parusa Pūruṣaghna (पूरुषघ्न), meaning slaying men Punishment
Patola Patola (पटोल), meaning Trichosanthes dioica Luffa acutangula
Puti Puti (पूति), meaning purity, purification White
Saksí Sākṣin (साक्षिन्), meaning eye-witness Witness
Sakuna Zakuna (शकुन), meaning a bird of omen Disaster
Salamuha Samuha (समूह), meaning gathering, crowd To mingle with people
Salanta Randa (रण्ड), meaning maimed, crippled Infirm
Salita Carita (चरित), meaning behaviour, acts, deeds, adventures To speak; to talk; word
Samantala Samantara (समान्तर), meaning parallel Meanwhile
Sampalataya Sampratyaya (सम्प्रत्यय), meaning trust, confidence Faith
Sigla Sīghra (शीघ्र), meaning swift, quick, speedy Enthusiasm; Vitality
Suka Cukra (चुक्र), meaning vinegar Vinegar
Sutla Sūtra (सूत्र), meaning thread, string, wire Silk
Tala Tāra (तार), meaning star Star
Tama Uttama (उत्तम), meaning uppermost, most elevated, best, excellent Correct
Tanikala Sṛṅkhala (शृङ्खल), meaning chain Chain
Tingga Tivra (तीव्र), meaning tin, iron, steel Tin
Tsampaka Campaka (चम्पक), meaning Magnolia champaca Magnolia champaca
Upang Upa (उप), meaning towards, near to So as to, in order to

Tamil

Examples:

Tagalog Tamil Meaning
Bagay[citation needed] வகை (Vakai) Thing
Kamay[citation needed] கை (Kai) Hand
Mangga[citation needed] மாங்காய் (Māngāi) Mango
Malunggay[citation needed] முருங்கை (Murungai) Moringa
Patungan[citation needed] பெட்டகம் (Pettagham) Place to store things
Pudya[citation needed] பூஜை (Pūjai) Pooja
Puto[citation needed] பிட்டு (Puttu) Rice cake
Sadya[citation needed] சதி (Sathi) Intentional

Arabic

Examples:

Tagalog Arabic Meaning
Alam Alham Knowledge, Understanding
Gunsi(unsure) Gunsi(unsure) Key
Hiya Hayaa To feel shame, Blush
Hukom Hukum Judge
Salamat Slamah Thanks

Persian

Example:

Tagalog Persian Meaning
Alak Araq Liquor

Chinese

A number of polities in the area of what is now Luzon, notably the two largest Pasig River delta settlements, Maynila and Tondo, established diplomatic ties with the Ming Dynasty. Contact also reached as far as the Sultan of Sulu. As a result, many Chinese words were adopted. examples:

Tagalog Hokkien (H), Cantonese (C) and Mandarin (M) Meaning
Ate 阿姊/A–chí (H) Eldest sister
Bakya 木屐/ba̍k-kia̍h (H) Native wooden sandals
Baktaw 墨斗/ (H) Carpenter's ink marker
Batsoy 肉水/bah-chúi (H) Pork in soup
Bihon 米粉/bí-hún (H) Rice vermicelli
Bimpo 面布/ (H)/min6-bou3 (C) Face towel
Betsin/Vetsin 味精/bī-cheng (H) Monosodium glutamate
Daw/Raw 道/Tao (M)/Dou6 (C) God, Way
Ditse 二姊/Dī–chí (H)/Yi6-zi6 (C) Second eldest sister
Gising 叫醒/ (H) To wake up
Hikaw 耳鉤/hī–kau (H) Earrings
Hukbo 服務/ (H) Army
Hwepe 火把/ (H) Torch
Jusi 富絲/hù-si (H) Cloth made from pineapple fibre
Impo 阿媽/A–má (H) Grandmother
Ingkong 阿公/A–kong (H) Grandfather
Kusot 鋸屑/ (H) Sawdust
Kuya 哥哥/ko–ko (C)/keh–ya (H) Eldest brother
Lawin 老鷹/lǎoyīng (M) Kite, Hawk
Lauriat 鬧熱/lāu-dia̍t (H) Lauriat
Lithaw 犁頭/ (H) Plow
Lumpiâ 潤餅/jūn-piáⁿ (H) Fried or fresh spring rolls.
Mami 肉麵/bah-mī (H) Meat and noodles in soup (Bam-i is also the name of another noodle dish)
Pati (H) Including
Pansít 便ê食/piān-ê-si̍t (H) Noodles with sauce
Petsay 白菜/pe̍h-chhài (H) Chinese cabbage
Pesa 白煠/pe̍h-jsa̍h (H) Plain boiled (often fish)
Pinse 硼砂/ (M)/ (H) Borax
Puthaw 斧頭/ (H) Ax
Santse 三姊/San–chí (H) Third eldest sister
Sitsit (H) Psst!
Siyansi 煎匙/chian-sî (H) Spoon-like metal spatula
Siopao/Siyopaw 燒包/sio-pau (H) Meat-filled steamed bun
Sotanghon 苏冬粉/so-tang-hun (H) Cellophane noodles
Suahe 沙蝦/ (H) Greasyback shrimp
Suki 主客/chu–khe (H) Regular customer/usual store
Sungki 伸齒/chhun-khí (H) Malocclusion
Susi 鎖匙/só–sî (H) Key
Tanglaw 燈籠/deng-long (M) Light
Tinghoy 燈火/ (H) Oil lamp
Tiho 等好/ (H) Gold bar (Chinese-Filipino colloquialism)
Tikoy 甜粿/Tih–ke (H) Chinese New Year's cake
Tingi (H) Selling at retail/per piece
Tokwa 豆干/tāu-koaⁿ (H) Tofu
Toto[14] (H) A young lad or eldest brother (depending on region)
Totso 豆油醋魚/tāu–iû-chhò͘-hî (H) Sautéed fish
Toyo 豆油/tāu–iû (H) Soy sauce
Tausi 豆豉/tāu-si (H) Beans fermented/in brine
Tsaa 茶/Chá (M)/Caa4 (C) Tea
Tuwabak 大目魚/ (H) Big-eyed herring
Ubak 烏墨/ (H) Black ink
Wansoy/Yansoy 芫荽/ (H)/ (M) Cilantro

Japanese

During the era of several kingdoms in Luzon and the Visayas, trade was established with other Southeast- and East Asian countries, especially Japan and China.[15]

Here are some examples:

Tagalog Japanese Meaning
Dorobo[16] 泥棒 / dorobou Thief, Robber
Jack-en-poy じゃんけんぽん / jankenpon Rock-paper-scissors
Kampay/Tagay 乾杯 / kanpai Cheers!
Karaoke カラオケ / karaoke A form of musical entertainment, usually social in nature in Filipino culture.
Karate 空手/ karate Karate
Katol 蚊取線香 / katori-senkō Mosquito coil
Tansan 炭酸 / tansan Originally "soda" in Japanese, but changed to "bottle cap" in Tagalog
Totò 弟 / otōto Younger brother

Nahuatl

Tagalog gained Nahuatl words through Spanish from the Galleon trade with Mexico during the Hispanic era.[17]

Here are some examples:

Tagalog Word Nahuatl Root Word Spanish Word Meaning and Further Comments
Abokado Ahuacatl Aguacate Persea americana
Akapulko, Kapurko Acatl ("cane") + poloa ("large") + co ("place") Acapulco Senna alata
Alpasotis, Pasotis Epatl + Tzotl Epazote Chenopodium ambrosioides
Atsuete, Atsuwete, Atswete Achiotl Achiote Bixa orellana and the red-orange condiment and food coloring derived from its seeds.
Guwatsinanggo Cuauchilnacatl Guachinango Astute
Kakaw Cacáhuatl Cacao Theobroma cacao
Kakawati, Kakawate Cacáhuatl Cacahuete Gliricidia sepium
Kalatsutsi Cacálotl + Xóchitl ("flower) Cacalosúchil Plumeria rubra
Kamatis Tomatl Tomate Solanum lycopersicum
Kamatsile Cuamóchitl Guamúchil Pithecellobium dulce
Kamote Camotli Camote Ipomoea batatas
Koyote Coyotl Coyote Coyote
Kulitis Quilitl Quelite Amaranthus viridis
Mekate Mecatl Mecate Rope or cord made out of abaca
Mehiko Mexitli Mexico Mexico
Nanay[18] Nantli Nana Mother
Paruparo[19][17] Papalotl Papalote Butterfly
Pitaka Petlacalli Petaca Coin purse
Sakate Zacatl Zacate Hay or grass for fodder
Sangkaka Chiancaca Chancaca Taffy (candy)
Sapote Tzapotl Zapote Pouteria sapota
Sayote Chayotli Chayote Sechium edule
Sili Chīlli Chile Chili pepper
Singkamas Xicamatl Jicama Pachyrhizus erosus
Sisiwa Chichiua Chichigua Wet nurse
Tamales Tamalli Tamal Rice-based tamales wrapped in banana leaves or corn husks
Tatay[18] Tahtli Tata Father
Tisa Tizatl Tiza Chalk
Tiyangge Tianquiztli Tianguis Seasonal markets
Tsiklet Chictli Chicle Chewing gum
Tsiko Tzicozapotl Chicozapote Manilkara zapota
Tsokolate Xocolatl Chocolate Chocolate
Tukayo, Katukayo Tocayotia Tocayo Namesake

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mexico, our older sister". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved 2018-04-13. 
  2. ^ Thompson, Roger M. (2003). Filipino, English and Taglish - Language switching from multiple perspectives. 
  3. ^ "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  4. ^ a b c Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero. 
  5. ^ a b Quilis, Antonio; Casado-Fresnillo, Celia. La lengua española en Filipinas. Historia. Situación actual. El chabacano. Antología de textos. 
  6. ^ Alcantara y Antonio, Teresita. Mga hispanismo sa Filipino: batay sa komunikasyong pangmadla ng Filipinas : pag-aaral lingguwistiko. Diliman, Quezon City : Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. ISBN 9718781773. 
  7. ^ a b c Potet, Jean-Paul G. Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. lulu.com. ISBN 1326615793. 
  8. ^ K, Lim T. (2012). Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 1, Fruits. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 472. ISBN 9789048186617. 
  9. ^ Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T. (1983). Tagalog Reference Grammar (in Tagalog). University of California Press. p. 514. ISBN 9780520049437. 
  10. ^ Vos, Frederik and Fiona De. "Tagalog Pwera sa, Maliban sa". learningtagalog.com. 
  11. ^ a b Sawikaan 2007: Mga Salita ng Taon. 2008. ISBN 9789715425834. 
  12. ^ Haspelmath, Martin. Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 3110218437. 
  13. ^ POTET, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Lulu.com. pp. 73,191. ISBN 9781326615796. 
  14. ^ "toto - Diksiyonaryo". diksiyonaryo.ph. Retrieved 2018-05-17. 
  15. ^ "Ancient Japanese pottery in Boljoon town | Inquirer News". Newsinfo.inquirer.net. 2011-05-30. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  16. ^ "dorobo - Diksiyonaryo". diksiyonaryo.ph. Retrieved 2018-05-17. 
  17. ^ a b Albalá, Paloma (2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies. 51 (1): 125–146. JSTOR 42633639. 
  18. ^ a b León-Portilla, Miguel (1960). "Algunos nahuatlismos en el castellano de Filipinas". Estudios de cultura Náhuatl (in Spanish) (2): 135-138. ISSN 0071-1675. 
  19. ^ Casado-Fresnillo, Antonio Quilis, Celia; Casado Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas : historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos (1. ed. ed.). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. p. 410. ISBN 840008635X. 

External links

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