List of literary works published in Asia Raya

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Front page of Asia Raya, 23 July 1942

A total of sixty-nine poems, sixty short stories, and three serials were published in Asia Raya, a newspaper in the Dutch East Indies and early Indonesia. First published on 29 April 1942, months after the Empire of Japan invaded the Indies, Asia Raya was established under the occupation government and intended as a vehicle for pro-Japanese propaganda – including literature. Run by both Japanese and native staff,[1] the newspaper remained in publication until 7 September 1945, closing less than a month after Indonesia proclaimed its independence.[2]

During the occupation, the Japanese overlords enacted censorship standards, which Asia Raya – as an organ of the occupying forces – followed strictly. Writers looking to have their works published were limited in themes they could select by the Cultural Centre (in Indonesian, Poesat Keboedajaan; in Japanese, Keimin Bunka Shidōsho (啓民文化指導所)) in the capital at Jakarta. They were told that works dealing with internal struggle or otherwise depressing topics would "poison" society with confusion and despair. Instead, writers hoping to be published had to focus on positive themes in an effort to instill positive traits in society; by the end of the occupation, this meant a nationalistic struggle.[a][3] To subvert these policies, writers often hid more personal anti-colonial subtexts in their works.[4]

Asia Raya's contributors were Japanese or native, with the latter more active; works by two foreign authors, Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi, were also published in translation. The single most-published writer in Asia Raya was Rosihan Anwar, a recent senior high school graduate, who published seven poems and nine short stories while working for the newspaper.[5] Andjar Asmara, a former film director, published the most serials; both of his serials were based on films he had made before the occupation.[6][7]

The following list is divided into three tables, one for poems, one for short stories, and one for serials; the tables are initially arranged alphabetically by title, although they are also sortable. Author's names are given as recorded in Asia Raya, with explanatory notes indicating pseudonyms where known. Titles are given in the original spelling, with a literal English translation underneath. Dates, originally in the Japanese kōki (皇紀) calendar, are given in the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise noted, this list is based on the one compiled by Mahayana (2007, pp. 209–215).


Usmar Ismail published several poems and short stories.
Multiple poems by Rosihan Anwar were published.
Noer Soetan Iskandar published a poem on fasting.
A poem by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was translated and published.
Poems published in Asia Raya
Title Date Author Note
"Al-Qoeran al-Karim"
"The Quran of Karim"
15 June 1945 Aboebakar, Hj.Hj. Aboebakar
"Angin Foedji"
"Winds of Fuji"
3 July 1943 Ismail, UsmarUsmar Ismail
"Angkatan Baroe"
"New Period"
22 May 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"My Period"
29 May 1945 Loebis, B.H.B.H. Loebis
"Asia Raja"
"Great Asia"
21 May 1942 St. P.B.
"Banjak Arti Kilat Matamoe"
"The Many Meanings in Your Eyes"
2 June 1942 Darmawidjaja
"Bantoean Toean"
"Lord's Help"
6 September 1944 Romoesha
"Bermoekim di Moesim Bertanam di Zaman"
"Living in the Seasons, Harvest in the Ages"
31 May 1942 St. P.B.
26 November 1942 Gempita, GegapGegap Gempita
"Dharma Pemoeda"
"Youth's Religion"
28 June 1945 Rangkoeti, B.B. Rangkoeti
"Diponegoro" 8 February 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Djangan Tak Goena"
"Not Useless"
11 June 1945 Halim, KarimKarim Halim
"Djeritan Hidoep Baroe"
"Cry of a New Life"
5 April 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Djeritan Malam"
"Cry in the Night"
10 July 1945 Noersamsoe
17 February 1945 Rangkoeti, B.B. Rangkoeti
6 July 1945 Loebis, B.H.B.H. Loebis
25 August 1945 Jassin, H.B.H.B. Jassin
2 June 1945 Takahashi Taisa [b]
"Fadjar Naik"
"Dawn Rises"
23 June 1945 Soebyarto, A.A. Soebyarto
"Gita Negara"
"Song of the State"
27 February 1943 Azhar, M.S.M.S. Azhar
"Hari Raja"
30 September 1943 Djoeffrie
"Hasrat Angkatanku"
"My Period's Needs"
16 July 1945 Ridhwan, AfandiAfandi Ridhwan
"Indahlah Noesa"
"Beautiful Islands"
10 June 1944 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
1 January 1943 Unknown [c]
"His Greatness"
23 August 1945 Halim, KarimKarim Halim
"Kenangan Diponegoro"
"Remembering Diponegoro"
7 February 1945 Anas, Ma'roefMa'roef Anas
"Kepada Toean"
"To, Sir"
28 June 1945 Unknown [d]
21 August 1945 Jassin, H.B.H.B. Jassin
"Kisah di Waktoe Pagi"
"A Morning-time Story"
1 April 1944 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Kodrat Waktoekoe"
"Nature of My Time"
8 July 1944 Arifin, Soetomo DjaoeharSoetomo Djaoehar Arifin
21 June 1942 Effendi, RoestamRoestam Effendi
"Lebah Sekawan"
"Gang of Bees"
23 January 1943 Moerni, BoediBoedi Moerni
10 April 1944 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Menghadapi Moesoeh"
"Facing the Enemy"
25 July 1945 Toha
"Menoedjoe Tjita"
"Towards Hope"
18 July 1945 Wakidjan, S.S. Wakidjan
"Minat Poetra Dewasa"
"A Grown Boy's Wish"
9 March 1943 Azhar, M.S.M.S. Azhar
29 March 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Moesoeh Mendarat di Balikpapan"
"Enemy Landing at Balikpapan"
7 July 1945 Takahashi Taisa
"NamaMoe Toehan"
"Your Name, God"
13 July 1945 Halim, KarimKarim Halim
"Njanjian dari Pendjara"
"Songs from Prison"
21 July 1943 Gandhi, Mohandas KaramchandMohandas Karamchand Gandhi [e]
"My Hero"
21 July 1945 Wiratma, AgniAgni Wiratma
"Pandai Besi"
16 October 1943 Noersamsoe
"Pembangoenan Nippon Baroe"
"Building a New Japan"
11 February 1943 Unknown
"Pemoeda Kini Bergelora"
"The Youth are Impassioned"
24 July 1945 Djaoehari, A.A. Djaoehari
"Pemoeda Perantara"
"Youth in the Middle"
2 June 1945 Noersamsoe
"Pemoeda Perdjuangan"
"Youth in the Struggle"
30 June 1945 Takahashi Taisa
"Pemoeda Zaman"
"Youth of the Ages"
23 May 1945 Halim, KarimKarim Halim
"Pentjalang" 12 June 1943 Azhar, M.S.M.S. Azhar
"Perdjuangan Seriboe Djoeta Manoesia"
"Struggle of a Thousand Million People"
28 October 1943 Arifin, Hassan NoelHassan Noel Arifin
17 May 1942 Darmawidjaja
19 August 1944 Iskandar, Noer SoetanNoer Soetan Iskandar
"Ratna Satria"
"Ratna the Knight"
5 June 1943 Loebis, B.H.B.H. Loebis
"Renoengkan Sedjenak"
"Contemplate for a Moment"
23 June 1945 El Hakim [f]
"Renoengkan Sedjenak"
"Contemplate for a Moment"
27 June 1945 Andjasmara, HartonoHartono Andjasmara
"Satoe Arti"
"One Meaning"
31 July 1945 Suchitra
"Sayat Sembiloe"
"The Sayat Knife"
21 November 1942 Darmawidjaja
"Sebelum Perdjoeangan"
"Before the Struggle"
19 June 1945 Ali, TaslimTaslim Ali
"Semangat Pemoeda"
"Youth's Passion"
12 June 1945 Noer, PanyamPanyam Noer
"Soeara Sedjarah"
"Voice of History"
14 July 1945 Taslim A.
"Soenting Melati"
"Acquiring Jasmine"
1 January 1943 Gempita, GegapGegap Gempita
"Soerat Antjaman"
"Threatening Letter"
17 May 1942 Cloboth
"Tanah Airkoe"
"My Homeland"
8 July 1944 Ismail, UsmarUsmar Ismail
"Tekad Boelad"
17 July 1945 Hidajati, WiwiekWiwiek Hidajati
"Tempat Pemoeda"
"Place for Youth"
7 November 1943 Endah, KoesoemaKoesoema Endah
"Terima Kasih Iboe"
"Thank You Mother"
22 December 1944 H.R.
11 July 1945 Unknown
"Tinggalkan Dakoe di dalam Sunji"
"Leave Me in Silence"
16 May 1942 Darmawidjaja
"Tjiptakan Doenia Bahagia"
"Create a Happy World"
19 July 1945 Jassin, H.B.H.B. Jassin
"WahjoeMoe Koedoes"
"Your Sacred Revelation"
20 July 1945 Halim, KarimKarim Halim

Short stories

One short story by Achdiat Karta Mihardja was published.
Two short stories by Rabindranath Tagore were translated and published.
Andjar Asmara published three short stories and two serials.
Short stories published in Asia Raya
Title Date Author Note
"Aroes Mengalir"
"The Flowing Current"
15 July 1944 Halim, KarimKarim Halim
1 February 1944 Tetsoekitji Kawai [g]
"Beladjar jang Penghabisan"
"The Last Studies"
14 January 1943 Sastrosoewignjo
"Bintang Koekoes"
"Star of Steam"
1 January 1943 O.S. [h]
"Boekan Karena Akoe"
"Not Because of Me"
15 April 1944 Kartahadimadja, AohAoh Kartahadimadja
"Darah Laoet"
"Blood of the Sea"
1 July 1944 Jassin, H.B.H.B. Jassin
"Dengan Dibimbing oleh Toehan"
"With God's Guidance"
25 July 1945 Mihardja, Achdiat KartaAchdiat Karta Mihardja
"Di dalam Mesdjid"
"In the Mosque"
1 June 1945 Rachman, DarsjafDarsjaf Rachman
"Di Moesim Panen"
"In the Harvest Season"
Unknown Cloboth
"Di Tempat Asoehan Garoeda"
"Where the Garuda is Kept"
15 January 1944 Hoemio Niwa [g]
"Dimana (Daidantjoo)"
"Where is (Daidantjoo)"
10 May 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar [i]
14 June 1942 Andjar Asmara [j]
"The Answer"
21 June 1942 Zahar
"Djiwa Pahlawan"
"Soul of a Hero"
1 June 1944 Machtoem, HodidjahHodidjah Machtoem
"Djoeroe Rawat"
15 February 1945 Zaman, PoetraPoetra Zaman
"Djoewariah" 12 January 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Djonggol Desa"
"Village Representative"
14 April 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Doenia Tjopet"
"World of Pickpockets"
2 May 1942 Sulaiman, AbuAbu Sulaiman
"Dosa jang Tak Dapat Diampoeni"
"Unforgivable Sin"
21 June 1942 A.A.
"Dr. Soegianto" 3 February 1945 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Gadis Berkoedoeng Perioek Kaju"
"Girl Maimed by a Wooden Pot"
9 October 1943 Harutaro, S.S. Harutaro
"Hoedjan dan Panas"
"Rain and Heat"
10 February 1945 Noersamsoe
"Indonesia Tanah Kekasih"
"Indonesia, Land of Lovers"
6 September 1945 Ismail, UsmarUsmar Ismail
"Irama Masa"
"Rhythm of the Times"
27 January 1945 Zaman, PoetraPoetra Zaman
"Isjarat Anai-Anai"
"Signs of Termites"
28 June 1945 Soedjani
"Kemedja Lama"
"Old Shirt"
14 July 1945 Kertapati, InoeInoe Kertapati
"Ketika KOKKI Moelai Berkibar di Djawa"
"When KOKKI Flourishes in Java"
23 February 1943 Maru Furura
"Kitjizo ke Medan Perang"
"Kitjizo Goes to the Battlefield"
1 January 1944 Josikei Hino [k]
"Kjai Gondolajoe" 16 June 1945 Darmawidjaja
"Korban Gadis"
"Virginal Victim"
1 April 1943 Winarno
"Lajar Poetih"
"White Screen"
1 April 1944 Ismail, UsmarUsmar Ismail
"Laoet Perhoeboengan"
"Connecting Seas"
15 July 1944 Unknown
"Latihan Gerilja"
"Guerrilla Training"
26 May 1945 Kertapati, InoeInoe Kertapati
"Melangkah Teroes"
"Keep Advancing"
11 July 1945 Unknown
"Memoedja Majat Kekasih"
"Worshipping a Lover's Corpse"
8 May 1942 Kamadjaja
"Menjamboet Poeasa"
"Welcoming the Fast"
17 August 1944 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Mr. Doel" 5 July 1942 Andjar Asmara [j]
"Oentoek Saoedara"
"For You"
15 June 1943 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Pahlawan Moeda"
"Young Hero"
26 August 1944 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Pak Sewo"
"Mr Sewo"
24 April 1945 Noersamsoe
"Pak Tani Poelang"
"The Farmer Returns"
22 May 1943 Unknown
"Paman Koe"
"My Uncle"
15 June 1944 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar
"Pandai Besi"
1 September 1944 Djojokoesoemo, D.D. Djojokoesoemo
"Pemoeda Pantjaroba"
"Youth in Transition"
1 August 1944 Arifin, Soetomo DjaoeharSoetomo Djaoehar Arifin
"Perdjoeangan Batin"
"Mind's Struggle"
31 May 1942 Adris, TabraniTabrani Adris
"Perhitoengan Njawa"
"Counting Souls"
9 May 1942 and 10 May 1942 Hamid [l]
"Pertjintaan dan Pengorbanan"
"Love and Sacrifice"
4 September 1943 Harutaro, S.S. Harutaro
"Poetri Pertiwi"
"Princess Pertiwi"
24 May 1945 Arifin, Soetomo DjaoeharSoetomo Djaoehar Arifin
"Pradjoerit Nogikoe"
"Soldier from Nogiku"
5 February 1944 Kan Kikotji [g]
"Ratapan" 9 May 1942 and 10 May 1942 Tagore, RabindranatRabindranat Tagore [m]
"Resiko Goenting"
"Problem with Scissors"
12 May 1942 Cloboth
"Salah Sangka"
30 September 1943 Katjamata
"Seboeah Bingkisan"
"A Package"
1 February 1945 Kartahadimadja, AohAoh Kartahadimadja
"Seroean Azan"
"Call of Adhan"
17 May 1945 Halim, KarimKarim Halim
"Si Amat Toekang Betjak"
"Amat the Pedicab Driver"
8 January 1943 and 9 January 1943 M. Basri [l]
"Soeara jang Memberi Ilham"
"Voice which Inspires"
5 May 1942 Andjar Asmara [j]
2 June 1942 Tagore, RabindranatRabindranat Tagore [n]
"Tanda Bahagia"
"Sign of Happiness"
1 September 1944 Siregar, BakriBakri Siregar
21 August 1945 Darmawidjaja
"Trem Berdjalan Teroes"
"The Trem Treks On"
12 June 1943 Anwar, RosihanRosihan Anwar


Serials published in Asia Raya
Title Date Author Note(s)
Kartinah 30 April 1942 to 25 June 1942 Andjar Asmara [j][6]
Noesa Penida 30 June 1942 to 14 September 1942 Andjar Asmara [j][6]
Roekmini 21 January 1943 to 19 February 1943 E.S.N. [6]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ By the end of the occupation the Japanese had begun helping Indonesians prepare for their independence. This included, among other efforts, forming the Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence for deliberations and assisting with the proclamation of Indonesian independence, which was drafted in the home of a Japanese admiral (Dahm 1971, pp. 100–111).
  2. ^ Title in Japanese
  3. ^ Taken from a calendar advertisement.
  4. ^ Credited to the Central Office of Independence War Funds
  5. ^ In translation
  6. ^ Pseudonym of Abu Hanifah (Jassin 1993, p. 15)
  7. ^ a b c Edited by Rosi Tani
  8. ^ A fairytale
  9. ^ Title partially illegible (in parentheses)
  10. ^ a b c d e Pseudonym of Abisin Abbas
  11. ^ Edited by Rosihan Anwar
  12. ^ a b In two instalments
  13. ^ In two instalments, translation by Darmawidjaja
  14. ^ Translation by Darmawidjaja


Works cited

  • "Abisin Abbas". (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  • Dahm, Bernhard (1971). History of Indonesia in the Twentieth Century. Praeger. OCLC 230842. 
  • "In memoriam: Rosihan Anwar, the Last Mohican". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta. 14 April 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  • Jassin, H.B. (1993). Kesusastraan Indonesia di Masa Jepang [Indonesian Literature in the Japanese Period]. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka. ISBN 978-979-407-307-0. 
  • Mahayana, Maman S. (2007). Ekstrinsikalitas Sastra Indonesia [Extrinsic Events in Indonesian Literature] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada. ISBN 978-979-769-115-8. 
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