List of kings of Babylon

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King of Babylon
Old-Babylonian plaque showing a standing male wearing a robe-like draped dress, from Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq.jpg
Old-Babylonian plaque showing a standing male, probably a ruler/king, wearing a robe-like draped dress, from Southern Mesopotamia, Iraq
Style Depending on period, extent of reign and personal accomplishments. Usually šar Bābili ("king of Babylon").
See Akkadian royal titulary.
First monarch Sumu-abum (first to use title)
Last monarch Nabonidus (native)
Darius III (persian)
Demetrius II Nicator (last to use title)
Formation c. 1830 BC
Abolition 539 BC (native)
330 BC (persian use)
141 BC (seleucid use)
Appointer Divine right, hereditary

The following is a list of the kings of Babylonia (ancient southern-central Iraq), compiled from the traditional Babylonian king lists and modern archaeological findings.

Babylonian King List

The Babylonian King List is a very specific ancient list of supposed Babylonian kings recorded in several ancient locations, and related to its predecessor, the Sumerian King List. As in the latter, contemporaneous dynasties are misleadingly listed as successive without comment.[citation needed]

There are three versions, which are known as "King List A"[1] (containing all the kings from the First Dynasty of Babylon to the Neo-Assyrian king Kandalanu), "King List B"[2] (containing only the two first dynasties), and "King List C"[3] (containing the first seven kings of the Second Dynasty of Isin). A fourth version was written in Greek by Berossus. The "Babylonian King List of the Hellenistic Age" is a continuation that mentions all the Seleucid kings from Alexander the Great to Demetrius II Nicator.[4]

Middle Bronze Age

Early Amorite city-states

Kings of Larsa

List of the kings of Larsa (39th year of the reign of Hammurabi)
King Hammurabi of Babylon (right) (r. 1728–1686 BC) on his law code stele

Babylonian Empire (Middle Bronze Age)

First Dynasty of Babylon, (Amorite Dynasty)

First Dynasty of Babylon (ca. (1830–1531 BC)

Sealand Dynasty (Dynasty II of Babylon)

These rulers may not have ruled Babylonia itself for more than the briefest of periods, but rather the formerly Sumerian regions south of it. Nevertheless, it is often traditionally numbered the Second Dynasty of Babylon, and so is listed here.

Early Kassite Monarchs

This dynasty also did not actually rule Babylon, but their numbering scheme was continued by later Kassite Kings of Babylon, and so they are listed here.

Late Bronze Age

Kassite Dynasty (Third Dynasty of Babylon)

Kassite Dynasty (ca. 1507–1155 BC)
King Meli-Shipak II (centre) (ca. 1186–1172 BC)

Iron Age

Dynasty IV of Babylon, from Isin

The name of the dynasty, BALA PA.ŠE, is a paronomasia on the term išinnu, “stalk,” written as PA.ŠE and is the only apparent reference to the actual city of Isin.[6] It is therefore also known as the Second Dynasty of Isin or Isin II.

King Marduk-nadin-ahhe (r. 1100–1082 BC)

Dynasty V of Babylon

Known as the 2nd Sealand Dynasty, the evidence that this was a Kassite Dynasty is rather tenuous.[7]

Dynasty VI of Babylon

Known as the Bīt-Bazi Dynasty after the region from where this minor Kassite clan drew its ancestry.[8]

Dynasty VII of Babylon

This was an Elamite Dynasty.

Dynasty VIII of Babylon

Dynasty IX of Babylon (Dynasty of E)

King Nabu-apla-iddina (right) (r. 888–855 BC)

Dynasty X of Babylon (Assyrian)

King Marduk-apla-iddina II (left) (r. 722–710 BC)

Dynasty XI of Babylon (Neo-Babylonian)

King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon (r. 605–562 BC)

Achaemenid Babylonia

In 539 BC, Babylon was captured by Cyrus the Great. His son was later crowned formally as King of Babylonia. This list uses the Greek names of the Achaemenid Persian kings.

Macedonian Babylonia

Seleucid Babylonia

Babylon was captured by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. It was captured by the Parthians in 141 BC.

See also


  1. ^ BM 33332.
  2. ^ BM 38122.
  3. ^ The text is in a private collection and was published in: Arno Poebel (1955). "Second Dynasty of Isin According to a New King-List Tablet". Assyriological Studies. University of Chicago Press (15).
  4. ^ Meissner, Bruno (1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie. 6. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 90. ISBN 3-11-010051-7.
  5. ^ Leonhard Sassmannshausen (2004). "Babylonian Chronology of the 2nd Half of the 2nd Millennium B.C.". In H. Hunger; R. Pruzsinszky (eds.). Mesopotamian Dark Age Revisited (PDF). Vienna: Verlag Der Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. pp. 157–177.
  6. ^ J. A. Brinkman (1999). Dietz Otto Edzard (ed.). Reallexikon Der Assyriologie Und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie: Ia – Kizzuwatna. 5. Walter De Gruyter. pp. 183–184.
  7. ^ Bruno Meissner (1999). Dietz Otto Edzard (ed.). Reallexikon Der Assyriologie Und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie: Meek - Mythologie. Walter De Gruyter. p. 8. “The Kassite name of Simbar-Šipak, the Kassite derived theothoric element (dKaššû = “the Kassite (god)”) in the name of the third king, and the tribal affiliation of the second monarch could suggest that this dynasty represented a revival of Kassite power following the native Babylonian rulers of the Second Dynasty of Isin; but the evidence at present must be regarded as tenuous.”
  8. ^ J. A. Brinkman (1982). "Babylonia, c. 1000 – 748 B.C.". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; N. G. L. Hammond; E. Sollberger (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History (Volume 3, Part 1). Cambridge University Press. pp. 296–297.
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