List of human spaceflights

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Apollo 7 heads into orbit with its crew of three, 1968

This is a list of all human spaceflights throughout history. Beginning in 1961 with the flight of Yuri Gagarin aboard Vostok 1, human spaceflight occurs when a human crew flies a spacecraft into outer space. Human spaceflight is distinguished from spaceflight generally, which entails both crewed and uncrewed spacecraft.

There are two definitions of spaceflight. The Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), an international record-keeping body, defines the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space at 62 miles (100 km) above sea level. This boundary is known as the Kármán line. Additionally, the United States military awards astronaut wings to qualified personnel who pilot a spaceflight above an altitude of 50 miles (80 km). Thirteen flights of the North American X-15 met the latter criteria, while only two met the former. This article is primarily concerned with the former international convention, and also lists flights which only satisfied the latter convention. Unless otherwise specified, "spaceflight" and related terms only apply to flights which went beyond the Kármán line.

As of the launch of Soyuz MS-13 on 20 July 2019, there have been 326 human spaceflight launch attempts, which includes three failed attempts which did not cross the Kármán line. These were the fatal Challenger disaster, and two non-fatal aborted Soyuz missions, T-10a and MS-10. Another non-fatal aborted Soyuz mission, 18a, nevertheless crossed the Kármán line and therefore qualified as a sub-orbital spaceflight. Three missions successfully achieved human spaceflight, yet ended as fatal failures as their crews died during the return. These were Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, and the Columbia disaster. Uniquely, Soyuz 34 was launched uncrewed to the Salyut 6 space station, to provide a successful return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32. Including Soyuz 34 gives a total of 327 attempted human spaceflights. Fourteen flights reached an apogee beyond 50 miles (80 km), but failed to go beyond 62 miles (100 km).

Summary

Since 1961, three countries[a] and one private business have conducted human spaceflight using twelve different spacecraft series, or: "programs", "projects".


Entity  Soviet Union
 Russia
 United States  China Scaled Composites
(USA, private)
Subtotals
by decade
Agency Soviet space program
Roscosmos
NASA CNSA Tier One
Decades Program Dates[b] No.[c] Program[d] Dates No.[e] Program Dates No. Program Dates No.
1961–1970 Vostok 1961–1963 6 Mercury 1961–1963 6 41
Voskhod 1964–1965 2 X-15 1963 2
Soyuz 1967–present 142 Gemini 1965–1966 10
Apollo 1968–1972 11
1971–1980 39
Skylab 1973–1974 3
Apollo-
Soyuz
1975 1
1981–1990 Space
Shuttle
1981–2011 135 63
1991–2000 83
2001–2010 Shenzhou 2003–present 6 SpaceShipOne 2004 3 61
2011–2020 40
Subtotals
by entity
150 168 6 3 Total 327

Human spaceflights

The Salyut series, Skylab, Mir, ISS, and Tiangong series space stations, with which many of these flights docked in orbit, are not listed separately here. See the detailed lists (links below) for information.

Missions which were intended to reach space but which failed to do so are listed in italics, and fatal missions are marked with asterisks.

1961-1970

Vostok 1Mercury-Redstone 3Mercury-Redstone 4Vostok 2
Mercury-Atlas 6Mercury-Atlas 7Vostok 3Vostok 4Mercury-Atlas 8
Mercury-Atlas 9Vostok 5Vostok 6X-15 Flight 90X-15 Flight 91
Voskhod 1
Voskhod 2Gemini 3Gemini 4Gemini 5Gemini 7Gemini 6A
Gemini 8Gemini 9AGemini 10Gemini 11Gemini 12
Soyuz 1*
Apollo 7Soyuz 3Apollo 8
Soyuz 4Soyuz 5Apollo 9Apollo 10Apollo 11Soyuz 6Soyuz 7Soyuz 8Apollo 12
Apollo 13Soyuz 9

1971-1980

Apollo 14Soyuz 10Soyuz 11* — Apollo 15
Apollo 16Apollo 17
Skylab 2Skylab 3Soyuz 12Skylab 4Soyuz 13
Soyuz 14Soyuz 15Soyuz 16
Soyuz 17Soyuz 18aSoyuz 18Soyuz 19Apollo-Soyuz
Soyuz 21Soyuz 22Soyuz 23
Soyuz 24Soyuz 25Soyuz 26
Soyuz 27Soyuz 28Soyuz 29Soyuz 30Soyuz 31
Soyuz 32Soyuz 33Soyuz 34
Soyuz 35Soyuz 36Soyuz T-2Soyuz 37Soyuz 38Soyuz T-3

1981-1990

Soyuz T-4Soyuz 39STS-1Soyuz 40STS-2
STS-3Soyuz T-5Soyuz T-6STS-4Soyuz T-7STS-5
STS-6Soyuz T-8STS-7Soyuz T-9STS-8Soyuz T-10aSTS-9
STS-41-BSoyuz T-10Soyuz T-11STS-41-CSoyuz T-12STS-41-DSTS-41-GSTS-51-A
STS-51-CSTS-51-DSTS-51-BSoyuz T-13STS-51-GSTS-51-FSTS-51-ISoyuz T-14STS-51-JSTS-61-ASTS-61-B
STS-61-CSTS-51-L* — Soyuz T-15
Soyuz TM-2Soyuz TM-3Soyuz TM-4
Soyuz TM-5Soyuz TM-6STS-26Soyuz TM-7STS-27
STS-29STS-30STS-28Soyuz TM-8STS-34STS-33
STS-32Soyuz TM-9STS-36STS-31Soyuz TM-10STS-41STS-38STS-35Soyuz TM-11

1991-2000

STS-37STS-39Soyuz TM-12STS-40STS-43STS-48Soyuz TM-13STS-44
STS-42Soyuz TM-14STS-45STS-49STS-50Soyuz TM-15STS-46STS-47STS-52STS-53
STS-54Soyuz TM-16STS-56STS-55STS-57Soyuz TM-17STS-51STS-58STS-61
Soyuz TM-18STS-60STS-62STS-59Soyuz TM-19STS-65STS-64STS-68Soyuz TM-20STS-66
STS-63STS-67Soyuz TM-21STS-71STS-70Soyuz TM-22STS-69STS-73STS-74
STS-72Soyuz TM-23STS-75STS-76STS-77STS-78Soyuz TM-24STS-79STS-80
STS-81Soyuz TM-25STS-82STS-83STS-84STS-94Soyuz TM-26STS-85STS-86STS-87
STS-89Soyuz TM-27STS-90STS-91Soyuz TM-28STS-95STS-88
Soyuz TM-29STS-96STS-93STS-103
STS-99Soyuz TM-30STS-101STS-106STS-92Soyuz TM-31STS-97

2001-2010

STS-98STS-102STS-100Soyuz TM-32STS-104STS-105Soyuz TM-33STS-108
STS-109STS-110Soyuz TM-34STS-111STS-112Soyuz TMA-1STS-113
STS-107* — Soyuz TMA-2Shenzhou 5Soyuz TMA-3
Soyuz TMA-4SpaceShipOne Flight 15PSpaceShipOne Flight 16PSpaceShipOne Flight 17PSoyuz TMA-5
Soyuz TMA-6STS-114Soyuz TMA-7Shenzhou 6
Soyuz TMA-8STS-121STS-115Soyuz TMA-9STS-116
Soyuz TMA-10STS-117STS-118Soyuz TMA-11STS-120
STS-122STS-123Soyuz TMA-12STS-124Shenzhou 7Soyuz TMA-13STS-126
STS-119Soyuz TMA-14STS-125Soyuz TMA-15STS-127STS-128Soyuz TMA-16STS-129Soyuz TMA-17
STS-130Soyuz TMA-18STS-131STS-132Soyuz TMA-19Soyuz TMA-01MSoyuz TMA-20

2011-present

STS-133Soyuz TMA-21STS-134Soyuz TMA-02MSTS-135Soyuz TMA-22Soyuz TMA-03M
Soyuz TMA-04MShenzhou 9Soyuz TMA-05MSoyuz TMA-06MSoyuz TMA-07M
Soyuz TMA-08MSoyuz TMA-09MShenzhou 10Soyuz TMA-10MSoyuz TMA-11M
Soyuz TMA-12MSoyuz TMA-13MSoyuz TMA-14MSoyuz TMA-15M
Soyuz TMA-16MSoyuz TMA-17MSoyuz TMA-18MSoyuz TMA-19M
Soyuz TMA-20MSoyuz MS-01Shenzhou 11Soyuz MS-02Soyuz MS-03
Soyuz MS-04Soyuz MS-05Soyuz MS-06Soyuz MS-07
Soyuz MS-08Soyuz MS-09Soyuz MS-10Soyuz MS-11
Soyuz MS-12Soyuz MS-13Soyuz MS-15

Flights between 50 miles (80 km) and 62 miles (100 km)

In addition to the above, 14 flights reached an apogee between 50 mi and 100 km, thus qualifying as spaceflights according to the American convention, but failing the FAI criterion. Of these, eleven were X-15 flights during the 1960s. During 2018-2019, three additional flights reached an apogee between 50 mi and 100 km.

1962-1968

X-15 Flight 62
X-15 Flight 77X-15 Flight 87
X-15 Flight 138X-15 Flight 143X-15 Flight 150X-15 Flight 153
X-15 Flight 174
X-15 Flight 190X-15 Flight 191
X-15 Flight 197

2018

Soyuz MS-10VSS Unity VP-03

2019

VSS Unity VF-01

Timeline

Tiangong-2 Tiangong-1 ISS Skylab Mir Salyut 7 Salyut 6 Salyut 5 Salyut 4 Salyut 3 Salyut 1 Shenzhou program Shenzhou 11 Shenzhou 10 Shenzhou 9 Shenzhou 7 Shenzhou 6 Shenzhou 5 SpaceShipOne SpaceShipOne flight 17P SpaceShipOne flight 16P SpaceShipOne flight 15P Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-135 STS-132 STS-129 STS-125 STS-122 STS-117 STS-115 STS-112 STS-110 STS-104 STS-98 STS-106 STS-101 STS-86 STS-84 STS-81 STS-79 STS-76 STS-74 STS-71 STS-66 STS-46 STS-45 STS-44 STS-43 STS-37 STS-38 STS-36 STS-34 STS-30 STS-27 STS-61-B STS-51-J X-15 X-15 Flight 91 X-15 Flight 90 Space Shuttle Discovery STS-133 STS-131 STS-128 STS-119 STS-124 STS-120 STS-116 STS-121 STS-114 STS-105 STS-102 STS-92 STS-103 STS-96 STS-95 STS-91 STS-85 STS-82 STS-70 STS-63 STS-64 STS-60 STS-51 STS-56 STS-53 STS-42 STS-48 STS-39 STS-41 STS-31 STS-33 STS-29 STS-26 STS-51-I STS-51-G STS-51-D STS-51-C STS-51-A STS-41-D Apollo Program Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Apollo 17 Apollo 16 Apollo 15 Apollo 14 Apollo 13 Apollo 12 Apollo 11 Apollo 10 Apollo 9 Apollo 8 Apollo 7 Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-134 STS-130 STS-127 STS-126 STS-123 STS-118 STS-113 STS-111 STS-108 STS-100 STS-97 STS-99 STS-88 STS-89 STS-77 STS-72 STS-69 STS-67 STS-68 STS-59 STS-61 STS-57 STS-54 STS-47 STS-49 Space Shuttle Challenger STS-51-L STS-61-A STS-51-F STS-51-B STS-41-G STS-41-C STS-41-B STS-8 STS-7 STS-6 Project Gemini Gemini XII Gemini XI Gemini X Gemini IX-A Gemini VIII Gemini VI-A Gemini VII Gemini V Gemini IV Gemini III Gemini 2 Gemini 1 Space Shuttle Columbia STS-107 STS-109 STS-93 STS-90 STS-87 STS-94 STS-83 STS-80 STS-78 STS-75 STS-73 STS-65 STS-62 STS-58 STS-55 STS-52 STS-50 STS-40 STS-35 STS-32 STS-28 STS-61-C STS-9 STS-5 STS-4 STS-3 STS-2 STS-1 Skylab Skylab 4 Skylab 3 Skylab 2 Project Mercury Mercury-Atlas 9 Mercury-Atlas 8 Mercury-Atlas 7 Mercury-Atlas 6 Mercury-Redstone 4 Mercury-Redstone 3 Soyuz programme Soyuz MS-11 Soyuz MS-09 Soyuz MS-08 Soyuz MS-07 Soyuz MS-06 Soyuz MS-05 Soyuz MS-04 Soyuz MS-03 Soyuz MS-02 Soyuz MS-01 Soyuz TMA-20M Soyuz TMA-19M Soyuz TMA-18M Soyuz TMA-17M Soyuz TMA-16M Soyuz TMA-15M Soyuz TMA-14M Soyuz TMA-13M Soyuz TMA-12M Soyuz TMA-11M Soyuz TMA-10M Soyuz TMA-09M Soyuz TMA-08M Soyuz TMA-07M Soyuz TMA-06M Soyuz TMA-05M Soyuz TMA-04M Soyuz TMA-03M Soyuz TMA-22 Soyuz TMA-02M Soyuz TMA-21 Soyuz TMA-20 Soyuz TMA-01M Soyuz TMA-19 Soyuz TMA-18 Soyuz TMA-17 Soyuz TMA-16 Soyuz TMA-15 Soyuz TMA-14 Soyuz TMA-13 Soyuz TMA-12 Soyuz TMA-11 Soyuz TMA-10 Soyuz TMA-9 Soyuz TMA-8 Soyuz TMA-7 Soyuz TMA-6 Soyuz TMA-5 Soyuz TMA-4 Soyuz TMA-3 Soyuz TMA-2 Soyuz TMA-1 Soyuz TM-34 Soyuz TM-33 Soyuz TM-32 Soyuz TM-31 Soyuz TM-30 Soyuz TM-29 Soyuz TM-28 Soyuz TM-27 Soyuz TM-26 Soyuz TM-25 Soyuz TM-24 Soyuz TM-23 Soyuz TM-22 Soyuz TM-21 Soyuz TM-20 Soyuz TM-19 Soyuz TM-18 Soyuz TM-17 Soyuz TM-16 Soyuz TM-15 Soyuz TM-14 Soyuz TM-13 Soyuz TM-12 Soyuz TM-11 Soyuz TM-10 Soyuz TM-9 Soyuz TM-8 Soyuz TM-7 Soyuz TM-6 Soyuz TM-5 Soyuz TM-4 Soyuz TM-3 Soyuz TM-2 Soyuz T-15 Soyuz T-14 Soyuz T-13 Soyuz T-12 Soyuz T-11 Soyuz T-10 Soyuz T-10-1 Soyuz T-9 Soyuz T-8 Soyuz T-7 Soyuz T-6 Soyuz T-5 Soyuz 40 Soyuz 39 Soyuz T-4 Soyuz T-3 Soyuz 38 Soyuz 37 Soyuz T-2 Soyuz 36 Soyuz 35 Soyuz 34 Soyuz 33 Soyuz 32 Soyuz 31 Soyuz 30 Soyuz 29 Soyuz 28 Soyuz 27 Soyuz 26 Soyuz 25 Soyuz 24 Soyuz 23 Soyuz 22 Soyuz 21 Soyuz 19 Soyuz 18 Soyuz 18a Soyuz 17 Soyuz 16 Soyuz 15 Soyuz 14 Soyuz 13 Soyuz 12 Soyuz 11 Soyuz 10 Soyuz 9 Soyuz 8 Soyuz 7 Soyuz 6 Soyuz 5 Soyuz 4 Soyuz 3 Soyuz 1 Voskhod programme Vostok programme
Space Population.png

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Treating the Soviet Union and Russia as one country. Russia inherited the Soviet Union's space program following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
  2. ^ Dates in this table refer only to actual flights, and not the broader duration of their associated programs. For example, while Project Gemini was begun in 1961 and concluded in 1966, its crewed spaceflights occurred only from 1965–1966.
  3. ^ Soyuz missions include the following: two fatal missions, Soyuz 1 and Soyuz 11, both of which reached space; Soyuz 18a, a non-fatal aborted mission which reached space as a sub-orbital flight; Soyuz 19, the Soviet participant in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project; Soyuz 34, which was launched uncrewed to provide a return vehicle for the crew of Soyuz 32, who were aboard the Salyut 6 space station; Soyuz T-10a, a non-fatal accident in which the crewed launch was aborted due to a fire, failing to reach space; and Soyuz MS-10, a non-fatal aborted mission which failed to reach space.
  4. ^ Following the Apollo program, the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz flights also used Apollo hardware.
  5. ^ Includes two fatal missions, STS-51-L, and STS-107. The former did not reach space, while the latter did.

External links

  • Spacefacts Compare with the present article. The Spacefacts list includes most flights listed here, but omits twelve: The three failed launches of STS-51-L, Soyuz T-10a and Soyuz MS-10, none of which achieved human spaceflight, the uncrewed launch of Soyuz 34 (which nevertheless returned a crew to earth), and the eight sub-orbital human spaceflights: Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4, X-15 flights 90 and 91, SpaceShipOne flights 15P, 16P and 17P, and Soyuz 18a.
  • Astronautix Similarly, see the list for "Manned Spaceflight" given at Astronautix, which includes other related categories.

References

  • Vostok and Voskhod flight history
  • Mercury flight history
  • X-15 flight history (altitudes given in feet)
  • Gemini flight history
  • Apollo flight history (student resource)
  • Skylab flight history
  • Apollo-Soyuz flight history
  • Space Shuttle flight history infographic
  • Shenzhou flight history timeline
  • SpaceShipOne flight history
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