List of historical cities and towns of Mongolia

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This is a List of historical cities and towns of Mongolia. Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbataar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the population.

Special characteristics

"Mongolian cities" means those cities that were built in Mongolia as well those built in areas directly under Mongol influence. The special characteristic of Mongolian historical cities is that they came into being amidst a predominantly nomadic society. It is a misunderstanding to assume that there were no cities in Mongolia, or that all of the people were entirely nomadic all through their history. Based on current research, Mongolia's tradition of cities goes back over 2000 years.

Historical towns and settlements

Prehistoric settlements

Xiongnu period (209 BC-AD 93)

  • Lungtang
  • Lungcheng (Mongolian: Luut; Dragon City), capital of the Xiongnu Empire, Orkhon River valley
  • Lungzi
  • City built by Zhaoxin in 120 BC as ordered by the Shanyu
  • Kherlen Tsagaan Aral
  • Terelj Hasar Balgas
  • Bayanbulag Balgas
  • Tsenkher Gol Kherem
  • Shuvuutiin Gol Kherem

Rouran period (AD 330 - 555)

  • Mume, capital of the Rouran Khaganate, Orkhon River valley
  • Lungcheng

Gokturk and Uighur period (AD 555-840)

Khitan Liao period (AD 907-1125)

  • Zuun kherem
  • Baruun kherem
  • Bars khot
  • Chin Tolgoin Balgas (Zhenzhou, built in AD 994)
  • Khar Bukhyn Balgas

Mongol Empire and Yuan period (AD 1206-1368)

  • Chinkhai balgas
  • Khaidu Khan’s Ord
  • Tenduk
  • Tataryn Kherem
  • Genghis Khan’s Four Ordos
  • Karakorum, capital of the Mongol Empire
  • Suurin
  • Tosokh
  • Shar Ord
  • Khokh nuuriin Ord
  • Ongiin Ord
  • Khogshin Teeliin Balgas
  • Tsagaan Balgas
  • Arlyn Balgas

Northern Yuan period (AD 1368-1635)

Qing period (AD 1691-1911)

Architectural heritages in Mongolia


  1. ^ Ховд аймгийн нутаг дахь археологийн дурсгалууд

This article is based on the textbook "Mongol Ulsyn Tuuh" (History of Mongolia), National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 2006.

See also

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