List of heads of state of Yugoslavia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article lists the heads of state of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a monarchy ruled by the House of Karađorđević from 1918 up until World War II. The SFR Yugoslavia was headed first by Ivan Ribar, the President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (president of the parliament), and then by President Josip Broz Tito until his death in 1980, when the collective federal presidium rotated the presidency among the republic representatives. However, until 1990 the position of President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was usually the most powerful position (the position often coincided with the position of President). With the reforms in 1990, individual republics elected their own heads of state, but the country's head of state continued to rotate among appointed representatives of the republics until the country's dissolution.

Kings of Yugoslavia

King of Yugoslavia
Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (variant), 1920s to 1937.svg
Peter II Karadordevic.jpg
Details
Style His Majesty
First monarch Peter I
Last monarch Peter II
Formation 1 December 1918
Abolition 29 November 1945
Residence Royal Compound, Belgrade
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Crown Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (the Kingdom of Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) on 1 December 1918.

Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship). He officially renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929, and continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied on 17 April 1941 after the German invasion. The monarchy was formally abolished on 29 November 1945.

All monarchs were members of the House of Karađorđević. Peter I, previously King of Serbia (since 1903), was proclaimed King by representatives of South Slav states. The royal family continued through his son (Alexander I) and his grandson (Peter II).

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Rule start Rule end Marriages Succession right Notes
Peter I of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes Peter I
(1844–1921)
1 December 1918 16 August 1921 Princess Zorka of Montenegro in 1883
(5 children)
Previously King of Serbia,
proclaimed King by representatives of South Slav states
Held the title "King of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes". Prince Alexander served as regent in his final years.
Alexander I of Yugoslavia Alexander I
(1888–1934)
16 August 1921 9 October 1934 Maria of Yugoslavia on 8 June 1922
(3 children)
Son of the preceding Changed title to "King of Yugoslavia" in 1929.
Assassinated in Marseilles.
Prince Paul of Yugoslavia Paul
(1893–1976)
9 October 1934 27 March 1941 Olga of Greece and Denmark on 22 October 1923
(3 children)
Cousin of the preceding Prince Regent for Peter II
Peter II of Yugoslavia Peter II
(1923–1970)
9 October 1934 29 November 1945 Alexandra of Greece and Denmark on 20 March 1944
(1 child)
Son of the preceding Prince Paul acted as regent until ousted on 27 March 1941; exiled on 17 April 1941 and deposed on 29 November 1945.

Presidents of SFR Yugoslavia

President of Yugoslavia
Flag of the President of Yugoslavia (1963-1993).svg
Formation 29 December 1945
First holder Ivan Ribar
Final holder Stjepan Mesić
Abolished 5 December 1991
Succession Croatia Franjo Tuđman
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Dobrica Ćosić
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1998).svg Alija Izetbegović
Republic of Macedonia Kiro Gligorov
Slovenia Milan Kučan

After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, partisans formed the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 a AVNOJ conference proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, while negotiations with the royal government in exile continued. After the liberation of Belgrade on 20 October 1944, the Communist-led government on 29 November 1945 declared King Peter II deposed and proclaimed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.

From 1945 to 1953, the President of the Presidium of the National Assembly was the office of the Yugoslav head of state. The post was held by Ivan Ribar.

From 1953 to 1963, Josip Broz Tito simultaneously held the offices of the President of the Republic (head of state) and the President of the Federal Executive Council (head of government). In 1963, the new Constitution renamed the state as Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and divided the office of the President of the Republic from the Presidency of the Federal Council, even if the President of the Republic retained the power to preside over the Government when it met, on the French model.[1]

In 1974, the new Constitution provided for a collective federal presidency, consisting of representatives of the six republics, the two autonomous provinces within Serbia and (until 1988) the President of the League of Communists, with a Chairman in rotation. Notwithstanding, this constitutional provision was suspended because Tito was declared President for Life, thus chaired the collective presidency on a permanent basis. After his death in 1980, one member was annually elected President of the Presidency and acted as head of state.

  League of Communists of Yugoslavia

  Socialist Party of Serbia

  Croatian Democratic Union

  Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term start Term end Party Representing Notes
President of the Presidium of the National Assembly
1945–1953
Ivan Ribar Ivan Ribar
(1881–1968)
29 December 1945 14 January 1953 Communist Party of Yugoslavia The office of the President of the Presidium of the Yugoslav National Assembly (the Parliament) was the office of the head of state 1945–1953. The Communist Party of Yugoslavia was reorganized and renamed into the League of Communists of Yugoslavia on November 2, 1952.
President
1953–1980
1 Josip Broz Tito Josip Broz Tito
(1892–1980)
14 January 1953 4 May 1980 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Office of the President of Yugoslavia instituted in 1953. Josip Broz Tito declared president for life in 1974. Office of President of the Presidency instituted to take effect upon Broz's death.
Presidents of the Presidency
1980–1992
1 Lazar Koliševski Lazar Koliševski
(1914–2000)
4 May 1980 15 May 1980 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Macedonia Chairman of the collective head of state. Succeeded Broz after his death as the then sitting Vice President of the Presidency.
2 Cvijetin Mijatović Cvijetin Mijatović
(1913–1993)
15 May 1980 15 May 1981 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Bosnia and Herzegovina Chairman of the collective head of state.
3 Sergej Kraigher Sergej Kraigher
(1914–2001)
15 May 1981 15 May 1982 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Slovenia Chairman of the collective head of state.
4 Petar Stambolić Petar Stambolić
(1912–2007)
15 May 1982 15 May 1983 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Serbia Chairman of the collective head of state.
5 Mika Špiljak Mika Špiljak
(1916–2007)
15 May 1983 15 May 1984 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Croatia Chairman of the collective head of state.
6 Veselin Đuranović Veselin Đuranović
(1925–1997)
15 May 1984 15 May 1985 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Montenegro Chairman of the collective head of state.
7 Radovan Vlajković Radovan Vlajković
(1922–2001)
15 May 1985 15 May 1986 League of Communists of Yugoslavia SAP Vojvodina Chairman of the collective head of state.
8 Sinan Hasani Sinan Hasani
(1922–2010)
15 May 1986 15 May 1987 League of Communists of Yugoslavia SAP Kosovo Chairman of the collective head of state.
9 Lazar Mojsov Lazar Mojsov
(1920–2011)
15 May 1987 15 May 1988 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Macedonia Chairman of the collective head of state.
10 Raif Dizdarević Raif Dizdarević
(1926–)
15 May 1988 15 May 1989 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Bosnia and Herzegovina Chairman of the collective head of state.
11 Janez Drnovšek Janez Drnovšek
(1950–2008)
15 May 1989 15 May 1990 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Slovenia Chairman of the collective head of state.
12 Borisav Jović Borisav Jović
(1928–)
15 May 1990 15 May 1991 League of Communists of Yugoslavia
(until January 1990)
Serbia Chairman of the collective head of state. League of Communists of Yugoslavia dissolved into six separate parties. In Serbia the party was succeeded by the Socialist Party of Serbia.
Socialist Party of Serbia
(from January 1990)
No image.png Sejdo Bajramović
(1927–1993)
16 May 1991 30 June 1991 Socialist Party of Serbia AP Kosovo Acting president
13 Stjepan Mesić Stjepan Mesić
(1934–)
30 June 1991 5 December 1991 Croatian Democratic Union Croatia Chairman of the collective head of state. Last President of Yugoslavia.
Branko Kostić Branko Kostić
(1939–)
5 December 1991 15 June 1992 Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro Montenegro Acting president. Installed by Serbia and Montenegro.

See also

References

  1. ^ Constitution of 1963
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_heads_of_state_of_Yugoslavia&oldid=857171343"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_heads_of_state_of_Yugoslavia
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "List of heads of state of Yugoslavia"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA