List of heads of state of Panama

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President of the Republic of Panama
Presidente de la República de Panamá
Presidential Flag of Panama.svg
Presidential Standard
Coat of arms of Panama.svg
Presidential Seal
Juan Carlos Varela (2014).jpg
Incumbent
Juan Carlos Varela

since 1 July 2014
Residence Palacio de las Garzas
Term length Five years
not eligible for re-election immediately
Inaugural holder Manuel Amador Guerrero
Formation 20 February 1904
Deputy Vice President of Panama
Website Presidencia de la República
Coat of arms of Panama.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Panama

This article lists the heads of state of Panama since the short-lived first independence from the Republic of New Granada in 1840 and the final separation from Colombia in 1903.

Free State of the Isthmus (1840–1841)

State of Panamá (1855-1886)

On 27 February 1855, the Constitution of the Republic of New Granada was changed to allow the formation of sovereign states. Initially the Federal State of Panamá was headed by governors, but after 1863, when the name changed to the Sovereign State of Panamá, the head of state was known as the President. In 1886 state sovereignty was dissolved and the former states of New Granada became departments under the federal government of the Republic of Colombia.[1]

Governors of the Federal State of Panamá (1855-1862)

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Notes
Justo Arosemena Quesada
(1817–1896)[1]
Arosemena,Justo.jpg 15 July 1855 3 October 1855[1] resigned[2]
Francisco de Fábrega
(1856–1932)[1]
No image.png 3 October 1855 1 October 1856[1]
Bartolomé Calvo
(1815–1889)[1]
Bartolomé Calvo.jpg 1 October 1856 5 May 1858[1] resigned[2]
Ramón Gamboa
[2]
No image.png 5 May 1858 1 October 1858[1] Appointed to fill the term of Calvo as acting governor[2]
Rafael Núñez Moledo
(1825–1894)[1]
Rafael Núñez Moledo.jpg 1 October 1858[2] 2 November 1858[1] Appointed to fill the term of Gamboa as acting governor[2]
José de Obaldía
(1806–1889)[1]
Jose Domingo de Obaldía.jpg 2 November 1858[2] 1 October 1860[1]
Santiago de la Guardia y Arrue
(1829–1862)[1]
Santiago de la Guardia y Arrue p248.jpg 1 October 1860[2] 25 July 1862[1] Guardia moved the capital of Panama to Santiago de Veraguas on 1 July 1862, causing the Col. Buenaventura Correoso (es) to proclaim Manuel María Díaz as provisional governor.[2]
Manuel María Díaz
[1]
Manuel María Díaz p229.jpg 25 July 1862[1] 15 August 1862[2] Díaz initially assumed the office as a provisional governor during the time that the National Assembly was reorganizing the sovereign states of the Republic of New Granada into the United States of Colombia. His term was to run until elections were held under the new constitution.[2]

Presidents of the Sovereign State of Panamá (1862-1886)

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office Notes
Peregrino Santacoloma
(?–1890)[1]
No image.png 15 August 1862[2] 18 October 1864[1] recalled to Bogatá[2]
José Leonardo Calancha (es)
[1]
No image.png 18 October 1864 9 March 1865[1] removed from office due to a coup d'état[2]
Gil Colunje (es)
(1831–1899)[1]
Gil Colunje p253.jpg 9 March 1865[2] 1 October 1866[2] He survived an attempted coup staged on 24 March 1866[2]
Vicente Olarte Galindo
(?-1868)[1]
Vicente Olarte Galindo p255.jpg 1 October 1866[2] 13 March 1868[1][2] Died in office. His first successor was Manuel Amador Guerrero, who declined the post as acting president to run as an elected replacement.[2]
Justo José Díaz
[1]
No image.png 14 March 1868[1] 5 July 1868[1] The presidential election for a permanent replacement of Olarte was won by Manuel Amador Guerrero; however, General Fernando Ponce, with the backing of Buenaventura Correoso, staged a rebellion to keep the Conservative Party from assuming the office. Conservatives were driven out of the capital to Santiago de Veraguas, where Amador was captured and sent into exile.[2]
Fernando Ponce
(1806–1889)[1]
No image.png 5 July 1868[2] 29 August 1868[1] Assumed the presidency after a coup d'état removed Díaz from office and prevented Amador from taking office. After capturing and exiling Amador, he returned to the capital and resigned the presidency in favor of Correoso.[2]
Buenaventura Correoso (es)
(1831–1911)[1]
Buenaventura Correoso p257.jpg 29 August 1868[1] 1 October 1872[3] resigned[3]
Gabriel Neira
[1]
No image.png 1 October 1872[3] 5 April 1873[1] Neira was exiled and removed from office by a coup d'état led by Rafael Aizpuru (es).[3]
Dámaso Cervera (es)
(1837–1898)[1]
Dámaso Cervera p261.jpg 5 April 1873[3] 8 May 1873[1] Was appointed by the Superior Court to assume the presidency, but was deposed by a counter-coup which demanded the restoration of Neira.[3]
Gabriel Neira
[1]
No image.png 8 May 1873[3] 12 November 1873[1] Neira was removed from office a second time when he attempted to defy the new constitution limiting the presidential term to two years.[3]
Gregorio Miró
[1]
Gregorio Miró p263.jpg 12 November 1873[1] 1 October 1875[1] Miró was unanimously elected president by the National Assembly to replace Neira.[3]
Pablo Arosemena Alba
(1836–1920)[1]
Pabloarosemena.jpg 1 October 1875[1] 12 October 1875[3] Though elected by a vote of the populace, Arosemena was removed from office by a coup d'état led by General Camargo.[3]
Rafael Aizpuru (es)
(1843-1919)[4]
Rafael Aizpuro.jpg 12 October 1875[1] 1 January 1878[1] After the coup d'état, General Camargo was demoted and Aizpuru was declared provisional president.[3]
Buenaventura Correoso (es)
(1831–1911)[1]
Buenaventura Correoso p257.jpg 1 January 1878[3] 29 December 1878[1] resigned[3]
José Ricardo Casorla
[1]
No image.png 29 December 1878[3] 7 June 1879[1] Appointed by the Assembly to fill the unexpired term of Correoso, but during a rebellion led by Rafael Aizpuru, Casolra was kidnapped and removed from office by Benjamín Ruiz.[3]
Gerardo Ortega (es)
(1843–1925)[1]
Gerardo Ortega p268.jpg 7 June 1879[1] 31 December 1879 (except from 15 June 1879 to 17 June 1879)[3] Appointed during the crisis to lead a counter-attack on Aizpuru. The government successfully put down the rebellion, released president Casorla. Casorla was restored to the presidency for two days but then resigned on 17 June, citing health issues. Ortega continued the term through the end of 1879.[3]
Dámaso Cervera (es)
(1837–1898)[1]
Dámaso Cervera p261.jpg 1 January 1880[3] 27 November 1884[1] Due to an absence, and over the presidential protest, Cervera was replaced on 2 July 1883 by General Benjamín Ruiz, who held power until 6 July 1883. Cervera was restored to power on that date and served until 10 July, when Ruiz again seized power. With the support of the national army, Cervera was restored to the presidency on 13 July to serve out the remainder of his term.[3]
José María Vives León
(1837–1898)[1]
José María Vives León p273.jpg 27 November 1884[3] 7 January 1885[1]
Ramón Santodomingo Vila (es)
(?-1908[5]
Ramon Santodomingo Vila.jpg 7 January 1885[6] 16 February 1885[1] Conflict after the election led to the raising of troops and Santodomingo's replacement by a military government.[6]
Pablo Arosemena Alba
(1836–1920)[1]
Pabloarosemena.jpg 16 February 1885[6] 26 March 1885[1] Resigned because of the continued unrest in the country. Though the court appointed Vivés León as his replacement, Carlos A. Gónima seized power declaring himself the Civil and Military Head of State.[6]
Carlos A. Gónima
[1]
No image.png 26 March 1885[6] 1 April 1885[6] After a battle in Colón on 31 March 1885, a fire destroyed all but seven houses in the city. Rafael Aizpuru, taking advantage of the disarray, assumed the title of Civil and Military Head of State.[6]
Rafael Aizpuru (es)
(1843-1919)[4]
Rafael Aizpuro.jpg 1 April 1885[6] 29 April 1885[6] Aizpuru seized power during the 1885 Panamanian conflict and assumed the title of Civil and Military Head of State. American forces were called in to quell the rebellion in Panama and Aizpuru surrendered to them on 29 April.[6]
Miguel Montoya
[1]
No image.png 1 May 1885[6] 15 February 1886[6] When peace was restored, the need for a Civil and Military Head of State ended and Santodomingo Vila was restored to power.[6]
Ramón Santodomingo Vila (es)
(?-1908[5]
Ramon Santodomingo Vila.jpg 15 February 1886[6] 5 June 1886[7] When the constitutional reform of 1886 was completed by Rafael Núñez, Santodomingo stepped aside in preparation for the reunification of the sovereign states of Colombia under a national government.[1][6]
Manuel Amador Guerrero
(1833-1909)[1]
Portrait of Manuel Amador Guerrero.jpg 5 June 1886[7] 5 August 1886[1] Amador served as acting president until the sovereign states of Colombia were unified under a national government.[1]

Republic of Panama (1903–present)

President of the Municipal Council of Panama and de facto President (1903)

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office
Demetrio H. Brid
(1859–1917)
Demetrio H. Brid.jpg 3 November 1903 4 November 1903

Members of the Provisional Government Junta (1903–1904)

Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of Office
José Agustín Arango
(1841–1909)
Jose-Agustin-Arango.jpg 4 November 1903 20 February 1904
Tomás Arias
(1856–1932)
Tomás Arias p319.jpg
Federico Boyd
(1851–1924)
FBoyd4.jpg
Manuel Espinosa Batista
(1857–1919)
No image.png 9 November 1903 7 December 1903

Presidents of Panama (1904–present)

No. President
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Political Affiliation Election Notes
1 Manuel Amador Guerrero
(1833–1909)
Amador Guerrero, Manuel.jpg 20 February 1904 23 June 1907[8] Conservative Party 1904
2 José Domingo de Obaldía
(1845–1910)
Jose Domingo de Obaldía.jpg 24 June 1907[9] 27 December 1907[10] National Liberal Party
(1) Manuel Amador Guerrero
(1833–1909)
Amador Guerrero, Manuel.jpg 29 December 1907[11] 1 October 1908 Conservative Party
(2) José Domingo de Obaldía
(1845–1910)
Jose Domingo de Obaldía.jpg 1 October 1908 1 March 1910 National Liberal Party 1908 Died in office.
Carlos Antonio Mendoza
(1856–1916)
Carlos Antonio Mendoza.jpg 1 March 1910 1 October 1910 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Federico Boyd
(1851–1924)
FBoyd4.jpg 1 October 1910 5 October 1910 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Pablo Arosemena
(1836–1920)
Pabloarosemena.jpg 5 October 1910 1 October 1912 National Liberal Party Acting President.
3 Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
Belisario Porras Barahona.gif 1 October 1912 1 October 1916 National Liberal Party 1912 First tenure.
4 Ramón Maximiliano Valdés
(1867–1918)
RMvaldes7.jpg 1 October 1916 3 June 1918 National Liberal Party 1916 Died in office.
Ciro Luis Urriola
(1863–1922)
8CiroU.jpg 3 June 1918 1 October 1918 National Liberal Party Acting President.
Pedro Antonio Díaz
(1852–1919)
Pedro Antonio Díaz.jpg 1 October 1918 12 October 1918 Conservative Party Acting President.
(3) Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
Belisario Porras Barahona.gif 12 October 1918 30 January 1920 National Liberal Party 1918 Second tenure.
Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre
(1876–1922)
Ernesto Tisdel Lefevre.jpg 30 January 1920 1 October 1920 National Liberal Party Acting President.
(3) Belisario Porras Barahona
(1856–1942)
Belisario Porras Barahona.gif 1 October 1920 1 October 1924 National Liberal Party 1920 Third tenure.
5 Rodolfo Chiari
(1869–1937)
Rodolfo Chiari.jpg 1 October 1924 1 October 1928 National Liberal Party 1924
6 Florencio Harmodio Arosemena
(1872–1945)
Florencio Harmodio Arosemena.jpg 1 October 1928 3 January 1931 National Liberal Party 1928 Deposed in a coup d'état.
Harmodio Arias Madrid
(1886–1963)
No image.png 3 January 1931 16 January 1931 Independent Acting President.
7 Ricardo Joaquín Alfaro Jované
(1882–1971)
Ricardo J. Alfaro.jpg 16 January 1931 5 June 1932 National Liberal Party
8 Harmodio Arias Madrid
(1886–1963)
No image.png 5 June 1932 1 October 1936 National Revolutionary Party 1932
9 Juan Demóstenes Arosemena
(1879–1939)
No image.png 1 October 1936 16 December 1939 National Liberal Party 1936 Died in office.
Ezequiel Fernández
(1886–1946)
No image.png 16 December 1939 18 December 1939 National Revolutionary Party Acting President.
Augusto Samuel Boyd
(1879–1957)
No image.png 18 December 1939 1 October 1940 National Revolutionary Party Acting President.
10 Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
No image.png 1 October 1940 9 October 1941 National Revolutionary Party 1940 First tenure.
Deposed in a coup d'état.
11 Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango
(1899–1969)
No image.png 9 October 1941 15 June 1945 Independent
Enrique Adolfo Jiménez
(1888–1970)
No image.png 15 June 1945 7 August 1948 National Liberal Party 1945 Provisional President.
12 Domingo Díaz Arosemena
(1875–1949)
No image.png 7 August 1948 28 July 1949 National Liberal Party 1948 Resigned after a heart attack, and died less than a month later.
13 Daniel Chanis Pinzón
(1892–1961)
No image.png 28 July 1949 20 November 1949 National Liberal Party
14 Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón
(1905–1981)
Roberto F. Chiari.jpg 20 November 1949 24 November 1949 National Liberal Party First tenure.
(10) Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
No image.png 24 November 1949 9 May 1951 Panameñista Party Second tenure.
15 Alcibíades Arosemena
(1883–1958)
No image.png 9 May 1951 1 October 1952 Authentic Revolutionary Party
16 José Antonio Remón Cantera
(1908–1955)
Estatua de José Antonio Remón Cantera - Sede de la Policía Nacional de Panamá (2012).jpg 1 October 1952 2 January 1955 National Patriotic Coalition 1952 Assassinated.
17 José Ramón Guizado
(1899–1964)
No image.png 2 January 1955 29 March 1955 National Patriotic Coalition
18 Ricardo Arias
(1912–1993)
No image.png 29 March 1955 1 October 1956 National Patriotic Coalition
19 Ernesto de la Guardia
(1904–1983)
No image.png 1 October 1956 1 October 1960 National Patriotic Coalition 1956
(14) Roberto Francisco Chiari Remón
(1905–1981)
Roberto F. Chiari.jpg 1 October 1960 1 October 1964 National Liberal Party 1960 Second tenure.
20 Marco Aurelio Robles
(1908–1990)
No image.png 1 October 1964 1 October 1968 National Liberal Party 1964
(10) Arnulfo Arias
(1901–1988)
No image.png 1 October 1968 11 October 1968 Panameñista Party 1968 Third tenure.
Deposed in a coup d'état.
José María Pinilla Fábrega
(1919–1979)
No image.png 12 October 1968 18 December 1969 National Guard Chairman of the Provisional Junta.
21 Colonel
Bolívar Urrutia Parrilla
(1918–2005)
No image.png President.
22 Demetrio B. Lakas
(1925–1999)
No image.png 19 December 1969 11 October 1978 Independent 1972 Chairman of the Provisional Junta to 11 October 1972.
23 Aristides Royo
(1940–)
Aristides Royo (6713987733) (cropped).jpg 11 October 1978 31 July 1982 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1978
24 Ricardo de la Espriella
(1934–)
De-la-espriella-crop.jpg 31 July 1982 13 February 1984 Democratic Revolutionary Party
25 Jorge Illueca
(1918–2012)
No image.png 13 February 1984 11 October 1984 Independent
26 Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino
(1938–)
Nicolás Ardito Barletta Vallarino.jpg 11 October 1984 28 September 1985 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1984
Eric Arturo Delvalle
(1937–2015)
No image.png 28 September 1985 26 February 1988 Republican Party Acting President.
Manuel Solís Palma
(1917–2009)
No image.png 26 February 1988 1 September 1989 Democratic Revolutionary Party Acting President.
Francisco Rodríguez
(1938–)
No image.png 1 September 1989 20 December 1989 Democratic Revolutionary Party Provisional President.
Deposed in the US invasion.
27 Guillermo Endara
(1936–2009)
Guillermo Endara 1993.jpg 20 December 1989 1 September 1994 Panameñista Party 1989
28 Ernesto Pérez Balladares
(1946–)
No image.png 1 September 1994 1 September 1999 Democratic Revolutionary Party 1994
29 Mireya Moscoso
(1946–)
Mireya Moscoso.jpg 1 September 1999 1 September 2004 Panameñista Party 1999 Widow of Arnulfo Arias.
30 Martín Torrijos
(1963–)
Panama.MartinTorrijos.01.jpg 1 September 2004 1 July 2009 Democratic Revolutionary Party 2004 Son of Omar Torrijos.
31 Ricardo Martinelli
(1951–)
Ricardo Martinelli Presidente de Panamá.jpg 1 July 2009 1 July 2014 Democratic Change 2009
32 Juan Carlos Varela
(1963–)
Juan Carlos Varela (2014).jpg 1 July 2014 Incumbent (Term ends on 1 July 2019) Panameñista Party 2014

Military (de facto) leaders of Panama (1968–1989)

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of Office Military Affiliation Notes
1 Brigadier-General
Omar Torrijos
(1929–1981)
Omar Torrijos 1977.jpg 11 October 1968 31 July 1981 National Guard Styled as Maximum Leader of the Panamanian Revolution from 1972.
Killed in an air crash.
2 Colonel
Florencio Flores Aguilar
No image.png 31 July 1981 3 March 1982 National Guard
3 Colonel
Rubén Darío Paredes
(1933–)
No image.png 3 March 1982 12 August 1983 National Guard
4 General
Manuel Noriega
(1934–2017)
Manuel Noriega mugshot cropped.jpg 12 August 1983 20 December 1989 National Guard
(until 29 September 1983.)
Styled as Maximum Leader of the National Liberation from 15 December 1983.
Deposed in the US invasion.
Panamanian Defense Forces

Latest election

Candidate Party Votes %
Juan Carlos Varela Panameñista Party 724,762 39.09
José Domingo Arias Democratic Change 581,828 31.38
Juan Carlos Navarro Democratic Revolutionary Party 521,842 28.14
Genaro López Broad Front for Democracy 11,127 0.60
Juan Jované Independent 10,805 0.58
Esteban Rodríguez Independent 2,240 0.12
Gerardo Barroso Independent 1,598 0.09
Valid votes 1,854,202 98.30
Invalid votes 17,162 0.91
Blank votes 14,944 0.79
Total votes 1,886,308 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 2,457,401 76.76
Source: Election Tribunal (100% of polling stations counted)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj "Rulers: Colombia States 1855-86". Rulers.org. B. Schemmel. 1995. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Sosa, Juan Bautista; Arce, Enrique (1911). "V. Creación del Estado federal de Panamá". Compendio de historia de Panamá (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Diario de Panamá. Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2017 – via Banco de la República, Bogatá, Colombia. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Sosa, Juan Bautista; Arce, Enrique (1911). "VI. Ascenso, deposición y restablecimiento". Compendio de historia de Panamá (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Diario de Panamá. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2017 – via Banco de la República, Bogatá, Colombia. 
  4. ^ a b Zentner, Federico (1984). Nombres y apellidos de forjadores de la patria (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Ministerio de Educación, República de Panamá. p. 21. OCLC 13092733. 
  5. ^ a b Borda, Orlando Fals (2002). "6. El Caudillo". El presidente Nieto (PDF) (in Spanis) (2nd ed.). Bogotá, Colombia: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. p. 141B. ISBN 958-3-600-881. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Sosa, Juan Bautista; Arce, Enrique (1911). "VII. La revolución liberal". Compendio de historia de Panamá (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama: Diario de Panamá. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2017 – via Banco de la República, Bogatá, Colombia. 
  7. ^ a b Reyes, Gerardo (2012). Don Julio Mario. Bogatá, Colombia: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial Colombia. p. 44. ISBN 978-958-8789-14-9. 
  8. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160402144428/http://www.somospanama.com/personajes/presidentes/amador.php
  9. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160402144428/http://www.somospanama.com/personajes/presidentes/amador.php
  10. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160402144428/http://www.somospanama.com/personajes/presidentes/amador.php
  11. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160402144428/http://www.somospanama.com/personajes/presidentes/amador.php

External links

  • World Statesmen – Panama
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