List of grammatical cases

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This is a list of grammatical cases as they are used by various inflectional languages that have declension.

Place and time

Note: Most cases used for location and motion can be used for time as well.

Location

Case Usage Example Found in
Adessive case adjacent location near/at/by the house Estonian | Finnish[1] | Hungarian | Lezgian | Lithuanian | Livonian | Tlingit | Tsez | Quechua
Antessive case anterior location before the house Dravidian languages [2]
Apudessive case[3] location next to something next to the house Tsez
Inessive case inside something inside the house Basque | Erzya | Estonian | Lithuanian | Finnish[4] | Hungarian | Ossetic | Tsez
Intrative case between something between the houses Limbu | Quechua
Locative case location at/on/in the house Armenian (Eastern) | Azeri | Bengali | Belarusian | Bosnian | Chuvash | Croatian | Czech | Hungarian (only for some traditional town names) | Inari Sami | Inuktitut | Japanese[5] | Latin (restricted) | Latvian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Northern Sami | Polish | Quechua | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Sorbian | Telugu | Tlingit | Turkish | Ukrainian | Uzbek
(Note: the case in Slavic languages termed the "locative case" in English is actually a prepositional case.)
Pertingent case in contact with something touching the house Tlingit, Archi language
Postessive case posterior location behind the house Lezgian | Agul
Subessive case under something under/below the house Tsez
Superessive case on the surface on (top of) the house Hungarian | Ossetic | Tsez | Finnish[6]

Motion from

Case Usage Example Found in
Ablative case movement away from something away from the house Albanian | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Azeri | Chuvash | Erzya | Estonian | Evenki | Finnish[1] | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Japanese[5] | Latin | Manchu | Ossetic | Quechua | Sanskrit | Tibetan | Tlingit | Tsez | Turkish | Uzbek | Yukaghir
Delative case movement from the surface from (the top of) the house Hungarian | Finnish[6]
Egressive case marking the beginning of a movement or time beginning from the house Udmurt
Elative case out of something out of the house Erzya | Estonian | Evenki | Finnish[4] | Hungarian
Initiative case starting point of an action beginning from the house Manchu

Motion to

Case Usage Example Found in
Allative case in Hungarian and in Finnish:
movement to (the adjacency of) something
in Estonian and in Finnish:
movement onto something
to the house

onto the house
Erzya | Estonian | Finnish[1] | Hungarian | Inuktitut | Japanese[5] | Lithuanian | Manchu | Quechua | Tlingit | Tsez | Turkish | Tuvan | Uzbek
Illative case movement into something into the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish[4] | Hungarian | Inari Sami | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Tsez | German | Esperanto
Lative case movement to something to/into the house Erzya | Finnish[6] | Tsez | Turkish | German | Esperanto
Sublative case movement onto the surface or below something on(to) the house / under the house Hungarian | Tsez | Finnish[6]
Terminative case marking the end of a movement or time as far as the house Chuvash | Estonian | Hungarian | Japanese[5] | Manchu

Motion via

Case Usage Example Found in
Perlative case movement through or along through/along the house Evenki | Tocharian A & B | Warlpiri | Yankunytjatjara
Prolative case (= prosecutive case, vialis case) movement using a surface or way by way of/through the house Erzya | Estonian (rare) | Finnish (rare)[6] | Tlingit | Greenlandic | Inuktitut

Time

Case Usage Example Found in
Accusative case indicating duration of time
known as the accusative of duration of time
E.g.: multos annos, "for many years";
ducentos annos, "for 200 years."
Latin | German | Esperanto; Serbian
Essive case used for specifying days and dates when something happens E.g.: maanantaina, "on Monday";
kuudentena joulukuuta, "on the 6th of December".
Finnish | Esperanto
Limitative case specifying a deadline E.g.: 午後5時半までに (Gogo go-ji han made-ni) "by 5:30 PM" Japanese[5]
Temporal case specifying a time E.g.: hétkor "at seven" or hét órakor "at seven o'clock"; éjfélkor "at midnight"; karácsonykor "at Christmas". Hungarian | Finnish (rare)[6] |

Chart for review for the basic cases

  interior surface adjacency state
from Elative Delative Ablative Exessive
at/in Inessive Superessive Adessive Essive
(in)to Illative Sublative Allative Translative
via Perlative Prolative

Morphosyntactic alignment

For meanings of the terms agent, patient, experiencer, and instrument, see thematic relation.

Case Usage Example Found in
Absolutive case (1) patient, experiencer; subject of an intransitive verb and direct object of a transitive verb he pushed the door and it opened Basque | Tibetan
Absolutive case (2) patient, involuntary experiencer he pushed the door and it opened; he slipped active languages
Absolutive case (3) patient; experiencer; instrument he pushed the door with his hand and it opened Inuktitut
Accusative case (1) patient he pushed the door and it opened Akkadian | Albanian | Arabic | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Azeri | Bosnian | Croatian | Czech | Erzya | Esperanto | Faroese | Finnish | German | Greek | Hungarian | Icelandic | Inari Sami | Japanese[5] | Latin | Latvian | Lithuanian | Northern Sami | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Ukrainian | Georgian
Accusative case (2) direct object of a transitive verb; made from; about; for a time I see her Inuktitut | Persian | Turkish | Serbo-Croatian
Agentive case agent, specifies or asks about who or what; specific agent that is subset of a general topic or subject it was she who committed the crime; as for him, his head hurts Japanese[5]
Ergative case agent; subject of a transitive verb he pushed the door and it opened Basque | Chechen | Dyirbal | Georgian | Samoan | Tibetan | Tlingit | Tsez
Ergative-genitive case agent, possession he pushed the door and it opened; her dog Classic Maya | Inuktitut
Instructive means, answers question how? by means of the house Estonian (rare) | Finnish[7]
Instrumental instrument, answers question using which thing? with the house Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Belarusian | Bosnian | Croatian | Czech | Evenki | Georgian | Japanese[5] | Latvian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Polish | Russian | Sanskrit | Serbian | Slovak | Slovene | Tsez | Ukrainian | Yukaghir
Instrumental-comitative case instrument, in company of something with the house Chuvash | Hungarian | Tlingit
Nominative case (1) agent, experiencer; subject of a transitive or intransitive verb he pushed the door and it opened nominative–accusative languages and nominative–absolutive languages
Nominative case (2) agent; voluntary experiencer he pushed the door and it opened; she paused active languages
Objective case (1) direct or indirect object of verb I saw her; I gave her the book. Bengali | Chuvash
Objective/Oblique (2) direct or indirect object of verb or object of preposition; a catch-all case for any situation except nominative or genitive I saw her; I gave her the book; with her. English | Swedish | Danish | Norwegian | Bulgarian
Oblique case all-round case; any situation except nominative or vocative concerning the house Anglo-Norman | Hindi | Old French | Old Provençal | Telugu | Tibetan
Intransitive case (also called passive or patient case) the subject of an intransitive verb or the logical complement of a transitive verb The door opened languages of the Caucasus | Ainu
Pegative case agent in a clause with a dative argument he gave the book to him Azoyú Tlapanec

Relation

Case Usage Example Found in
Ablative case all-round indirect case concerning the house Albanian | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Sanskrit | Inuktitut | Latin | Lithuanian | Finnish[1]
Aversive case avoiding or fear avoiding the house Warlpiri | Yidiny
Benefactive case for, for the benefit of, intended for for the house Basque | Quechua | Telugu
Causal case because, because of because of the house Quechua | Telugu
Causal-final case efficient or final cause for a house Chuvash | Hungarian
Comitative case in company of something with the house Dumi | Ingush | Estonian | Finnish (rare);[7] Inari Sami | Japanese[5] | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Ossetic (only in Iron) | Tibetan
Dative case shows direction or recipient for/to the house Albanian | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Azeri | Belarusian | Bosnian | Croatian | Czech | Erzya | Faroese | Georgian | German | Greek | Hindi | Hungarian | Icelandic | Inuktitut | Japanese[5] | Latin | Latvian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Ossetic | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Scottish Gaelic | Serbian | Slovak | Slovene | Tsez | Turkish | Ukrainian

^† The case classically referred to as dative in Scottish Gaelic has shifted to, and is sometimes called, a prepositional case.

Distributive case distribution by piece per house Chuvash | Hungarian | Manchu | Finnish[6]
Distributive-temporal case how often something happens daily; on Sundays Hungarian; Finnish[6]
Genitive case shows generic relationship, generally ownership, but also composition, reference, description, etc of the house; the house's Akkadian | Albanian | Arabic | Armenian (Eastern) | Armenian (Western) | Azeri | Bengali | Belarusian | Bosnian | Chuvash | Croatian | Czech | Danish | Dutch | English | Erzya | Estonian |

Faroese |Finnish | Georgian | German | Greek | Hungarian | Icelandic | Inari Sami | Irish | Japanese[5] | Latin | Latvian | Lithuanian | Manchu | Northern Sami | Norwegian | Persian[8] | Polish | Romanian | Russian | Sanskrit | Scottish Gaelic | Serbian | Skolt Sami | Slovak | Slovene | Swedish | Tibetan | Tsez | Turkish | Ukrainian

Ornative case endowment with something equipped with a house Dumi; Hungarian
Possessed case possession by something the house is owned by someone Tlingit
Possessive case direct ownership of something owned by the house English
Privative case lacking something without a house Chuvash | Wagiman
Semblative case Similarity to something that tree is like a house Wagiman
Sociative case along with something, together with something with the house Hungarian | Ossetic

Semantics

Case Usage Example Found in
Partitive case used for amounts three (of the) houses Estonian | Finnish[9] | Inari Sami | Russian | Skolt Sami
Prepositional case when certain prepositions precede the noun in/on/about the house Belarusian | Czech | Polish | Russian | Scottish Gaelic | Slovak | Ukrainian

^† This case is called lokál in Czech and Slovak, miejscownik in Polish, місцевий (miscevý) in Ukrainian and месны (miesny) in Belarusian; these names imply that this case also covers Locative case.
^‡ The prepositional case in Scottish Gaelic is classically referred to as a dative case.

Vocative case used for addressing someone, with or without a preposition Hey, father!
O father!
Father!
Albanian (rare) | Belarusian (rare) | Bulgarian | Bosnian | Croatian | Czech | Georgian | Greek | Hindi | Irish | Itelmen | Ket | Latin | Latvian | Lithuanian | Macedonian | Nivkh | Polish | Romanian | Russian (rare) | Sanskrit | Scottish Gaelic | Serbian | Telugu | Ukrainian | Nahuatl

State

Case Usage Example Found in
Abessive case the lack of something without the house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish[7] | Inari Sami | Skolt Sami | Quechua
Adverbial case being as something as a house Georgian | Udmurt | Finnic languages | Abkhaz
Comparative case similarity with something similar to the house Dumi | Mari | Nivkh
Equative case comparison with something like the house Ossetic | Sumerian | Tlingit | Tsez
Essive case temporary state of being as the house Estonian | Finnish[9] | Inari Sami | Inuktitut | Middle Egyptian | Northern Sami | Skolt Sami | Tsez
Essive-formal case marking a condition as a quality (a kind of shape) as a house Hungarian | Manchu
Essive-modal case marking a condition as a quality (a way of being) as a house Hungarian
Exessive case marking a transition from a condition from being a house (i.e., "it stops being a house") Estonian (rare) | Finnish (dialectal)
Formal case marking a condition as a quality as a house Hungarian
Identical case showing that something is identical being the house Manchu
Orientative case oriented towards something turned towards the house Chukchi | Manchu
Revertive case backwards to something against the house Manchu
Translative case change of a condition into another (turning) into a house Erzya | Estonian | Finnish[9] | Hungarian | Khanty | Manchu

References

  1. ^ a b c d Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - Exterior local cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  2. ^ S. Agesthialingom, Prakya Sreesaila Subrahmanyam, Dravidian Linguistics- V: (proceedings of the Seminar on Dravidian Linguistics- V), Page 275, 1976 - 582 pages, Google book search link quote: "(6) 'before' (antessive), (7) 'behind, ..."
  3. ^ Robert, Stéphane Robert (1999). Language Diversity and Cognitive Representations. p. 229. 
  4. ^ a b c Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - Interior Local Cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Takahashi, Tarou; et al. (2010). A Japanese Grammar (in Japanese) (4 ed.). Japan: Hitsuji Shobou. p. 27. ISBN 978-4-89476-244-2. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish grammar - adverbial cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - Means Cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  8. ^ Behrang QasemiZadeh, Saeed Rahimi, Persian in MULTEXT-East Framework, 5th International Conference on NLP, FinTAL 2006 Turku, Finland, August 23-25, 2006 Proceedings
  9. ^ a b c Mäkinen, Panu. "Finnish Grammar - General Local Cases". users.jyu.fi. University of Jyväskylä. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
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