List of film directors of the Dutch East Indies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A man with short hair and a white shirt is controlling a large camera. He is facing left.
The Wong brothers (one pictured) were the first ethnic Chinese directors in the Indies.
A faded image of a man with short, curly hair in a suit and tie.
Bachtiar Effendi, the earliest recorded native Indonesian director.
A man with short hair and a bowtie looks ahead.
Andjar Asmara, a journalist, became a director in 1940.
A halftoned image of a man with short hair and glasses looking ahead.
Usmar Ismail, who made his debut in 1949, would later be called the father of Indonesian film.[1]

Twenty-nine people are recorded as having directed fictional films in the Dutch East Indies between 1926, when L. Heuveldorp released Loetoeng Kasaroeng, the colony's first domestically produced film,[2] and 1949, when the Dutch formally recognised Indonesia's sovereignty after a four-year revolution, leaving the Dutch East Indies defunct.[a][3] Thirteen directors active in the Indies continued to direct films after 1950, including Usmar Ismail: his 1950 film Darah dan Doa (The Long March) is generally considered the first truly Indonesian film.[4]

The colony's first directors, Heuveldorp and G. Kruger, were of European or mixed descent.[5] They were followed by ethnic Chinese soon after, when Nelson Wong made his debut in 1928 with Lily van Java;[6] other Chinese directors included Lie Tek Swie (1929), Wong's brothers Joshua and Othniel (1930), and The Teng Chun (1931). Ethnic Chinese directors dominated the colony's cinema for the remainder of its existence.[7] The first native director, Bachtiar Effendi, made his debut in 1932 with the talkie Njai Dasima;[8] another native director would not appear until Andjar Asmara and Rd Ariffien made their debuts in 1940.[9][10]

The directors active in the Indies came from various backgrounds. Some, like The Teng Chun, Fred Young, and the Wongs, had been interested in film since their youth.[11] Others, such as Njoo Cheong Seng and Andjar, had a background in theatre.[12] Still others, including Albert Balink and Ismail, were journalists by trade.[13][14] They were all men; the first woman to direct a film in the Indonesian archipelago, Ratna Asmara, made her debut after the Indies were dissolved.[15] Between them, the 29 men directed some 103 films, at times working collaboratively; it was not unusual for them to take more than one role in production.[7] However, they generally had less creative control than the producer.[16]

The following list is sorted alphabetically by default, with further sorting capability in certain fields; owing to differing naming conventions between cultures, not all entries are sorted by last name. The list only counts fictional films directed by the subjects and does not include films from other genres or films in which the person held other roles. The names of persons credited with an abbreviated name are written in full, where available.


Film directors

Key
Continued activity Indicates continued directorial activity after 1949
Film directors of the Dutch East Indies
Name Fictional film debut Debut year Films directed before 1949 Total films directed Ref(s).
Andjar Asmara Kartinah 1940 5 5 [17]
Ariffien, RadenRaden Ariffien Continued activity Harta Berdarah 1940 4 32 [b][10]
Balink, AlbertAlbert Balink Pareh 1935 2 2 [18]
Boen Kim Nam Mega Mendoeng 1941 1 1 [19]
Carli, Ph.Ph. Carli De Stem des Bloeds 1930 3 3 [20][21]
Duarte, Henry L.Henry L. Duarte Continued activity Selendang Delima 1941 1 12 [c][22]
Effendi, BachtiarBachtiar Effendi Continued activity Njai Dasima 1932 1 4 [23]
Franken, MannusMannus Franken Pareh 1935 2 2 [d][24]
Heuveldorp, L.L. Heuveldorp Loetoeng Kasaroeng 1926 1 1 [25]
Hu, R.R. Hu Continued activity Harta Berdarah 1940 2 4 [26]
Ismail, UsmarUsmar Ismail Continued activity Harta Karun 1949 2 28 [e][27]
Jo An Djan Continued activity Kedok Ketawa 1940 5 6 [28][29]
Jo Eng Sek Pah Wongso Pendekar Boediman 1940 3 3 [30]
Koesoema, B.B. Koesoema Djatoeh Berkait 1944 1 1 [f][31]
Kruger, G.G. Kruger Eulis Atjih 1927 3 3 [32]
Lie Tek Swie Njai Dasima 1929 6 6 [33]
Njoo Cheong Seng Continued activity Kris Mataram 1940 5 8 [34]
Perbatasari, InoeInoe Perbatasari Continued activity Elang Darat 1941 3 5 [35]
Roestam Sutan Palindih Di Menara 1943 3 3 [g][36][37]
Said Hamid Junid, MohammadMohammad Said Hamid Junid Continued activity Boenga Sembodja 1942 3 19 [h][38]
Schilling, M. H.M. H. Schilling Sinjo Tjo Main di Film 1931 2 2 [39]
Sutan Usman Karim Panggilan Darah 1941 2 2 [i][40]
Tan Tjoei Hock Dasima 1940 9 9 [j][41]
The Teng Chun Continued activity Boenga Roos dari Tjikembang 1931 16 17 [42]
Wong, JoshuaJoshua Wong Continued activity Lari ke Arab 1930 10 12 [k][43][44]
Wong, NelsonNelson Wong Lily van Java 1928 6 6 [k][43][45]
Wong, OthnielOthniel Wong Continued activity Lari ke Arab 1930 10 13 [k][43][46]
Wu Tsun Lintah Darat 1941 4 4 [47]
Young, FredFred Young Continued activity Sehidup Semati 1949 2 23 [l][48]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The Dutch had occupied the Indies for more than 300 years. Following a three-year Japanese occupation during World War II, Indonesia proclaimed its independence in 1945, an action which was not well-received by the Dutch (Kahin 1952, pp. 29, 101, 136) .
  2. ^ Often credited as Rd. Ariffien
  3. ^ Also credited as Hendro Sudarto
  4. ^ Franken was better known for his short documentaries and spent most of his career in his homeland, the Netherlands.
  5. ^ Also credited as PL Kapoor
  6. ^ A pseudonym of Bunjin Kurata, a member of the Japanese occupation forces.
  7. ^ Often credited as Roestam St. Palindih; his oeuvre may include a short entitled Djatoeh Berkait, which is formally credited to B. Koesoema (Filmindonesia.or.id, Djatoeh Berkait).
  8. ^ Often credited as Moh. Said HJ
  9. ^ Credited as Suska
  10. ^ Also credited as TH Tan and Tanu Trh
  11. ^ a b c Figures for Nelson Wong include three films directed with his brothers, Joshua and Othniel, for which they are credited as the Wong brothers. Figures for Joshua and Othniel also include a further three collaborations made after Nelson's death, two directed before 1949 and one directed afterwards.
  12. ^ Also credited as Utomo

Footnotes

  1. ^ Kurniasari 2012, Reviving.
  2. ^ Biran 2009, pp. 61, 68.
  3. ^ Kahin 1952, p. 445.
  4. ^ Biran 2009, p. 45.
  5. ^ Biran 2009, p. 55.
  6. ^ JCG, Lily van Java.
  7. ^ a b Biran 2009, pp. 379-386.
  8. ^ Said 1982, p. 138.
  9. ^ Biran 2009, pp. 213.
  10. ^ a b Filmindonesia.or.id, Rd Ariffien.
  11. ^ Biran 2009, p. 188.
  12. ^ Said 1982, p. 29.
  13. ^ Biran 2009, p. 155.
  14. ^ I.N. 1981, p. 549.
  15. ^ Swestin 2009, p. 104.
  16. ^ Said 1982, p. 30.
  17. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Abisin Abbas.
  18. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Boen Kim Nam.
  19. ^ Biran 2009, pp. 124, 380–381.
  20. ^ De Indische Courant 1931, Indische filmkunst.
  21. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Henry L Duarte.
  22. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Bachtiar Effendy.
  23. ^ EYE Institute, Mannus Franken.
  24. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, L. Heuveldorp.
  25. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, R Hu.
  26. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Usmar Ismail.
  27. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Jo An Djan.
  28. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Jo An Tjiang.
  29. ^ Biran 2009, p. 234.
  30. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Djatoeh Berkait.
  31. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, G. Krugers.
  32. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Lie Tek Swie.
  33. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Njoo Cheong Seng.
  34. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Inoe Perbatasari.
  35. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Roestam St Palindih.
  36. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Rustam St Palindih.
  37. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Mohammad Said.
  38. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, MH Schilling.
  39. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Suska.
  40. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Tan Tjoei Hock.
  41. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, The Teng Chun.
  42. ^ a b c Filmindonesia.or.id, Wong Bersaudara.
  43. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Joshua Wong.
  44. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Nelson Wong.
  45. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Othniel Wong.
  46. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Wu Tsun.
  47. ^ Filmindonesia.or.id, Fred Young.

Works cited

  • "Abisin Abbas | Filmografi" [Abisin Abbas | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Albert Balink | Filmografi" [Albert Balink | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Bachtiar Effendy | Filmografi" [Bachtiar Effendy | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • Biran, Misbach Yusa (2009). Sejarah Film 1900–1950: Bikin Film di Jawa [History of Film 1900–1950: Making Films in Java] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Komunitas Bamboo working with the Jakarta Art Council. ISBN 978-979-3731-58-2. 
  • "Boen Kim Nam | Filmografi" [Boen Kim Nam | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Djatoeh Berkait". filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  • "Fred Young | Filmografi" [Fred Young | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Inoe Perbatasari | Filmografi" [Inoe Perbatasari | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "G. Krugers | Filmografi" [G. Krugers | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Henry L Duarte | Filmografi" [Henry L Duarte | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • I.N., Soebagijo (1981). Jagat Wartawan Indonesia [Universe of Indonesian Journalists] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Gunung Agung. OCLC 7654542. 
  • "Indische filmkunst" [Indies Cinema]. De Indische Courant (in Dutch). Surabaya. 11 June 1931. p. 5. 
  • "Jo An Djan | Filmografi" [Jo An Djan | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Jo An Tjiang | Filmografi" [Jo An Tjiang | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Joshua Wong | Filmografi" [Joshua Wong | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • Kahin, George McTurnan (1952). Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9108-5. 
  • Kurniasari, Triwik (24 June 2012). "Reviving Usmar Ismail's legacy". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "L. Heuveldorp | Filmografi" [L. Heuveldorp | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Lie Tek Swie | Filmografi" [Lie Tek Swie | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012. 
  • "Lily van Java". Encyclopedia of Jakarta (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Jakarta City Government. Archived from the original on 21 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  • "Mannus Franken". filmmuseum.nl. Amsterdam: EYE Film Institute Netherlands. 20 October 2011. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  • "MH Schilling | Filmografi" [MH Schilling | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Mohammad Said Hamid Junid | Filmografi" [Mohammad Said Hamid Junid | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Nelson Wong | Filmografi" [Nelson Wong | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Njoo Cheong Seng | Filmografi" [Njoo Cheong Seng | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: National Library of Indonesia with Sinematek. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 3 September 2012. 
  • "Othniel Wong | Filmografi" [Othniel Wong | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "R Hu | Filmografi" [R Hu | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Rd Ariffien | Filmografi" [Rd Ariffien | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Roestam St Palindih | Filmografi" [Roestam St Palindih | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Rustam St Palindih | Filmografi" [Rustam St Palindih | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  • Said, Salim (1982). Profil Dunia Film Indonesia [Profile of Indonesian Cinema] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Grafiti Pers. OCLC 9507803. 
  • "Suska | Filmografi" [Suska | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • Swestin, Grace (July 2009). "In the Boys' Club: A Historical Perspective on the Roles of Women in the Indonesian Cinema 1926 – May 1998". Scriptura. Surabaya: Petra Christian University. 3 (2): 103–111. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. 
  • "Tan Tjoei Hock | Filmografi" [Tan Tjoei Hock | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "The Teng Chun | Filmografi" [The Teng Chun | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Usmar Ismail | Filmografi" [Usmar Ismail | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Wong Bersaudara | Filmografi" [Wong Brothers | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
  • "Wu Tsun | Filmografi" [Wu Tsun | Filmography]. filmindonesia.or.id (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Konfiden Foundation. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012. 
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_film_directors_of_the_Dutch_East_Indies&oldid=810271865"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_film_directors_of_the_Dutch_East_Indies
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "List of film directors of the Dutch East Indies"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA