List of New Zealand animals extinct in the Holocene

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The extinct moa (Megalapteryx didinus)

This is an incomplete list of extinct animals of New Zealand. This list covers only extinctions from the Holocene epoch.

Mammals

Bats, and a recently discovered extinct mouse-sized creature,[1] are the only land mammals known to have inhabited New Zealand before humans arrived. Fossil marine mammals have been found. New Zealand now has two surviving species of endemic bat.

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta[2] 1965 New Zealand --

Birds

Extinctions since 19th-century European settlement

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Auckland Islands shore plover Thinornis rossi 1840 New Zealand (Auckland Islands) Auckland Islands Shore plover
Bush wren Xenicus longipes 1972 New Zealand Bush wren
Chatham bellbird Anthornis melanocephala 1906 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham bellbird
Chatham fernbird Bowdleria rufescens 1895 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham fernbird
Chatham Islands penguin Eudyptes chathamensis 1872? New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --
Chatham Islands rail Cabalus modestus 1900 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham Islands rail
Crested moa Pachyornis australis 1850s New Zealand (South Island) --
Dieffenbach's rail Gallirallus dieffenbachii 1872 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Dieffenbach's rail
Finsch's duck Chenonetta finschi 1870 New Zealand --
Hawkins's rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi late 19th century New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --
Huia Heteralocha acutirostris 28 December 1907 New Zealand Huia
Laughing owl Sceloglaux albifacies 5 July 1914 New Zealand Laughing owl
Lyall's wren Xenicus lyalli 1894 New Zealand Lyall's wren
Mysterious starling Aplonis mavornata 1774 New Zealand (Cook Islands) --
New Zealand little bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae 1890s New Zealand New Zealand little bittern
New Zealand merganser Mergus australis 9 January 1902 New Zealand (Auckland Islands) Auckland Islands merganser
New Zealand quail Coturnix novaezelandidae 1875 New Zealand New Zealand quail
North Island piopio Turnagra tanagra 1900 New Zealand (North Island) North Island piopio (front)
North Island snipe Coenocorypha barrierensis 1870 New Zealand (North Island) North Island snipe
North Island takahē Porphyrio mantelli 1894? New Zealand (North Island) --
South Island piopio Turnagra capensis 1963 New Zealand (South Island) South Island piopio (rear)
South Island snipe Coenocorypha iredalei 1960s New Zealand (South Island) --

Extinctions since 14th century Māori settlement

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Adzebill Aptornis defossor and Aptornis otidiformis 16th century New Zealand Adzebill
Bush moa Anomalopteryx didiformis 15th century New Zealand Bush moa
Chatham Islands duck Pachyanas chathamica 17th century New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --
Coastal moa Euryapteryx curtus 16th century New Zealand Coastal moa
Eastern moa Emeus crassus 16th century New Zealand (South Island) Eastern moa
Eyles's harrier Circus eylesi 1777 New Zealand --
Giant moa Dinornis sp. 16th century New Zealand Giant moa
Haast's eagle Hieraaetus moorei 16th century New Zealand (South Island) Haast's eagle (Upper Left)
Heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopus 16th century New Zealand (South Island) Heavy-footed moa
Hodgen's waterhen Gallinula hodgenorum 16th century New Zealand --
Long-billed wren Dendroscansor decurvirostris 14th century New Zealand (South Island) --
New Zealand geese Cnemiornis calcitrans and Cnemiornis gracilis 16th century New Zealand Cnemiornis calcitrans
New Zealand raven Corvus antipodum 16th century New Zealand --
New Zealand musk duck Biziura delautouri 16th century New Zealand --
New Zealand swan Cygnus atratus sumnerensis 16th century New Zealand (South Island and Chatham Islands) --
Scarlett's duck Malacorhynchus scarletti 16th century New Zealand --
Upland moa Megalapteryx didinus 16th century New Zealand (South Island) Upland moa
Waitaha penguin Megadyptes waitaha 14th century[3] New Zealand --

Extinctions before 14th century

New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novazelandiae 13th century New Zealand --
Scarlett's shearwater Puffinus spelaeus 13th century New Zealand (South Island) --
Snipe-rail Capellirallus karamu 13th century New Zealand (North Island) --
Stout-legged wren Pachyplichas yaldwyni 11th century New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Chatham Raven Corvus moriorum 8000 BC New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --

Reptiles

Amphibians

Fish

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
New Zealand grayling Prototroctes oxyrhynchus[6] 1930s New Zealand New Zealand grayling

Insects

Molluscs

Placostylus ambagiosus priscus

See also

References

  1. ^ Nowak, Rachel (11 December 2006). "Fossils reveal New Zealand's indigenous 'mouse'". NewScientist. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  2. ^ O'Donnell, C. (2008). "Mystacina robusta". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T14260A4427606. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T14260A4427606.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  3. ^ Fox, Rebecca (20 November 2008). "Ancient species of penguin found in DNA of bones". Otago Daily Times. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  4. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Hoplodactylus delcourti". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T10254A3185278. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T10254A3185278.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  5. ^ Australasian Reptile & Amphibian Specialist Group (1996). "Oligosoma gracilicorpus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T15266A4508504. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T15266A4508504.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  6. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Prototroctes oxyrhynchus (New Zealand Grayling)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  7. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Mecodema punctellum". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T12922A3398669. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T12922A3398669.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.

Further reading

  • Bell, B.D. 1994. A review of the status of New Zealand Leiopelma species (Anura: Leiopelmatidae), including a summary of demographic studies in Coromandel and on Maud Island. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, Vol. 21: 341–349.
  • Bunce, M., Worthy, T.H., Ford, T., Hoppitt, W., Willerslev, E., Drummond A., and Cooper, A. 2003. Extreme reversed sexual size dimorphism in the extinct New Zealand moa Dinornis. Nature, 425:172–175.
  • Cooper, A., Lalueza-Fox, C., Anderson, C., Rambaut, A., Austin, J., and Ward, R. 2001. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two extinct moas clarify ratite evolution. Nature 409:704–707.
  • Day, D., 1981, The Doomsday Book of Animals, Ebury Press, London.
  • Gill, B.; Martinson, P., (1991) New Zealand’s Extinct Birds, Random Century New Zealand Ltd.
  • Gill, B. J. 2003. Osteometry and systematics of the extinct New Zealand ravens (Aves: Corvidae: Corvus). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1: 43–58.
  • Flannery, T., and Schouten, P., 2001, A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World's Extinct Animals, William Heinemann, London. ISBN 0-434-00819-2 (UK edition).
  • Fuller, E., 2001, Extinct Birds, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-253-34034-9 (UK Edition).
  • Holdaway, Richard N., Worthy, Trevor H. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact[permanent dead link], New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 28:119–187.
  • Huynen, L., Millar, C.D., Scofield, R.P., and Lambert, D.M. 2003. Nuclear DNA sequences detect species limits in ancient moa. Nature, 425:175–178.
  • Perkins, S. 2003. Three Species No Moa? Fossil DNA analysis yields surprise. Science News, 164:84.
  • Philip R. Millener & T. H. Worthy (1991). "Contribution to New Zealand's late Quaternary avifauna. II: Dendroscansor decurvirostris, a new genus and species of wren (Aves: Acantisittidae)." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 21, 2: 179–200.
  • Philip R. Millener (1988). "Contributions to New Zealand's late Quaternary avifauna. I: Pachyplichas, a new genus of wren (Aves: Acanthisittidae), with two new species." Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 18:383–406
  • Wilson, K-J, (2004) Flight of the Huia, Canterbury University Press, Christchurch. ISBN 0-908812-52-3
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. Karocolens tuberculatus. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 2 March 2006.
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. Mecodema punctellum. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 2 March 2006.
  • Worthy, T.H. 1998. The Quaternary fossil avifauna of Southland, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand. Volume 28, Number 4, pp 537–589.
  • Worthy, T.H., Holdaway R.N., 2002, The lost world of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. ISBN 0-253-34034-9.
  • Worthy, T.H., et al. 2006, Miocene mammal reveals a Mesozoic ghost lineage on insular New Zealand, southwest Pacific. 103 PNAS 19419-19423.

External links

  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • New Zealand extinct birds at TerraNature
  • Rediscovered New Zealand birds previously thought extinct at TerraNature
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