List of dual place names in New Zealand

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The agreed dual name of Te Koko-o-Kupe / Cloudy Bay remembers both the Māori and British explorations of New Zealand.

Some official place names in New Zealand are dual names, incorporating both the original Māori place names and the English names bestowed since European settlement. Although a mixture of Māori and English names is the most common form of dual name, some places, such as Mahināpua Creek / Tūwharewhare, include Māori elements in each part of the name, and Wellington Harbour (Port Nicholson) incorporates two English names.

The practice of giving certain New Zealand places dual names began in the 1920s,[1] but dual names have become much more common in the 1990s and 2000s, in part due to Treaty of Waitangi settlements. Many places have names with a long heritage in each culture. For instance, one settlement saw Cloudy Bay, given this name by Captain Cook in 1770, renamed Te Koko-o-Kupe / Cloudy Bay,[2] with the Māori name recalling the early explorer Kupe scooping up oysters from the bay.[3]

In rare cases, a place may be given two alternative names instead of one dual name. Prominent examples include the mountain called Mount Taranaki or Mount Egmont and the town called Whanganui or Wanganui.[4] These places are not included in the list below.

Assignment

Many places were officially given dual names through the 1998 Ngai Tahu treaty settlement, including Aoraki / Mount Cook.

Official place names in New Zealand are usually determined by the New Zealand Geographic Board (Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa). In cases where there have been objections to a proposed name, a final decision is made by the Minister of Lands.

A large number of dual names have been conferred not by the NZGB, but were negotiated as part of Treaty of Waitangi claims settlements and then enacted by Parliament.[5] The 1998 Ngai Tahu settlement alone established 87 dual names, including Aoraki / Mount Cook.[6][7]

Orthography

Originally, the board gazetted dual names in a form where the less commonly used name was in parentheses, e.g. Taylors Mistake (Te Onepoto). In the 1990s the system was changed to separating the names with a forward slash, e.g. name1 / name2. Placing a space before and after the slash is encouraged.[8]

The board now generally puts the Māori name first, but exceptions are sometimes made, for example when maritime safety is paramount (e.g. Baring Head / Ōrua-pouanui).[8]

List of dual names

New name Former name Type of place Region Year changed Notes
Alpine Lake / Ata Puai Alpine Lake Lake West Coast 1998[7]
Aoraki / Mount Cook Mount Cook Mountain Canterbury 1998[7]
Aoraki / Mount Cook Mount Cook Township Canterbury 1998[7]
Ashburton River / Hakatere Ashburton River River Canterbury 1998[7]
Ashley River / Rakahuri Ashley River River Canterbury 1998[7]
Avon River / Ōtakaro Avon River River Canterbury 1998[7]
Awaroa / Godley Head Godley Head Headland Canterbury 2003[9]
Baring Head / Ōrua-pouanui Baring Head Headland Wellington 2009[10]
Blumine Island (Oruawairua) Blumine Island Island Marlborough 1980[10]
Browning Pass / Noti Raureka Browning Pass Mountain pass West Coast 1998[7]
Burgess Island (Pokohinu) Burgess Island Island Auckland 1982[10]
Cam River / Ruataniwha Cam River River Canterbury 1998[7]
Campbell Island / Motu Ihupuku Campbell Island Island Subantarctic islands 1998[7]
Canister Cove (Waikokopu) Canister Cove Bay Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Cave Creek / Kotihotiho Cave Creek River West Coast 1998[7]
Clutha River / Mata-Au Clutha River (upstream of river fork) River Otago 1998[7]
Colac Bay / Ōraka Colac Bay Township Southland 1998[7]
Colac Bay / Ōraka Colac Bay Bay/Inlet Southland 1998[7]
Cook River / Weheka Cook River River West Coast 1998[7]
Coopers Lagoon / Muriwai Coopers Lagoon Lagoon Canterbury 1998[7]
Dart River / Te Awa Whakatipu Dart River River Otago 1998[7]
Doubtful Sound / Patea Doubtful Sound Fiord Southland 1998[7]
East Cape / Koromere East Cape Headland Southland 1998[7]
Estuary of the Heathcote and Avon Rivers/lhutai Estuary of the Heathcote and Avon Rivers Estuary Canterbury 1998[7]
Fanal Island (Motukino) Fanal Island Island Auckland 1982[10]
Fighting Bay (Oraumoa) Fighting Bay Bay/Inlet Marlborough 1980[10]
Flower Pot (Onoua) Flower Pot Locality Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Fox Glacier / Te Moeka o Tuawe Fox Glacier Glacier West Coast 1998[7] Name does not apply to the town.
Franz Josef / Waiau Franz Josef Township West Coast 1998[7]
Franz Josef Glacier / Kā Roimata o Hine Hukatere Franz Josef Glacier Glacier West Coast 1998[7]
Gillespies Point / Kōhaihai Gillespies Point Headland West Coast 1998[7]
Goat Island / Rakiriri Goat Island Island Otago 1998[7]
Greenstone River / Hokonui Greenstone or Big Hohonu River River West Coast 1998[7]
Grey River / Māwheranui Grey River River West Coast 1998[7]
Groper Island (Tatapihi) Groper Island Island Marlborough 1982[10]
Haast Pass / Tioripatea Haast Pass Mountain pass Otago 1998[7]
Harris Saddle / Tarahaka Whakatipu Harris Saddle Mountain pass Otago 1998[7]
Haukawakawa (Madsen) Madsen Locality Nelson 1983[10]
Hauturu / Little Barrier Island Little Barrier Island Island Auckland 2004[10]
Herekopare Island (Te Marama) Herekopare Island Island Southland 1998[10]
Hollyford River / Whakatipu Kā Tuka Hollyford River River Southland 1998[7]
Horomamae / Owen Island Owen Island Island Southland 2001[10]
Howells Point / Taramea Howells Point Headland Southland 1998[7]
Inainatu / Pile Bay Pile Bay Bay/inlet Canterbury 2003[9]
Island Hill / Tumuaki Island Hill Hill West Coast 1998[7]
Jackson Bay / Okahu Jackson Bay Bay/Inlet West Coast 1998[7] Not applicable to the township
Jacksons Reef (Patuatini) Jacksons Reef Reef Waikato 1973[10]
Kaioruru / Church Bay Church Bay Bay/Inlet Canterbury 2003[9]
Kaitira (East Entry Point) East Entry Point Headland Nelson 1979[10]
Karewa / Gannet Island Gannet Island Island Waikato 2002[10]
Kurow Hill / Te Kohurau Kurow Hill Hill Otago 1998[7]
Lake Alabaster / Wāwāhi Waka Lake Alabaster Lake Otago 1998[7]
Lake Browning / Whakarewa Lake Browning Lake West Coast 1998[7]
Lake Ellesmere (Te Waihora) Lake Ellesmere Lake Canterbury 1989[10]
Lake Grassmere / Kapara Te Hau Lake Grassmere Lake Marlborough 1998[7]
Lake Ianthe / Matahi Lake Ianthe Lake West Coast 1998[7]
Lake Karoro / Mathews Lake Mathews Lake Northland 2002[10]
Lake McKerrow / Whakatipu Waitai Lake McKerrow Lake Otago 1998[7]
Lake Ōkataina / Te Moana i kataina ā Te Rangitakaroro Lake Okataina Lake Bay of Plenty 2006[12]
Lake Rotoiti / Te Roto kite ā Ihenga i ariki ai Kahu Lake Rotoiti Lake Bay of Plenty 2006[12]
Lake Rotoroa (Hamilton Lake) Hamilton Lake Lake Waikato 1974[10]
Lake Rotorua / Te Rotorua nui ā Kahumatamomoe Lake Rotorua Lake Bay of Plenty 2006[12]
Leaning Rock / Haehaeata Leaning Rock Rock Otago 1998[7]
Little Mangere Island (Tapuaenuku) The Fort Little Mangere Island Island Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Little Mount Peel / Huatekerekere Little Mount Peel Mountain Canterbury 1998[7]
Lords River / Tūtaekawetoweto Lords River River Southland 1998[7]
Lyttelton Harbour / Whakaraupō Lyttelton Harbour Bay/Inlet Canterbury 1998[7]
Mackenzie Pass / Manahuna Mackenzie Pass Mountain pass Canterbury 1998[7]
Mahināpua Creek / Tūwharewhare Mahināpua Creek Stream West Coast 1998[7]
Mākaro / Ward Island Ward Island Island Wellington 2001[10]
Manawatāwhi / Great Island Great Island Island Northland 2005[10]
Manawatāwhi / Three Kings Islands Three Kings Islands Island group Northland 2005[10]
Matiu / Somes Island Somes Island Island Wellington 1997[10]
Milford Sound / Piopiotahi Milford Sound Bay/Inlet Southland 1998[7]
Moeraki Boulders / Kaihinaki Moeraki Boulders Geological formation Otago 1998[7]
Mokiiti / Little Moggy Island Little Moggy Island Island Southland 2002[10]
Mokinui / Big Moggy Island Big Moggy Island Island Southland 2002[10]
Motukauatiiti / Corsair Bay Corsair Bay Bay/Inlet Canterbury 2003[9] Does not apply to Corsair Bay suburb.
Motukauatirahi / Cass Bay Cass Bay Bay/Inlet Canterbury 2003[9] Does not apply to adjacent suburb.
Motukokako Island (Piercy Island) Piercy Island Island Northland 1989[10]
Motunau (Plate Island) Plate Island Island Bay of Plenty 1988[10]
Mount Alfred / Ari Mount Alfred Mountain Otago 1998[7]
Mount Anglem / Hananui Mount Anglem Mountain Southland 1998[7]
Mount Aspiring / Tititea Mount Aspiring Mountain Otago 1998[7]
Mount Charles / Poatiri Mount Charles Mountain Otago 1998[7]
Mount Diffenbach (Hemokawa) Mount Diffenbach Hill Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Mount Earnslaw / Pikirakatahi Mount Earnslaw Mountain Otago 1998[7]
Mount Grey / Maukatere Mount Grey Mountain Canterbury 1998[7]
Mount Harman / Kaniere Mount Harman Mountain West Coast 1998[7]
Mount Harper / Mahaanui Mount Harper Mountain Canterbury 1998[7]
Mount Hauruia / Bald Rock Bald Rock Peak Northland 2003[9]
Mount Herbert / Te Ahu Patiki Mount Herbert Mountain Canterbury 1998[7]
Mount MacKenzie / Pakihiwitahi Mount MacKenzie Mountain Otago 1998[7]
Mount Nimrod / Kaumira Mount Nimrod Mountain Canterbury 1998[7]
Mount Upright / Te Taumata o Uekanuku Mount Upright Mountain West Coast 1998[7]
Mount Watkin / Hikaroroa Mount Watkin Mountain Otago 1998[7]
New River / Kaimata New River River West Coast 1998[7]
Nga Kiore (Jag Rocks) Jag Rocks Island group Nelson 1983[10]
Ngā Motu / Sugar Loaf Islands Sugar Loaf Islands Island group Taranaki 1999[10]
Nine Mile Creek / Kotorepi Nine Mile Creek Stream West Coast 1998[7]
North Branch Ashburton River / Hakatere North Branch Ashburton River River Canterbury 1998[7]
North-East Reef (Terangi-taumaewa) North-East Reef Reef Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Ōkāritoiti / Lake Windermere Lake Windermere Lake West Coast 2010[10]
Old Man Range / Kopuwai Old Man Range Mountain range Otago 1998[7]
Otamahua / Quail Island Quail Island Island Canterbury 2003[9]
Otokitoki / Gollans Bay Gollans Bay Bay/inlet Canterbury 2003[9]
Otututu (Rough) River Rough River River West Coast 1987[10]
Pahatea / Durden Hill Durden Hill Hill Otago 2007[10]
Pariwhero / Red Rocks Red Rocks Rock Wellington 2009[10]
Paterson Inlet / Whaka a Te Wera Paterson Inlet (North and South West Arms) Bay/Inlet Southland 1998[7]
Pauakaiwawe (McLarens Bay) McLarens Bay Bay/Inlet Nelson 1983[10]
Pig Island / Mātau Pig Island Island Otago 1998[7]
Pigeon Island / Wāwāhi Waka Pigeon Island Island Otago 1998[7]
Pireka (Low Neck Bay) Low Neck Bay Bay/Inlet Nelson 1983[10]
Pitt Island (Rangiauria) Pitt Island Island Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Pōhatu / Flea Bay Flea Bay Bay/Inlet Canterbury 2003[9]
Port Hutt (Whangaroa Harbour) Port Hutt Harbour Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Port Levy (Potiriwi) / Koukourarata Port Levy (Potiriwi) Bay/Inlet Canterbury 1998[7]
Port Pegasus / Pikihatiti Port Pegasus Bay/Inlet Southland 1998[7]
Port William / Potirepo Port William Bay/Inlet Southland 1998[7]
Pukehinau (Shellback) Stream Shellback Stream Stream Waikato 1974[10]
Pukepohatu / Bald Rock Bald Rock Rock Northland 2002[10]
Puotewheke (Scuffle Island) Scuffle Island Island Nelson 1983[10]
Puroa / Boar Hill Boar Hill Hill Northland 2002[10]
The Pyramid (Tarakoikoia) The Pyramid Island Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Quarantine Island / Kamau Taurua Quarantine Island Island Otago 1998[7]
Rangitoto ki te Tonga / D'Urville Island D'Urville Island Island Marlborough 2008[13]
Refuge Island / Takataka Refuge Island Island West Coast 1998[7]
Riverton / Aparima Riverton Township Southland 1998[7]
Rocky Point / Tauotikirangi Rocky Point Headland West Coast 1998[7]
Round Rock (Rangituka) Round Rock Rock Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Selwyn River / Waikirikiri Selwyn River River Canterbury 1998[7]
Seven Mile Creek / Waimatuku Seven Mile Creek Stream West Coast 1998[7]
Shag Point / Matakaea Shag Point Headland Otago 1998[7]
Shag River (Waihemo) Shag River River Otago 1985[10]
Ship Cone / Ōtaupiri Ship Cone Hill Southland 1998[7]
Sinclair Head / Te Rimurapa Sinclair Head Headland Wellington 2009[10]
Snares Islands / Tini Heke Snares Islands Island group Subantarctic islands 1998[7]
Solander Island (Hautere) Solander Island Island Southland 1980[10]
South Branch Ashburton River / Hakatere South Branch Ashburton River River Canterbury 1998[7]
South Cape / Whiore South Cape Headland Southland 1998[7]
South East Island (Rangatira) South East Island Island Chatham Islands 1982[11]
South West Cape / Puhiwaero South West Cape Headland Southland 1998[7]
Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana Southern Alps Mountain range Canterbury 1998[7]
Spy Glass Point (Piripaua) Spy Glass Point Headland Marlborough 1975[10]
Steeple Rock / Te Aroaro-o-Kupe Steeple Rock Rock Wellington 2009[10]
Stewart Island / Rakiura Stewart Island Island Southland 1998[7]
Taieri Island / Moturata Taieri Island Island Otago 1998[7]
Taki-a-Maru (Fish Reef) Fish Reef Reef Otago 1985[10]
Tapoa / Erskine Point Erskine Point Headland Canterbury 1949/2003[9]
Tauhinukorokio / Mount Pleasant Mount Pleasant Hill Canterbury 1949/2003[9] Does not apply to suburb of Christchurch.
Taukihepa / Big South Cape Island Big South Cape Island Island Southland 2001[10]
Te Akaroa (West Entry Point) West Entry Point Headland Nelson 1979[10]
Te Akau (Black Beach) Black Beach Beach Nelson 1983[10]
Te Aumiti (French Pass) French Pass Channel Nelson 1983[10]
Te Awa Kairangi / Hutt River Hutt River River Wellington 2010[14]
Te Henga (Bethells Beach) Bethells Beach Beach Auckland 1979[10]
Te Motu Kairangi / Miramar Peninsula Miramar Peninsula Peninsula Wellington 2010[15]
Te Onepoto / Taylors Mistake Taylors Mistake Locality Canterbury 1949/2003[9] The dual name applies to the locality, not the bay, which is still known as Taylors Mistake.
Te Pohue / Camp Bay Camp Bay Bay/Inlet Canterbury 2003[9]
Te Umukuri (Wellers Rock) Wellers Rock Rock Otago 1987[10]
Te Waipapa / Diamond Harbour Diamond Harbour Island Canterbury 2003[10]
Te Whakahewa (The Horns) The Horns Point Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Te Wharau / Charteris Bay Charteris Bay Bay/Inlet Canterbury 2003[10]
Ten Mile Creek / Waianiwaniwa Ten Mile Creek Stream West Coast 1998[7]
The Bluff / Motupōhue The Bluff (Bluff Hill) Hill Southland 1998[7]
The Castle (Rangiwheau) The Castle Island Chatham Islands 1982[11]
The Doughboy / Kokiraki The Doughboy Hill West Coast 1998[7]
The Sisters (Rangitatahi) The Sisters Chatham Islands 1982[11]
Tihiokahukura / Castle Rock Castle Rock Rock outcrop Canterbury 2003[9]
Tikitapu / Blue Lake Lake Tikitapu (Blue Lake) Lake Bay of Plenty 2006[12]
Tia Island (Entrance) Island Southland 1998[10]
Timore Island (Chimneys) Island Southland 1998[10]
Titi / Muttonbird Islands Muttonbird Islands Island group Southland 1998[10]
Tu Araiawa Island (Fin Island) Fin Island Island Nelson 1983[10]
Waerenga / Mission Bay Mission Bay Bay Bay of Plenty 2006[10]
Waikawau / Hannahs Bay Hannahs Bay Bay Bay of Plenty 2006[10]
Waingaehe / Holdens Bay Holdens Bay Bay Bay of Plenty 2006[10]
Waireinga / Bridal Veil Falls Bridal Veil Falls Waterfall Waikato 2008[16]
Waitata / Little Port Cooper Little Port Cooper Bay/Inlet Canterbury 2003[9]
Wellington Harbour (Port Nicholson) Port Nicholson Harbour Wellington 1984[10]
Westland National Park / Tai Poutini National Park Westland National Park National park West Coast 1998[7]
Whakaari / White Island White Island Island Bay of Plenty 1998[10]
Whakapaingarara / Tapu Bush Tapu Bush Bush Northland 2002[10]
Whakapirau / Rocky Point Rocky Point Point Northland 2002[10]
Whiorau / Lowry Bay Lowry Bay Bay Wellington 2009[10]
White Bluffs / Te Parinui o Whiti White Bluffs Bluffs Marlborough 1998[7]
Whitireia / Mount Couper Mount Couper Hill Wellington 2007[10]

References

  1. ^ "Protocol for Mäori Place Names" (PDF). New Zealand Geographic Board Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa. 14 August 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  2. ^ Initialled version of Te Whakatau/Deed of Settlement between Ngāti Kuia and the Crown for Ratification Purposes, p. 23. Office of Treaty Settlements.
  3. ^ Gina Poncini (2004). Exploring the Image of New World Wine Producers: Website Texts for Wineries in Australia and New Zealand. Working Paper 04/2004, Istituto per la comunicazione aziendale, Facoltà di scienze della comunicazione Lugano, Università della Svizzera italiana.
  4. ^ "Wanganui proposed change to Whanganui: What is the difference between alternative naming and dual naming?". New Zealand Geographic Board Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  5. ^ "Frameworks of the New Zealand Geographic Board Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa Version 3" (PDF). October 2010. pp. 12, 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  6. ^ "Mana Recognition". Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl "Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 (1998 No 97)".
  8. ^ a b "Frameworks of the New Zealand Geographic Board Ngā Pou Taunaha o Aotearoa Version 3" (PDF). October 2010. pp. 40–42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "NZGB Gazetted Notices 26 June 2003" (PDF). Land Information New Zealand. [permanent dead link]
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk "New Zealand Gazetteer of Official Geographic Names" (PDF). Land Information New Zealand. 9 September 2010. Retrieved 9 November 2010. [permanent dead link]
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "New Zealand Gazetteer of Official Geographic Names: Offshore Islands" (PDF). Land Information New Zealand. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d "Te Arawa Lakes Settlement Act 2006 No 43 – Schedule 4: Place names". 23 May 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ NZGB decisions – Te Awa Kairangi / Hutt River
  15. ^ NZGB decisions – Te Motu Kairangi
  16. ^ NZGB 2008
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