List of automated urban metro subway systems

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Singapore has the longest automated metro system in the world with three of its five Mass Rapid Transit lines having 4th grade automation (GoA4). It has had automated lines since 2003 and currently has 82 km (51 mi) of automated tracks with an additional 43 km (27 mi) by 2024 with the completion of the new Thomson-East Coast line.
Metro Vancouver's SkyTrain has been in operation since 1985; it is fully automated on all lines and is the 2nd longest automated metro system in the world with 79.6 km (49.5 mi) of Automated tracks.

The list of automated urban metro subway systems is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1. These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP.

History of metro train automation

The first line to be operated with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) was London Underground's Victoria line, which opened in 1967, although a driver is present in the cabin. Many lines now operate using an ATO system, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate even without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board. The first fully automated driverless mass-transit rail network is the Port Island Line in Kobe, Japan. The second in the world (and the first such driverless system in Europe) is the Lille Metro in northern France. This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.

Degrees of automation

The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1.[1] These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP.[2]

Grade-of-Automation 4 (GoA4)

Barcelona Metro line 9 without train driver (GoA4)

In this system, trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.

Examples include the Barcelona Metro line 9 and the Copenhagen Metro.

Grade-of-Automation 3 (GoA3)

In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the Docklands Light Railway.

Grade-of-Automation 2 (GoA2)

London's Victoria line trains – 2009 stock (GoA2)

In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations. As in a GoA3 system, the GoA2 train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the London Underground Victoria line.

Standard systems for automated operation

Grade-of-Automation 4 systems

These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.

GoA4 – Americas

AirTrain JFK system
Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 4 (Yellow) 25 May 2010 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC First completely driverless metro line in Latin America[3]
São Paulo Metro Line 15 (Silver) 30 August 2014 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 27 Bombardier Innovia Monorails (54 considering phase 2).
São Paulo Metro Line 17 (Gold) Expected 2019 Hitachi
Canada Canada Vancouver, British Columbia SkyTrain 11 December 1985 The longest driverless network in the Americas, at 79.6 km.[4]
Toronto, Ontario LINK Train 6 July 2006 At Toronto Pearson International Airport
Chile Chile Santiago Metro Line 6 2 November 2017 Thales Group SelTrac
United States United States O'Hare International Airport Airport Transit System VAL system Chicago, Illinois
AirTrain San Francisco International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650 San Francisco, California
Detroit People Mover Detroit, Michigan
JTA Skyway Jacksonville, Florida
TPA Monorail and Shuttle Tampa International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Tampa, Florida
ExpressTram Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Romulus, Michigan
AirTrain JFK Jamaica, New York
AeroTrain Washington Dulles International Airport Sterling, Virginia
ATL Skytrain Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Atlanta, Georgia
The Plane Train Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport Atlanta, Georgia
Miami, Florida Metromover Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Morgantown, West Virginia Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit
Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail Nevada
Denver International Airport Denver International Airport Automated Guideway Transit System Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Denver, Colorado
DFW International Airport Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650 Dallas, Texas
Seattle–Tacoma International Airport Satellite Transit System Bombardier CITYFLO 650 SeaTac, Washington

GoA4 – Asia

Rapid KL Line 9 at 51 km (32 mi) it is one of the longest single lines in Asia
Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
China China Shanghai Metro Line 10 10 April 2010 Alstom Urbalis 400
Pujiang line 31 March 2018 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Beijing Metro Yanfang Line 30 December 2017 [5]
Hong Kong Hong Kong MTR Disneyland Resort Line 1 August 2005 Most trains have an attendant on board.
South Island Line (East) 28 December 2016 Alstom Urbalis 400
India India Delhi Metro Pink Line Scheduled for early 2017 58.59 km (36.41 mi). Initially with an attendant on board.
Magenta Line 25 December 2017 Initially with an attendant on board.
Hyderabad Metro Red Line 28 November 2017 Half of system in Operation
Blue Line 28 November 2017 Half of system in Operation
Green Line Pending In final stage of construction
Japan Japan Tokyo Yurikamome
Tokyo Nippori-Toneri Liner
Yokohama Kanazawa Seaside Line
Nagoya Linimo Built for Expo 2005 Commuter Maglev
Osaka Nanko Port Town Line
Kobe Kobe New Transit World's first GoA4 line.
Hiroshima Skyrail Midorizaka Line People Mover monorail
Malaysia Malaysia Kuala LumpurRapid KL Kelana Jaya Line 1998 SelTrac CBTC The first GoA4 in Malaysia, at 46.4 km (28.8 mi)
Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 The second GoA4 in Malaysia, at 51 km (32 mi)
Ampang Line & Sri Petaling Line 2017 SelTrac CBTC With train attendants to drive trains in the event of a disruption.
Kuala Lumpur KLIA Aerotrain Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Qatar Qatar Doha Metro all lines 2019 Thales CBTC To open in 2019
Philippines Philippines Manila Light Rail Transit System Manila LRT Line 2
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Riyadh Metro all lines 2019 L1-L2 : Siemens CBTC, L3 : Ansaldo STS, L4-L5-L6 : Alstom Urbalis 400
Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit (Singapore) Bukit Panjang LRT line Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Sengkang LRT line Kyosan APM
Punggol LRT line Kyosan APM
Changi Airport Skytrain Kyosan APM
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) North East MRT line 20 June 2003 Alstom Urbalis 300 One of the largest fully automated rapid transit network in the world at 82 km (51 mi). Trains may have an attendant on board.[6]
Circle MRT line 28 May 2009 Alstom Urbalis 300
Downtown MRT line 22 December 2013 Siemens Trainguard Sirius CBTC
South Korea South Korea Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit
Busan Subway Line 4
Daegu Daegu Metro Line 3
Incheon Incheon Airport Maglev
Incheon Incheon Subway Line 2
Seoul Metropolitan Subway Shinbundang Line
Seoul Metropolitan Subway Ui LRT
Uijeongbu U Line
Yongin Everline Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Taiwan Taiwan Metro Wenhu Line Bombardier CITYFLO 650 [a]
Turkey Turkey Istanbul Metro M5 Phase 1: 15.09.2017

Phase 2: 21.10.2018

Bombardier CITYFLO 650[7] On the Asian side of Istanbul.
United Arab Emirates UAE Dubai Metro [b]

GoA4 – Europe

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Metro Line 1 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Line 2
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 9 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC 47.8 km (29.7 mi)
Line 10
Italy Italy Turin Metro Line M1 Opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the 2006 Winter Olympics, completed in 2014. VAL type system First fully automatic metro in Italy.
Rome Metro Line C 2015 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Milan Metro Milan Metro Line 5 2013 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Brescia Metro 2015 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
France France Paris Metro Line 14 Opened 15 October 1998 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line 15
Line 16
Line 17
Line 18
2022 (Planned) To be completed in 2030
Line 1 3 November 2011 Siemens CBTC [c]
Paris Orlyval 2 October 1991 VAL system Operates between Antony and Orly-Sud
Charles de Gaulle Airport CDGVAL VAL system
Rennes Rennes Metro VAL system
Toulouse Toulouse Metro VAL system
Lille Lille Metro 25 April 1983 VAL system First line to use the VAL system.
Lyon Metro Line D Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC [d]
Germany Germany Nuremberg U-Bahn Line U2 and Line U3
Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Line 4 [8]
Switzerland Switzerland Lausanne Metro Line M2 Alstom Urbalis 300
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Gatwick Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650 [e]
London Heathrow Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650
London Stansted Airport Transit System Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Inter-terminal people mover using

Grade-of-Automation 3 systems

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 1 (Blue) March 1976 ATO With train captains monitoring in cab.
São Paulo Metro Line 2 (Green) February 2016 Alstom Urbalis 400 With train captains monitoring in cab.
São Paulo Metro Line 3 (Red) 1979 ATO With train captains monitoring in cab.
São Paulo Metro Line 5 (Lilac) 12 March 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 With train captains monitoring in cab. To be upgraded to GoA4 in 2019-2020
Salvador Metro 1 and 2 2014 SelTrac[9] With train captains monitoring in cab.
Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Metro Line 3 Scheduled for 2018–2019
China China Beijing Subway Airport Express, Beijing Subway Alstom Urbalis 400
Wuhan Metro Yangluo line 26 December 2017 [10]
Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Line 2 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC A supervisor is monitoring the train in the cab.
Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) North South MRT Line Thales Seltrac® CBTC[11] With train captains monitoring in cab.
East West MRT Line Thales Seltrac® CBTC[11] With train captains monitoring in cab.
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 11 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
United Kingdom United Kingdom London, UK Docklands Light Railway Opened in 1987

Grade-of-Automation 2 systems

GoA2 – Africa

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
Algeria Algeria Algiers Metro opened on 1 November 2011 Siemens CBTC

GoA2 – Americas

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
Canada Canada Montreal Metro Line 1 Green
Line 2 Orange
Opened in 1966 [f]
Line 5 Blue Opened in 1986
Toronto subway Scarborough RT Opened in March 1985 [g]
Chile Chile Santiago Metro Line 1 Alstom Urbalis 400
Mexico Mexico Mexico City Metro Line 12 Alstom Urbalis 400 [1]
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico San Juan Tren Urbano [h]
United States United States Bay Area Rapid Transit in San Francisco Bay Area Opened in 1972 [i]
PATCO Speedline Between Philadelphia and New Jersey [j]
Washington Metro [k]
New York City Subway BMT Canarsie Line L train Early 2012 Siemens CBTC [13][14]
San Francisco Muni Muni Metro light-rail trains [l]
Atlanta, Georgia MARTA Opened in 1979 [m]

GoA2 – Asia

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
South Korea South Korea Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation Lines 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 [n]
Korail Bundang Line SelTrac [o]
Busan Metro Lines 1, 2, 3
Daejeon Metro Daejeon Subway Line 1
Incheon Subway Incheon Subway Line 1
Daegu Metropolitan Transit Corporation Lines 1 and 2
Taiwan Taiwan Taipei Metro Red Line [p]
Green Line [q]
Blue Line [r]
Orange Line [s]
Japan Japan Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line [t]
Namboku Line
Fukutoshin Line
Chiyoda Line (Kita-Ayase branch)
Hibiya Line [u]
Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Ōedo Line
Toei Mita Line
Osaka Metro Nankō Port Town Line
Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line
Tanimachi Line [v]
Fukuoka City Subway Kūkō Line
Hakozaki Line
Nanakuma Line
Saitama Rapid Railway Line [w]
Sendai Subway Nanboku Line [x]
Yokohama Municipal Subway Green Line
Nagoya Municipal Subway Sakura-dōri Line
Okinawa Monorail
Hong Kong Hong Kong MTR Kwun Tong Line SACEM (train automation) [fr] [y]
Tsuen Wan Line
Island Line
Tung Chung Line
Airport Express
Tseung Kwan O Line
East Rail Line
West Rail Line SelTrac [o]
Ma On Shan Line
China China Beijing Subway Lines 4, 8, and 10 SelTrac [o]
Fangshan Line Alstom Urbalis 400
Lines 2, 6, and 9
Wuxi Metro Lines 1 and 2
Ningbo Metro Line 1
Wuhan Metro Line 1 SelTrac [o]
Guangzhou Metro Line 3
Shenyang Metro Line 1 Ansaldo STS CBTC
Shanghai Metro Lines 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11 Line 11 from 2012 SelTrac [o]
Line 13 Alstom Urbalis 400
Shenzhen Metro Luobao Line Siemens LZB 700M
Shekou and Huanzhong lines Alstom Urbalis 400
Longgang Line Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Tianjin Metro Lines 2 and 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
India India Kolkata Metro Line 1 and probably the future Line 2
Delhi Metro Red Line and Yellow Line Alstom Urbalis 200 [z]
Blue Line Siemens [aa]
Green Line, Violet Line, and Airport Express Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Thailand Thailand BTS Skytrain Sukhumvit Line and Silom Line Bombardier CITYFLO 450
MRT Blue Line Siemens LZB 700M
State Railway of Thailand Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link
Malaysia Malaysia Kuala LumpurRapid KL KL Monorail Commenced operations in 2003
Kuala Lumpur – ERL KLIA Ekspres and KLIA Transit Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Turkey Turkey Ankara Metro M1, M2, M3, M4 Ansaldo STS CBTC[15]

Previously Seltrac CBTC on M1.

[ab]
İstanbul Metro Line M2 YenikapıHacıosman Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line M3 KirazlıiOlimpiyat / Başakşehir Metrokent Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line M4 KadıköyKartal Seltrac CBTC
Line M6 Levent – Hisarüstü Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC

GoA2 – Europe

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
Austria Austria Vienna U-Bahn U2 [ac]
Finland Finland Helsinki Metro [ad]
France France Paris Metro Line 2
Line 3 OCTYS System [ae]
Line 4
Line 5 OCTYS System
Line 6
Line 7
Line 8
Line 9 OCTYS System
Line 11
Line 12
Line 13
Paris RER Line A SACEM System [af]
Germany Germay Munich U-Bahn [ag]
Düsseldorf Stadtbahn [ah]
Hungary Hungary Budapest Metro Line 3 [ai]
Italy Italy Milan Metro Line 3
Russia Russia Kazan Metro System "Dvizhenie"
Saint Petersburg Metro Line 2 System "Dvizhenie"
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 1 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 2
Line 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 5
Bilbao Metro Line 1 November 1995 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 2 Abril 2002 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Madrid Metro Line 1 July 2009 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5
Line 6 July 2008 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Line 7 Invensys CBTC
Line 8
Line 9
Line 10
Line 11
Line 12
Branch line
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Metro Green Line, (Lines T17,
T18 and T19)
Red Line Ansaldo STS CBTC [aj]
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Underground Victoria line 1967
Central line Converted to automated operation in the mid-1990s. [ak]
Jubilee line Converted to automated operation in 2011. [al]
Northern line Converted in 2012 [am]
Glasgow Subway [an]

Future systems

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
Brazil Brazil São Paulo Metro São Paulo Future Line 6 [ao]
Lines 1, 2, and 3 2021 Alstom Urbalis 400 [ap]
Chile Chile Santiago Metro Line 3 December 2018 SelTrac
Line 7 Expected 2026
Peru Peru Lima Metro Line 2 Expected 2022 AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Line 4 Expected 2025
Canada Canada Montreal, Quebec Réseau express métropolitain
Toronto subway Yonge–University–Spadina Line 2019 [aq]
Bloor–Danforth Line 2030
United States United States New York City Subway IRT Flushing Line (7 train) 2016 [ar]
Turkey Turkey Istanbul Metro M7, M8, M12 BombardierCityflo 650 CBTC [as]
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates Al Sufouh LRT 2014 Alstom Urbalis 400
Taiwan Taiwan Taichung Subway Green line 2019 Alstom Urbalis 400
Taipei Metro Taipei Circular Line AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
China China Beijing Subway Line 3, Line 12, Line 17, and Line 19 2021 [at]
Shanghai Metro Line 14, Line 15 and Line 18 2020 Thales, Shanghai Electric [au][21]
Wuhan Metro Line 5 [10]
Chengdu Metro Line 9 2020 Alstom Urbalis CBTC System [av]
Shenzhen Metro Line 14 2022 [23]
Macau Macau Driverless elevated light rail
Malaysia Malaysia Rapid KL Line 11 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line 12 Cityflo 650 CBTC
Line 13
Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Thomson-East Coast Line 2019-2025 Alstom Urbalis 400 CBTC [aw]
Thailand Thailand MRT MRT Purple Line Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta MRT
Spain Spain Barcelona Metro Line 2 Siemens CBTC
Malaga Metro Line 1 and Line 2 in service Alstom Urbalis 400 [24]
Italy Italy Milan Metro Milan Metro Line 4 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Metro Line 3 and Line 4 by Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Metro 5 lines 2018 Alstom Urbalis 400 [ax]
Greece Greece Thessaloniki Metro Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Athens Metro Line 4
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Metro Line D [ay]
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Underground Circle, Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City, Piccadilly, and District lines
National Rail Crossrail
Australia Australia Pilbara Late 2018 Hitachi's AutoHaul [az]
Pilbara iron ore trains from Roy Hill
Sydney Metro Bankstown to Rouse Hill by Alstom Urbalis 400

Defunct systems

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
United Kingdom United Kingdom Post Office Railway 1927–2003 [ba]
Germany Germany Berlin M-Bahn 1989–1991 [bb]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ System started with an attendant on board each train full-time. Gradually over time, the presence of attendants decreased. By September 2017, trains have attendants only while in long tunnel sections.
  2. ^ Red Line at 52.1 km (32.4 mi). The longest driverless network in the Middle East.
  3. ^ Upgraded from manual operation with first GoA4 trains operating in mixed mode (driven trains and driverless trains). Last manually driven train was removed by end of 2012.
  4. ^ Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise).
  5. ^ Inter-terminal people mover built by Bombardier Transportation.
  6. ^ Operates in ATO mode introduced in 1976. A member of staff closes the train doors (doors are usually opened automatically unless the driver requests otherwise) but does not normally drive the trains.
  7. ^ Uses the same trains as the Vancouver SkyTrain and the Detroit People Mover, already runs on an ATC/ATO system with an attendant on board.
  8. ^ Entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.
  9. ^ A member of staff closes the train doors but does not normally drive the train).
  10. ^ Operates in automated mode since 1969, but can be overridden by a staff member.
  11. ^ Has an automated mode, where the driver is responsible for opening and closing of doors and of overriding the system. However, the system has been operating in manual mode since the June 2009 Washington Metro train collision, and plans are to operate in manual mode until newer railcars are delivered.[12]
  12. ^ Switch to automatic control while operating in the Market Street Subway and in the Twin Peaks Tunnel. The operator manages the doors in-station and pilots the vehicle when running aboveground.
  13. ^ A member of staff is in the driving cab and opens and closes the train doors but does not normally drive the train.
  14. ^ Driver on standby and will drive the train when ATO malfunctions or is not available.
  15. ^ a b c d e Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies.
  16. ^ Tamsui Line
  17. ^ Xiaonanmen Line, Xindian Line, Xiaobitan Branch
  18. ^ Banqiao-Nangang Line, Tucheng Line
  19. ^ Zhonghe Line, Xinzhuang Line, Luzhou Line
  20. ^ Main line converted to ATO in 2010, but Hōnanchō branch continues to use ATC/TASC
  21. ^ ATO trialled during the 1960s. Trains now operated in manual mode.
  22. ^ ATO trialled from October 1967 until February 1968; trains now operated in manual mode.
  23. ^ A continuation of the Tokyo Metro Namboku Line.
  24. ^ World's first railway system to use fuzzy logic to control the speed of trains.
  25. ^ Same system as Paris RER line A
  26. ^ Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom.
  27. ^ Uses LZB 700 signalling systems supplied by Siemens.
  28. ^ Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.
  29. ^ Uses the same system as Munich with fully driverless turning at some terminuses.
  30. ^ Including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension, has had various attempts at automation since the 1970s.
  31. ^ Provides ATP and high level ATO with mobile block system – Siemens CBTC
  32. ^ One of the most advanced traffic control systems and enables extremely short spacing (under 90 seconds in stations, under 2 minutes in tunnels).
  33. ^ Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned.
  34. ^ Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated, but just between the 22 underground stations. Outside the underground stations the driver operates the train manual.
  35. ^ Converted to automated operation in 1990 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors).
  36. ^ Lines T13 and T14 will begin ATO operation in 2014.
  37. ^ A member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven.
  38. ^ A member of staff opens & closes the train doors, drives the train on Sundays, fixes faults.[16]
  39. ^ A driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train, the train is driven manually on Sundays, and can be driven in manual outside of peak hours.
  40. ^ Uses driver. The introduction of fully automated trains will begin in 2020.[17]
  41. ^ GoA4. Construction started in 2014 between the Brasilândia and São Joaquim stations.
  42. ^ System is currently operating on Line 2, with upgrading of the other 2 lines to be fully completed by 2021.
  43. ^ Expected to have ATC/ATO implemented on the Yonge–University–Spadina Line by 2019 and the Bloor–Danforth Line, funding permitting, by 2030.[18]
  44. ^ Converted to GoA2 automatic train operation by 2016.
  45. ^ UTO Fully driverless system.
  46. ^ Currently under construction. All lines plan to utilize driverless trains, which could create the longest fully automated subway network in the world.[19]
  47. ^ UTO system jointly developed by Thales Group and Shanghai Electric.[20]
  48. ^ UTO operation[22]
  49. ^ Currently under construction, with the Jurong Region Line and Cross Island Line also planning to use driverless trains.
  50. ^ GoA2 under construction with GoA4 planned long term.
  51. ^ May change to non-automatic line.
  52. ^ Pilbara iron ore trains operated by Rio Tinto under testing as of July 2017 with an attendant operator; driverless operation expected by late 2018.[25]
  53. ^ Tiny, driverless, mail-only subway connecting main post offices and railway terminals in London.
  54. ^ Maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.

References

  1. ^ http://webstore.iec.ch/webstore/webstore.nsf/artnum/036384!opendocument
  2. ^ "Automation Essentials – Automated Metros Observatory".
  3. ^ "ViaQuatro ganha Prêmio UITP Latino" (in Portuguese).
  4. ^ "Evergreen Extension opening today". 2 December 2016.
  5. ^ https://www.intelligenttransport.com/transport-news/64185/beijing-significant-expansion-network/
  6. ^ Briginshaw, David (July 20, 2016). "Automated metros set to reach 2200km by 2025". International Railway Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  7. ^ UK, DVV Media. "Erdoğan opens first driverless metro line in Istanbul". Metro Report. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
  8. ^ Railway Gazette International May 2014, pg 15.
  9. ^ https://www.thalesgroup.com/en/worldwide/transportation/press-release/thales-awarded-signalling-contract-new-salvador-metro
  10. ^ a b "中新网湖北 湖北新闻网 武汉地铁进入全自动驾驶时代 5号线有望"尝鲜"". www.hb.chinanews.com. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  11. ^ a b TODAY Online (April 13, 2017). "doors open and close automatically under the new system-Gov.sg". gov.sg. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  12. ^ Weir, Kytja (June 2, 2011). "Metro: Trains to stay in manual mode for several years". The Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on 2011-10-21. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
  13. ^ NY1 News (2009-02-21). "L Subway service to be run by computers". Archived from the original on 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  14. ^ "MTA L Train Response to Squadron" (PDF) (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2011-09-06. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-02. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  15. ^ "Ansaldo STS, leader of the consortium, opens line M3 of the CBTC Ankara Metro". Ansaldo STS Corporate website. Retrieved 2018-10-21.
  16. ^ Transport for London Tube Upgrade Plan Archived 2013-02-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ "Subway Modernisation – SPT". spt.co.uk.
  18. ^ Spurr, Ben (November 6, 2017). "TTC test of new signalling system 'exceeded expectations'". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
  19. ^ Templeton, Dan. "China to start operations on first driverless metro in 2017". Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  20. ^ Briginshaw, David. "Shanghai awards contract for first automated metro line". Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  21. ^ "上海地铁14、15、18号线将全部采用无人驾驶" [Shanghai Metro Lines 14, 15 and 18 will all be unmanned]. Kanxsw.com. 10 October 2018. Retrieved 2018-11-03.
  22. ^ Ltd, DVV Media International. "Chengdu driverless metro contracts awarded". Metro Report. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
  23. ^ "地铁14号线将采用无人驾驶 项目预计2022年竣工_龙岗新闻网". ilonggang.sznews.com. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
  24. ^ http://www.isolgomma.com/eng/referenze_dettaglio.php/id_paese=2/id_cat=2/id_referenza=26
  25. ^ "Rio Tinto has confirmed that it is on track to completely transition to driverless trains across its entire Pilbara operation by the end of 2018". iseekplant.com.au. July 20, 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.

External links

  • "UITP Automated Metro Observatory, a complete website with UTO Metro Resources"
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