List of current sovereign monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A monarch is the head of a monarchy, a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled by an individual who normally rules for life or until abdication, and typically inherits the throne by birth.[1] Monarchs may be autocrats (as in all absolute monarchies)[2] or may be ceremonial figureheads, exercising only limited or no reserve powers at all, with actual authority vested in a legislature and/or executive cabinet (as in many constitutional monarchies).[3] In many cases, a monarch will also be linked with a state religion.[4] Most states only have a single monarch at any given time, although a regent may rule when the monarch is a minor, not present, or otherwise incapable of ruling.[5] Cases in which two monarchs rule simultaneously over a single state, as is the current situation in Andorra, are known as coregencies.[6]

Monarchs are distinguished by their titles and styles, which in most cases are defined by tradition, and guaranteed under the state's constitution. A variety of titles are applied in English; for example, "king" and "queen", "prince" and "princess", "emperor" and "empress". Although they will be addressed differently in their local languages, the names and titles in the list below have been styled using the common English equivalent. Roman numerals, used to distinguish related rulers with the same name,[7] have been applied where typical.

In political and sociocultural studies, monarchies are normally associated with hereditary rule; most monarchs, in both historical and contemporary contexts, have been born and raised within a royal family.[6][8] Succession has been defined using a variety of distinct formulae, such as proximity of blood, primogeniture, and agnatic seniority. Some monarchies, however, are not hereditary, and the ruler is instead determined through an elective process; a modern example is the throne of Malaysia.[9] These systems defy the model concept of a monarchy, but are commonly considered as such because they retain certain associative characteristics.[10] Many systems use a combination of hereditary and elective elements, where the election or nomination of a successor is restricted to members of a royal bloodline.[11][12]

Entries below are listed beside their respective dominions, which are organised alphabetically. These monarchs reign as head of state in their respective sovereign states. Monarchs reigning over a constituent division, cultural or traditional polity are listed under constituent monarchs. For current claimants to abolished thrones, see pretenders.

Monarchs by country

Key

Legend
Key Description
Monarch Name of monarch, preceded by title, with link to list of predecessors.
Since Date of assumption of throne; coronation date listed in footnotes.
House Name of royal family, with information on bloodline.
Type Form of monarchy, with information on role of the monarch within government.
Succession Method or pattern of succession, with link to current line of succession.
Standard Heraldry attributed to the relevant monarch or monarchy.
N/A Denotes where specific field is not applicable.
Denotes where data is not available.

List

Realm / Kingdom Image Monarch
(Birth)
Since Length House Type Succession Standard Ref(s)
 Principality of Andorra Emmanuel Macron in Tallinn Digital Summit. Welcome dinner hosted by HE Donald Tusk. Handshake (36669381364) (cropped 2).jpg HE Co-Prince Emmanuel Macron[fn 1]
(b. 1977)
14 May 2017 194 days N/A Constitutional Ex officio [13][14]
Mons. Vives (30612833490).jpg HE Co-Prince Archbishop Joan Enric[fn 1]
(b. 1949)
12 May 2003 14 years, 196 days
 Antigua and Barbuda Queen Elizabeth II at Hillsborough Castle.jpg HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
1 November 1981[fn 3] 36 years, 23 days Windsor[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][16]
 Commonwealth of Australia HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
6 February 1952 65 years, 291 days Constitutional Royal Standard of Australia [15][17]
 Commonwealth of the Bahamas HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
10 July 1973[fn 3] 44 years, 137 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][18]
 Barbados HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
30 November 1966[fn 3] 50 years, 359 days Constitutional Royal Standard of Barbados
 Canada HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
6 February 1952 65 years, 291 days Constitutional Royal Standard of Canada [15][19]
 Belize HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
21 September 1981[fn 3] 36 years, 64 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][20]
 Grenada HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
7 February 1974[fn 3] 43 years, 290 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][21]
 Jamaica HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
6 August 1962[fn 3] 55 years, 110 days Constitutional Royal Standard of Jamaica [15][22]
New Zealand New Zealand HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
6 February 1952 65 years, 291 days Constitutional Royal Standard of New Zealand [15][23]
 Independent State of Papua New Guinea HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
16 September 1975[fn 5] 42 years, 69 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][24]
 Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
19 September 1983[fn 3] 34 years, 66 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][25]
 Saint Lucia HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
22 February 1979[fn 3] 38 years, 275 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][26]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
27 October 1979[fn 3] 38 years, 275 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][27]
 Solomon Islands HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
7 July 1978[fn 3] 39 years, 140 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][28]
 Tuvalu HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
1 October 1978[fn 3] 39 years, 54 days Constitutional Royal Standard BR Commonwealth [15][29]
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland HM Queen Elizabeth II[fn 2]
(b. 1926)
6 February 1952[fn 6] 65 years, 291 days Constitutional Royal Standard of the United Kingdom
Royal Standard of the United Kingdom in Scotland[fn 7]
[15]
 Kingdom of Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa April 2016.jpg HM King Hamad bin Isa
(b. 1950)
6 March 1999[fn 8] 18 years, 263 days Al Khalifah[fn 9] Mixed Hereditary Royal Standard of Bahrain [31]
 Kingdom of Belgium Koning Filip van België.jpg HM King Philippe
(b. 1960)
21 July 2013 4 years, 126 days Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[fn 4] Constitutional Hereditary[fn 10] Personal Standard of Philippe, King of the Belgians [36]
 Kingdom of Bhutan King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (edit).jpg HM King Jigme Khesar Namgyel
(b. 1980)
14 December 2006[fn 11] 10 years, 344 days Wangchuck Constitutional Hereditary [38]
 Brunei Darussalam Hassanal Bolkiah.jpg HM Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
(b. 1946)
4 October 1967[fn 12] 50 years, 51 days Bolkiah Absolute Hereditary Royal Standard of the Sultan of Brunei [39]
 Kingdom of Cambodia Norodom Sihamoni (2007) (crop).jpg HM King Norodom Sihamoni
(b. 1953)
14 October 2004[fn 13] 13 years, 41 days Norodom[fn 14] Constitutional Hereditary and elective[fn 15] Royal Standard of the King of Cambodia [41]
 Kingdom of Denmark Drottning Margrethe av Danmark crop.jpg HM Queen Margrethe II
(b. 1940)
14 January 1972 45 years, 314 days Glücksburg[fn 16] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Denmark [45]
 Japan Emperor Akihito cropped 2 Barack Obama Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko 20140424 1.jpg HIM Emperor Akihito[fn 17]
(b. 1933)
7 January 1989[fn 18] 28 years, 321 days Yamato[fn 19] Constitutional Hereditary Standard of the Japanese Emperor [47]
 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan King Abdullah portrait.jpg HM King Abdullah II
(b. 1962)
7 February 1999[fn 20] 18 years, 290 days Hāshim Constitutional Hereditary and elective[fn 21] Royal Standard of Jordan [53][54]
 State of Kuwait Sheikh Sabah IV.jpg HH Emir Sabah al-Ahmad
(b. 1929)
29 January 2006 11 years, 299 days Al Sabah[fn 9] Constitutional Hereditary and elective[fn 22] [58]
 Kingdom of Lesotho Letsie III.jpg HM King Letsie III
(b. 1963)
7 February 1996[fn 23] 27 years, 12 days Moshesh Constitutional Hereditary and elective Royal Standard of Lesotho [59][60]
 Principality of Liechtenstein Ιωάννης Αδάμ Β΄ του Λίχτενσταϊν.jpg HSH Sovereign Prince Hans-Adam II
(b. 1945)
(Regent: HSH The Hereditary Prince Alois)
13 November 1989[fn 24] 28 years, 11 days Liechtenstein Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of the Prince of Liechtenstein [62]
 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Henri of Luxembourg (2009).jpg HRH Grand Duke Henri
(b. 1955)
7 October 2000[fn 25] 17 years, 48 days Luxembourg-Nassau[fn 26] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg [64]
 Malaysia No image.svg HM Yang di-Pertuan Agong Muhammad V[fn 27]
(b. 1969)
13 December 2016[fn 28] 346 days Kelantan Constitutional Elective[fn 29] Royal Standard of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia [70]
 Principality of Monaco Albert II February 2015 (cropped).jpg HSH Sovereign Prince Albert II
(b. 1958)
6 April 2005[fn 30] 12 years, 232 days Grimaldi Constitutional Hereditary Personal Standard of Prince Albert II of Monaco [74]
 Kingdom of Morocco Mohammed VI.jpg HM King Mohammed VI
(b. 1963)
23 July 1999[fn 31] 18 years, 124 days Alawi Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Morocco [76]
 Kingdom of the Netherlands Koning-willem-alexander-okt-15-s.jpg HM King Willem-Alexander
(b. 1967)
30 April 2013 4 years, 208 days Orange-Nassau[fn 32] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of the Netherlands [79]
 Kingdom of Norway H.M. Kong Harald taler (10308347696)- edit.jpg HM King Harald V
(b. 1937)
17 January 1991[fn 33] 26 years, 311 days Glücksburg[fn 16] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Norway [80]
 Sultanate of Oman QaboosBinSaidAlSaid.jpg HM Sultan Qaboos bin Said
(b. 1940)
23 July 1970 47 years, 124 days Al Said Absolute Hereditary Standard of the Sultan of Oman [81][82]
 State of Qatar Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani 2015.jpg HH Emir Tamim bin Hamad
(b. 1980)
25 June 2013 4 years, 152 days Al Thani Mixed[fn 34] Hereditary [84]
 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Salman bin Abdull aziz December 9, 2013.jpg CTHM King Salman bin Abdulaziz
(b. 1935)
23 January 2015 2 years, 305 days Al Saud Absolute theocracy Hereditary and elective[fn 35] Royal Standard of Saudi Arabia [86]
 Kingdom of Spain King of Spain (2015, cropped).jpg HM King Felipe VI
(b. 1968)
19 June 2014 3 years, 158 days Bourbon Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Spain [87]
 Kingdom of Swaziland King Mswati III 2014.jpg HM King Mswati III
(b. 1968)
25 April 1986 31 years, 213 days Dlamini Absolute Hereditary and elective[fn 36] Royal Standard of Swaziland [90]
 Kingdom of Sweden Royal Wedding Stockholm 2010-Konserthuset-433.jpg HM King Carl XVI Gustaf
(b. 1946)
15 September 1973[fn 37] 44 years, 70 days Bernadotte Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Sweden [92]
 Kingdom of Thailand Vajiralongkorn (tight crop).jpg HM King Vajiralongkorn[fn 38]
(b. 1952)
13 October 2016[fn 39] 1 year, 42 days Chakri Constitutional Hereditary Standard of the King of Thailand [95]
 Kingdom of Tonga Ulukalala Lavaka Ata.jpg HM King Tupou VI
(b. 1959)
18 March 2012 5 years, 251 days Tupou[fn 40] Constitutional Hereditary Royal Standard of Tonga [97]
 United Arab Emirates Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan-CROPPED.jpg HH President Khalifa bin Zayed
(b. 1948)
3 November 2004 13 years, 21 days Al Nahyan[fn 41] Mixed[fn 42] Elective and hereditary[fn 43] Standard of the President of the United Arab Emirates [101]
  Vatican City State Franciscus in 2015.jpg HH Pope Francis[fn 44]
(b. 1936)
13 March 2013 4 years, 256 days N/A Absolute theocracy Elective Insigne Francisci.svg [102]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The president of France and the bishop of Urgell each hold the position of co-prince of Andorra, but there is no personal title attached to the role.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Elizabeth II is currently queen regnant of sixteen separate Commonwealth realms (see separate entries), and has previously reigned as queen of sixteen other countries, which have since abolished the monarchy.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Elizabeth II previously reigned over this country as Queen of the United Kingdom, from 6 February 1952 until the nation's independence and the creation of a separate crown.
  4. ^ a b The royal family of Belgium and the House of Windsor are both lines of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha,[33][34] which is a branch of the House of Wettin.[35]
  5. ^ Elizabeth II previously reigned over Papua New Guinea as Queen of Australia, from 6 February 1952 until the nation's independence and the creation of a separate crown.
  6. ^ Coronation took place 2 June 1953.[30]
  7. ^ Lower flag is for use in Scotland only, upper flag is used in England, Northern Ireland and Wales.
  8. ^ Hamad bin Isa reigned as Amir of the State of Bahrain until 14 February 2002, when he assumed the new title of King of Bahrain under a new Constitution.[31]
  9. ^ a b A clan of the Utub tribe.[32]
  10. ^ The Belgian monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of his predecessor; he only becomes monarch upon taking a constitutional oath
  11. ^ Coronation took place 6 November 2008.[37]
  12. ^ Coronation took place 1 August 1968.[39]
  13. ^ Coronation took place 29 October 2004.[40]
  14. ^ A branch of the Varman dynasty. The surname "Norodom" is used by the descendants of Norodom I.[41][42]
  15. ^ The king is selected for life by the Royal Council of the Throne from amongst the male descendants of kings Ang Duong, Norodom, and Sisowath.[43]
  16. ^ a b Officially the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, which is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.[44]
  17. ^ "Akihito" is the current emperor's given name, but it is not his regnal name, and he is never referred to as this in Japanese. The era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei", and according to custom he will be renamed "Emperor Heisei" following his death or abdication.[46]
  18. ^ Coronation took place 12 November 1990.[47]
  19. ^ The Japanese emperor does not have a family name.[48][49] The use of the name "Yamato" for the household derives from the ancient Yamato Court.[50] It is used often as a name for the imperial dynasty, but has no official basis.
  20. ^ Formally enthroned on 9 June 1999.[51]
  21. ^ Succession is based upon primogeniture. However, the reigning king may also select his successor from among eligible princes.[52]
  22. ^ The heir is appointed by the reigning emir, and the nomination must also be approved by a majority of members in the National Assembly.[55] The throne is also traditionally alternated between the two main branches of the Al Sabah family: the Al Salem and Al Jaber.[56][57] The current emir is of the Al Jaber branch.
  23. ^ Coronation took place 31 October 1997. Has previously reigned as king from 12 November 1990 until 25 January 1995.[59]
  24. ^ Formally enthroned on 15 August 1990.[61] Prior to his accession, Hans-Adam had served as prince regent since 26 August 1984.[62] On 15 August 2004, the prince formally appointed his son Prince Alois as regent, in preparation for his succession to the throne, but remained head of state in accordance with the constitution.[63]
  25. ^ Prior to formal enthronement, Henri had served as prince regent since 4 March 1998.[64]
  26. ^ The royal family of Luxembourg are members of the House of Nassau-Weilburg,[65] descended from the House of Nassau and the Parma branch of the House of Bourbon.
  27. ^ Official title: Yang di-Pertuan Agong. It roughly translates as "Supreme Head of State", and is commonly rendered in English as "King".[66]
  28. ^ Elected on 14 October 2016.[67] Term of office started on 13 December 2016.[68]
  29. ^ The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected to a five-year term by and from amongst the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states, who form the Council of Rulers. The position has to date been, by informal agreement, systematically rotated between the nine; the order was originally based on seniority.[69]
  30. ^ Albert II was formally enthroned as prince in a two-part ceremony, in accordance with tradition, on 12 July and 19 November 2005.[71][72] He had previously been serving as regent since 31 March 2005.[73]
  31. ^ Coronation took place 30 July 1999.[75]
  32. ^ The Dutch royal family is descended from the Houses of Nassau and Lippe. [77][78]
  33. ^ Formally enthroned on 21 January 1991, and consecrated on 23 June 1991. Prior to his accession, Harald had served as prince regent since 1 June 1990.[80]
  34. ^ Monarchy is constitutional by law, but remains absolute in practice.[83]
  35. ^ Succession is determined by consensus within the House of Saud as to who will be Crown Prince. This consensus may change depending on the Crown Prince's actions:[85]
  36. ^ Succession is subject to customary law, and does not follow primogeniture. A council of elders selects who among the reigning king's wives will be mother of the next king. This woman will succeed as Ndlovukati upon her son's ascension to throne, and will rule alongside him for the duration of his reign. The king's first two wives are considered ineligible.[88][89]
  37. ^ Formally enthroned on 19 September 1973.[91]
  38. ^ Name is also written as Mahawachiralongkon.[93] He is also styled Rama X.[94]
  39. ^ Vajiralongkorn was proclaimed King on 1 December 2016 with retroactive effect to the date of his father's death.[94]
  40. ^ A line of the Tuʻi Kanokupolu dynasty.[96][97]
  41. ^ The Al Nahyan are a branch of the Al Falahi, a clan of the Yas tribe.[98]
  42. ^ The Prime Minister is the head of the government. However, with the consent of the Supreme Council, the office is appointed by the President, who retains considerable power.[99]
  43. ^ According to the Constitution, the President of the United Arab Emirates is elected by the Federal Supreme Council from among the individual rulers of the seven emirates.[99] However, by informal agreement the Presidency is always passed to the head of the Al Nahyan clan, the Emir of Abu Dhabi (see constituent monarchs), which makes it a de facto hereditary position. In addition, the appointed Prime Minister has always been the head of the Al Maktoum clan and Emir of Dubai.[100]
  44. ^ As Sovereign of the Vatican City, by virtue of being Bishop of Rome.

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External links

  • Buyers, Christopher. "The Royal Ark: Royal and Ruling Houses of Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas". 
  • Soszynski, Henry. "Genealogical Gleanings: Royal and Noble Lineages". University of Queensland. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. 
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