List of birds

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King penguins
Ostriches

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that[1].

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

Phylogeny

Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Jarvis, E.D. et al. (2014)[2] with some clade names after Yury, T. et al. (2013).[3]

Aves
Palaeognathae
Struthionimorphae

Struthioniformes (ostriches)[4]

Notopalaeognathae
Rheimorphae

Rheiformes (rheas)

Novaeratitae

Casuariiformes (cassowaries & emus)

Apterygiformes (kiwi)

Aepyornithiformes (elephant birds)

Tinamomorphae

Dinornithiformes (moas)

Lithornithiformes (false tinamous)

Tinamiformes (tinamous)

Neognathae
Galloanserae
Gallomorphae

Galliformes (landfowl)

Odontoanserae

Odontopterygiformes

Anserimorphae

Vegaviiformes[5]

Gastornithiformes

Anseriformes (waterfowl)

Neoaves
Columbea
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingoes)

Podicipediformes (grebes)

Columbimorphae

Mesitornithiformes (mesites)

Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouse)

Columbiformes (pigeons)

Passerea
Otidae
Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)

Otidiformes (bustards)

Musophagiformes (turacos)

Cypselomorphae

Caprimulgiformes (nightjars)

Nyctibiiformes (oilbirds & potoos)

Podargiformes (frogmouths)

Aegotheliformes (owlet-nightjars)

Apodiformes (hummingbirds & swifts)

Gruae

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)

Cursorimorphae

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)

Charadriiformes (shorebirds)

Ardeae
Phaethontimorphae

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern, kagu)

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes (loons)

Austrodyptornithes

Procellariiformes (albatross and petrels)

Sphenisciformes (penguins)

Ciconiiformes (storks)

Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.)

Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons & egrets)

Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (condors and New World vultures)

Accipitriformes (hawks, eagles, vultures, etc.)

Strigiformes (owls)

Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mousebirds)

Cavitaves

Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller)

Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)

Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes)

Picodynastornithes

Coraciformes (kingfishers etc.)

Piciformes (woodpeckers etc.)

Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)

Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)

Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)

Passeriformes (songbirds and kin)

Paleognathae

The flightless and mostly giant Struthioniformes lack a keeled sternum and are collectively known as ratites. Together with the Tinamiformes, they form the Paleognathae or "old jaws", one of the two superorders recognized within the taxonomic class Aves.

Struthioniformes

Greater rhea pair

Africa; 2 species

Notopalaeognathae

Rheiformes

South America; 2 species

Casuariiformes

Australasia; 4 species

Apterygiformes

Australasia; 5 species

Aepyornithiformes

Madagascar

Dinornithiformes

New Zealand

Tinamiformes

South America; 45 species

Neognathae

Nearly all living birds belong to the superorder Neognathae or "new jaws". With their keeled sternum (breastbone), unlike the ratites, they are known as carinatae.

Galloanserae

Galliformes

Australian brush turkey

Worldwide; 250 species

Gastornithiformes

Anseriformes

Worldwide; 150 species

Mirandornithes

Podicipediformes

Worldwide; 19 species

Phoenicopteriformes

Worldwide; 6 species

Columbimorphae

Columbiformes

Worldwide; 300 species

Pteroclidiformes

Africa, Europe, Asia; 16 species

Mesitornithiformes

Madagascar; 3 species

Cypselomorphae

Caprimulgiformes

Worldwide; 500 species

Tawny frogmouth

Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes

Worldwide; 126 species

Musophagiformes

Africa; 23 species

Otidiformes

Africa and Eurasia; 27 species

Gruae

Opisthocomiformes

South America; 1 species

Gruiformes

Worldwide; 164 species

Charadriiformes

Worldwide; 350 species

Phaethontimorphae

Eurypygiformes

Neotropics and New Caledonia; 2 species

Phaethontiformes

Oceanic; 3 species

Aequornithes

Gaviiformes

North America, Eurasia; 5 species

Sphenisciformes

Antarctic and southern waters; 17 species

Procellariiformes

Pan-oceanic; 120 species

Ciconiiformes

Worldwide; 19 species

White stork

Suliformes

Worldwide; 59 species

Pelecaniformes

Worldwide; 108 species

Afroaves

Accipitriformes

Worldwide; 200 species

Strigiformes

Worldwide; 130 species

Coliiformes

Sub-Saharan Africa; 6 species

Leptosomatiformes

Madagascar; 1 species

Trogoniformes

Sub-Saharan Africa, Americas, Asia; 35 species

Bucerotiformes

Old World, New Guinea; 64 species

Coraciiformes

Worldwide; 144 species

Kingfisher

Piciformes

Worldwide except Australasia; 400 species

Australaves

Cariamiformes

South America; 2 species

Falconiformes

Worldwide; 60 species

Psittaciformes

Pan-tropical, southern temperate zones; 330 species

Passeriformes

Worldwide; 5000 species

See also

For regions smaller than continents see:

References

  1. ^ Barrowclough GF, Cracraft J, Klicka J, Zink RM (2016) How Many Kinds of Birds Are There and Why Does It Matter? PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166307. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166307
  2. ^ Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904. PMID 25504713.
  3. ^ Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals". Biology. 2 (1): 419–444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419. PMC 4009869. PMID 24832669.
  4. ^ Boyd, John (2007). "NEORNITHES: 46 Orders" (PDF). John Boyd's website. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  5. ^ Worthy, T.H.; Degrange, F.J.; Handley, W.D.; Lee, M.S.Y. (2017). "The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres)". Royal Society Open Science. 11.
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