List of battleships of the United States Navy

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The United States Navy began the construction of battleships with USS Texas in 1892, but the first battleship under that designation would be USS Indiana. Texas and USS Maine,[a] commissioned three years later, were part of the New Navy program of the late 19th century, a proposal by then Secretary of the Navy William H. Hunt to match Europe's navies that ignited a years-long debate that was suddenly settled in Hunt's favor when the Brazilian Empire commissioned the battleship Riachuelo.[1][2][3][4] In 1890, Alfred Thayer Mahan's book The Influence of Sea Power upon History was published and significantly influenced future naval policy—as an indirect of its influence on Secretary Benjamin F. Tracy, the Navy Act of June 30, 1890 [5] authorized the construction of "three sea-going, coast-line battle ships" which became the Indiana-class. The Navy Act of July 19, 1892 authorized construction of a fourth "sea-going, coast-line battle ship", which became USS Iowa.[6] Despite much later claims that these were to be purely defensive and were authorized as "coastal defense ships", they were almost immediately used for offensive operations in the Spanish–American War.[7][8] By the start of the 20th century, the United States Navy had in service or under construction the three Illinois-class and two Kearsarge-class battleships, making the United States the world's 5th strongest power at sea from a nation that had been 12th in 1870.[9]

Except for Kearsarge, named by an act of Congress, all U.S. Navy battleships have been named for states, and each of the 48 contiguous states has had at least one battleship named for it except Montana; two battleships were authorized to be named Montana but both were cancelled before construction started. Alaska and Hawaii did not become states until 1959, after the end of battleship building, but the battlecruiser, or "Large Cruiser," USS Alaska was built during World War II and her sister, USS Hawaii, was begun but never completed. The pre-dreadnoughts USS Zrinyi (formerly the Austrian SMS Zrínyi), USS Radetzky (formerly the Austrian SMS Radetzky), and USS Ostfriesland (formerly the German SMS Ostfriesland), taken as prizes of war after World War I, were commissioned in the US Navy, but were not assigned hull classification symbols.

No American battleship has ever been lost at sea, though four were sunk during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Of these, only USS Arizona (BB-39) and USS Oklahoma (BB-37) were permanently destroyed as a result of enemy action. Several other battleships have been sunk as targets, and USS Utah (BB-31), demilitarized and converted into a target and training ship, was permanently destroyed at Pearl Harbor. The hulk of Oklahoma was salvaged and was lost at sea while being towed to the mainland for scrapping. Two American-built pre-dreadnought battleships, USS Mississippi (BB-23) and her sister USS Idaho (BB-24), were sunk in 1941 by German bombers during their WWII invasion of Greece. The ships had been sold to Greece in 1914, becoming Kilkis and Lemnos respectively.

1880s–1910s

Maine and Texas were part of the "New Navy" program of the 1880s. They, and BB-1 to BB-4 were authorized as "coast defense battleships". The next group, BB-5 Kearsarge through BB-25 New Hampshire, followed general global pre-dreadnought design characteristics and entered service between 1900 and 1909. The definitive American predreadnought was the penultimate class of the type, the Connecticut-class, sporting the usual four-gun array of 12" weapons, a very heavy intermediate and secondary battery, and a moderate tertiary battery. They were good sea boats and heavily armed and armored for their type. The final American pre-dreadnought class, the Mississippi-class second-class battleships, were a poorly thought out experiment in increasing numbers regardless of quality, and the USN quickly wished to replace them, doing so in 1914, selling them to Greece to pay for a new super-dreadnought USS Idaho (BB-42).

The dreadnoughts, BB-26 South Carolina through BB-35 Texas, commissioned between 1910 and 1914, uniformly possessed twin turrets, introduced the superimposed turret arrangement that would later become standard on all battleships, and had relatively heavy armor and moderate speed (19–21 knots). Five of the ten ships favored the more mature vertical triple expansion (VTE) propulsion over fuel-inefficient but faster direct-drive turbines. The ships possessed 8 (South Carolina-class), 10 (Delaware and Florida) or 12 (Wyoming-class) 12" guns, or 10 (New York-class) 14" guns. The dreadnoughts gave good service, the last two classes surviving through World War II before being scrapped. However, they had some faults that were never worked out, and the midships turrets in the ten and twelve-gun ships were located near boilers and high-pressure steam lines, a factor that made refrigeration very difficult and problematic in hot climates. One of their number, Texas (BB-35), is the last remaining American battleship of the pre–World War II era and the only remaining dreadnought in the world.

Next came the twelve Standards, beginning with BB-36 Nevada. The last ship commissioned was BB-48 West Virginia (BB-49 through 54 were also Standards, but were never commissioned, and scrapped under the Washington Naval Treaty), commissioned over the period 1914 to 1920. Oklahoma (BB-37) was the last American battleship commissioned with triple expansion machinery; all the other Standards used either geared steam turbines (Nevada, the Pennsylvania-class, Idaho and Mississippi) or turbo-electric propulsion (New Mexico, Tennessee through West Virginia). The Standards were a group of ships with four turrets, oil fuel, a 21-knot top speed, a 700-yard tactical diameter at top speed, and heavy armor distributed on the "All or Nothing" principle. Armament was fairly consistent, starting with ten 14" guns in the Nevada-class, twelve in the Pennsylvania, New Mexico and Tennessee classes, and eight 16" guns in the Colorado-class.

1930s–1940s

After the 1930s "builders holiday," the USN commissioned ten more battleships of an entirely new style, the so-called fast battleship. These ships began with BB-55 North Carolina and the last ship laid down was BB-66 Kentucky (the last completed ship was BB-64 Wisconsin). These ships were a nearly clean break from previous American design practices. All ten ships were built to a Panamax design (technically post-Panamax, as they exceeded normal Panamax beam by two feet, but they were still able to transit the canal). They were fast battleships, and could travel with the aircraft carriers at cruising speed (their speed was not intended for that role, but rather so they could run down and destroy enemy battlecruisers). They possessed almost completely homogeneous main armament (nine 16" guns in each ship, the sole difference being an increase in length from 45 to 50 calibers with the Iowa-class vessels), very high speed relative to other American designs (28 knots in the North Carolina and South Dakota classes, 33 in the Iowa-class), and moderate armor. The North Carolina-class was of particular concern, as their protection was rated as only "adequate" against the 16" superheavy weapon. They had been designed with, and armored against, a battery of three quadruple 14" guns, then changed to triple 16" guns after the escalator clause in the Second London Naval Treaty had been triggered. Secondary in these ships was almost homogeneous as well: Except for South Dakota, configured as a flagship, the other nine ships of this group sported a uniform 20-gun 5" secondary battery (South Dakota deleted two 5" mounts to make room for flag facilities). Visually, the World War II ships are distinguished by their triple-turret arrangement and the massive columnar mast that dominates their superstructure. The last ship, Wisconsin (BB-64), commissioned in 1944 (Wisconsin was approved last; however, Missouri (BB-63) was commissioned 3 months later, due to delays from additional aircraft carrier construction). Missouri (BB-63), famous for being the ship on which the Japanese instrument of surrender was signed, was the last battleship in the world to be decommissioned on 31 March 1992. Seven of these ten ships are still in existence. South Dakota, Washington and Indiana were scrapped, but the remainder are now museum ships. There was intended to be another class of five of these ships, the Montana-class (BB-67 Montana through BB-71 Louisiana), but they were cancelled before being laid down in favor of a greater number of aircraft carriers. The Montana-class ships would have been built to a 60,000-ton post-Panamax design, and carried a greater number of guns (12x 16") and heavier armor than the other ships; otherwise they would have been homogeneous with the rest of the World War II battleships.

In October 2006, the last battleships, (USS Iowa and USS Wisconsin), were stricken from the Naval Registry.

Key

Main guns The number and type of the main battery guns
Armor Waterline belt thickness
Displacement Ship displacement at full load
Propulsion Number of shafts, type of propulsion system, and top speed generated
Service The dates work began and finished on the ship and its ultimate fate
Laid down The date the keel began to be assembled
Launched The date the ship was launched
Commissioned The date the ship was commissioned

Coastal-defense battleships

USS Texas (1892)

Photograph of the USS Texas at sea
USS Texas

The acquisition of modern, European-built warships by Argentina, Brazil, and Chile had alarmed the United States. The straw that broke the camel's back was Brazil's commissioning of the battleship Riachuelo, which suddenly made the Brazilian Navy the strongest in the Americas. Congressman Hilary A. Herbert, chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee, said of the situation, "if all this old navy of ours were drawn up in battle array in mid-ocean and confronted by the Riachuelo it is doubtful whether a single vessel bearing the American flag would get into port." Facing the possibility of enemy ironclads operating in American coastal waters, the Naval Consulting Board began planning a pair of ironclads of their own, which would be able to use all major American naval bases and have a minimum speed of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph). The first of these two was USS Texas, 308 feet 10 inches (94.13 m) long, sporting an armor belt 12 inches (305 mm) thick, displacing 6,316 long tons (6,417 t), sailing at a top speed of 17.8 knots (33.0 km/h; 20.5 mph), and armed with two 35-caliber 12 in (305 mm) primary and six 30-caliber 6 in (152 mm) secondary guns.[10]

Texas was authorized by Congress on 3 August 1886, but construction lagged until she was laid down on 1 June 1889. She was launched in the presence of the granddaughter of Sam Houston on 28 June 1892, and commissioned on 15 August 1895.[11] Texas's early service revealed a number of structural issues, which was addressed via some reinforcement of various parts of the ship,[12] and she ran aground near Newport, Rhode Island in September 1896.[13]This in turn revealed even more faults with Texas, as massive flooding easily disabled her in the shallow waters where she ran aground.[14] After repairs, she joined the North Atlantic Squadron, briefly leaving for a Gulf Coast visit to Galveston and New Orleans that saw her beached on a mud bank off Galveston, an event whose aftermath gave Texas her nickname, "Old Hoodoo."[15][16] After repairs, she returned to the North Atlantic Squadron and her patrols of the Eastern Seaboard. In the Spring of 1898, Texas's near-sister ship USS Maine (ACR-1) (the other of the two original coastal defense ships) was destroyed by an internal explosion in Havana's harbor, and the United States went to war with the Spanish Empire. An American fleet including Texas was ready and waiting at Key West, and was part of the Flying Squadron in its engagements with Spanish fortifications on the Cuban coast. She saw real surface fleet combat on 3 July at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba alongside USS Iowa, USS Gloucester, and USS Indiana against the fleet of Pascual Cervera y Topete as it tried to escape the American fleet and emerged with only light damage.[11][17] After the war, Texas was decommissioned and refitted on two occasions before finally be declared obsolete in 1911 and permanently decommissioned and converted into a target ship in the same year.[18][19] On 15 February 1911, Texas was christen San Marcos to free the name up for the dreadnought USS Texas (BB-35),[11] and was then sunk in the waters of Tangier Sound by USS New Hampshire's guns. The remains of the San Marcos continued to be used for gunnery practice after her sinking until January 1959,[20] when vast quantities of explosives were used to bury her remains.[21]

Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Texas
USS San Marcos
"Old Hoodoo"[16]
2 x 12 in (305 mm)[22] 12 in (305 mm)[23] 6,316 long tons (6,417 t)[21] 2 x steam engines
2 x screws
17.8 kn (33.0 km/h; 20.5 mph)[21]
1 June 1889[11] 28 June 1892[11] 15 August 1895[11] Sunk as target ship, 21-22 March 1912[11]

Indiana-class

USS Indiana
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Indiana
(BB-1)
4 x 13 in (330 mm)[24] 18 in (457 mm)[25] 10,288 long tons (10,453 t)[26] 2 × Vertical triple expansion steam (VTE) engines
2 x screws
4 x boilers[27]
7 May 1891[28] 28 February 1893[29] 20 November 1895[30] Sunk as a target, 1 November 1920
Sold for scrap, 19 March 1924[28]
USS Massachusetts
(BB-2)
25 June 1891[31] 10 June 1893[32] 10 June 1896
2 May 1910
9 June 1917[33]
Scuttled, 6 January 1921[33]
USS Oregon
(BB-3)
19 November 1891[31] 26 October 1893[34] 15 July 1896
29 August 1911[35]
Sold for scrap, 15 March 1956[35]

USS Iowa

USS Iowa
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Iowa
(BB-4)
4 x 12 in (305 mm)[36] 14 in (356 mm) 11,346 long tons (11,528 t) 2 x Vertical triple expansion steam (VTE) engines
2 x screws
4 x boilers[37]
5 August 1893[38] 28 March 1896[38] 16 June 1897[39] Sunk as gunnery target, 23 March 1923[38]

Predreadnought battleships

Kearsarge-class

USS Kentucky
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Kearsarge
(BB-5)
4 x 13 in (330 mm)[40] 16.5 in (419 mm)[41] 11,540 long tons (11,730 t)[42] 2 x Vertical triple expansion steam (VTE) engines
2 x screws
5 x boilers[42]
30 June 1896[41] 24 March 1898[43] 20 February 1900[44] Sold for scrap, 9 August 1955[45]
USS Kentucky
(BB-6)
30 June 1896[41] 24 March 1898[43] 15 May 1900[46] Sold for scrap, 24 March 1923[47]

Illinois-class

USS Illinois
  • Displacement: 11,565 tons
  • Armament: 4 × 13 in (330 mm) (2x2), 14 × 6 in (152 mm) (14x1), 16 × 6 pounders (2.7 kg) (16x1), 6 × 1 pounders (454 g) (6x1), 4 torpedo tubes
  • Speed: 17 knots
  • Ships in class: 3: USS Illinois, USS Alabama, and USS Wisconsin
  • Commissioned: 16 October 1900 (Alabama)
  • Decommissioned 15 May 1920 (Illinois, Wisconsin)
  • Fate: Illinois transferred to New York Naval Militia 1921, renamed Prairie State 1941, scrapped 1956; Alabama sunk as target 1921; Wisconsin scrapped 1922.
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Illinois
(BB-7)
4 x 13 in (330 mm) 12,250 long tons (12,450 t) 10 February 1897 4 October 1898 16 September 1901 Transferred to New York Naval Militia 1921, renamed Prairie State 1941, scrapped 1956
USS Alabama
(BB-8)
2 December 1896 18 May 1898 16 October 1900 Sunk as target 1921
USS Wisconsin
(BB-9)
9 February 1897 26 November 1898 4 February 1901 Scrapped 1922

Maine-class

USS Maine
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Maine
(BB-10)
4 × 12 in (300 mm) 11 in (280 mm) 12,500 long tons (12,700 t) 15 February 1899 27 July 1901 29 December 1902 Scrapped 1922
USS Missouri
(BB-11)
7 February 1900 28 December 1901 1 December 1903 Scrapped 1922
USS Ohio
(BB-12)
22 April 1899 18 May 1901 4 October 1904 Scrapped 1922

Virginia-class

USS New Jersey
  • Displacement: 15,000 tons
  • Armament: 4 × 12 in (305 mm) (2x2), 8 × 8 in (203 mm) (4x2), 12 × 6 in (152 mm) guns (12x1), 24 1-pounders (24x1), 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor: Belt 11 inches; Turret 12 inches; Deck 3 inches
  • Speed: 19 knots
  • Ships in class: 5: USS Virginia, USS Nebraska, USS Georgia, USS New Jersey, and USS Rhode Island
  • Commissioned: 19 February 1906 (Rhode Island)
  • Decommissioned: 13 August 1920 (Virginia)
  • Fate: Virginia and New Jersey sunk as targets, remainder sold for scrap, 1923
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Virginia
(BB-13)
4 × 12 in (305 mm) (2x2) 15,000 tons 21 May 1902 5 April 1904 7 May 1906 Sunk as target
USS Nebraska
(BB-14)
4 July 1902 7 October 1904 1 July 1907 Sold for scrap, 1923
USS Georgia
(BB-15)
31 August 1901 11 October 1904 24 September 1906 Sold for scrap, 1923
USS New Jersey
(BB-16)
3 May 1902 10 November 1904 12 May 1906 Sunk as target
USS Rhode Island
(BB-17)
1 May 1902 17 May 1904 19 February 1906 Sold for scrap, 1923

Connecticut-class

USS Connecticut
  • Displacement: 16,000 tons
  • Armament: 4 × 12 in (305 mm) (2x2), 8 × 8 in (203 mm) (4x2), 12 × 7 in (178 mm) (12x1), 10 × 3 in (76 mm) (10x1), 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor: 11in Belt / 3in Deck
  • Speed: 18 knots
  • Ships in class: 6: USS Connecticut, USS Louisiana, USS Vermont, USS Kansas, USS Minnesota, and USS New Hampshire
  • Commissioned: 2 June 1906 (Louisiana)
  • Decommissioned: 1 March 1923 (Connecticut)
  • Fate: Scrapped 1923-24
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Connecticut
(BB-18)
4 × 12 in (305 mm) (2x2) 16,000 tons 10 March 1903 29 September 1904 29 September 1906 Scrapped 1923–24
USS Louisiana
(BB-19)
7 February 1903 27 August 1904 2 June 1906 Scrapped 1923–24
USS Vermont
(BB-20)
21 May 1904 31 August 1905 4 March 1907 Scrapped 1923–24
USS Kansas
(BB-21)
10 February 1904 12 August 1905 18 April 1907 Scrapped 1923–24
USS Minnesota
(BB-22)
27 October 1903 8 April 1905 9 March 1907 Scrapped 1923–24
USS New Hampshire
(BB-25)
1 May 1905 30 June 1906 19 March 1908 Scrapped 1923–24

Mississippi-class

USS Mississippi
  • Displacement: 13,000 tons
  • Armament: 4 × 12 in (305 mm) (2 × 2), 8 × 8 in (203 mm) (4 × 2), 8 × 7 in (178 mm) (8x1), 12 × 3 in (76 mm) (12 × 1), 6 × 3 pounder gun (6 × 1), 2 × 1-pounder Mark 6 (2 × 1), 6 × .30-caliber machine guns (6 × 1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor:
  • Speed: 17 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS Mississippi and USS Idaho
  • Commissioned: 1 February 1908 (Mississippi)
  • Fate: Decommissioned 30 July 1914 and sold to Greece. Kilkis (ex-Mississippi) and Limnos (ex-Idaho) sunk by German bombers in April 1941.
Ship Main guns Armor Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
USS Mississippi
(BB-23)
4 × 12 in (305 mm) (2 × 2) 13,000 tons 12 May 1904 30 September 1905 1 February 1908 Sold to Greece 1914; sunk by German aircraft in April 1941; sold for scrap in the 1950s
USS Idaho
(BB-24)
12 May 1904 9 December 1905 1 April 1908 Sold to Greece 1914; sunk by German aircraft in April 1941; sold for scrap in the 1950s
USS Michigan

Dreadnought battleships

South Carolina-class

  • Displacement: 16,000 tons
  • Armament: 8 × 12 in (305 mm) guns (4 × 2), 22 × 3 in (76 mm) (22x1), 2 × 3 pounder (2 × 1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor:
  • Speed: 18 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS South Carolina and USS Michigan
  • Commissioned: 4 January 1910 (Michigan)
  • Decommissioned: 11 February 1922 (Michigan)
  • Fate: Scrapped 1924
USS Delaware

Delaware-class

  • Displacement: 20,380 tons
  • Armament: 10 × 12 in (305 mm) (5x2), 14 × 5 in (127 mm) (14x1), 22 × 3 in (76 mm) (22x1), 2 × 3 pounder (2x1) guns, 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor:
  • Speed: 21 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS Delaware and USS North Dakota
  • Commissioned: 4 April 1910 (Delaware)
  • Decommissioned: 22 November 1923 (North Dakota)
  • Fate: Delaware scrapped 1924; North Dakota converted to target ship 1924, scrapped 1931
USS Utah

Florida-class

  • Displacement: 21,800 tons
  • Armament: 10 × 12 in (305 mm) (5x2), 16 × 5 in (127 mm) (16x1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor:
  • Speed: 21 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS Florida and USS Utah
  • Commissioned: 31 August 1911 (Utah)
  • Decommissioned: 16 February 1931 (Florida)
  • Fate: Florida scrapped in 1932, Utah became target ship (AG-16) in 1931, sunk at Pearl Harbor in 1941
USS Arkansas

Wyoming-class

  • Displacement: 27,200 tons
  • Armament: 12 × 12 in (305 mm) (6x2), 21 × 5 in (127 mm) (21x1), two 3-inch (3x1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor: 11in Belt / 2in Deck
  • Speed: 20.5 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS Wyoming and USS Arkansas
  • Commissioned: 17 September 1912 (Arkansas)
  • Decommissioned: 1 August 1947 (Wyoming)
  • Fate: Wyoming became a training ship (AG-17) in 1931, scrapped in 1947. Arkansas sunk at Operation Crossroads in 1946
USS Texas

New York-class

  • Displacement: 27,200 tons
  • Armament: 10 × 14 in (356 mm) (5x2), 21 5-inch (21x1), two 3-inch (2x1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor: 12in Belt
  • Speed: 21 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS New York and USS Texas
  • Commissioned: 12 March 1914 (Texas)
  • Decommissioned: 21 April 1948 (Texas)
  • Fate: New York sunk as target 1948; Texas preserved as a memorial 1948
USS Oklahoma

Nevada-class

  • Displacement: 27,500 tons
  • Armament: 10 × 14 in (356 mm) (2x3, 2x2), 21 × 5 in (127 mm) (21x1), 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor:13.5in Belt / 3in Deck
  • Speed: 20 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS Nevada and USS Oklahoma
  • Commissioned: 11 March 1916 (Nevada)
  • Decommissioned: 29 August 1946 (Nevada)
  • Fate: Nevada sunk as target 1948; Oklahoma sunk at Pearl Harbor in 1941, raised and stripped of salvageable parts, sunk en route to scrapping 1947
USS Arizona

Pennsylvania-class

  • Displacement: 31,400 tons
  • Armament: 12 × 14 in (356 mm) (4x3), 22 × 5 in (127 mm) (22x1), 4 × 3 in (76 mm) (4x1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor: 13.5in Belt / 3in Deck
  • Speed: 21 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS Pennsylvania and USS Arizona
  • Commissioned: both in 1916
  • Fate: Pennsylvania sunk after Operation Crossroads in 1946, Arizona destroyed at Pearl Harbor in 1941, designated as a memorial.
USS Idaho

New Mexico-class

  • Displacement: 32,000 tons
  • Armament: 12 × 14 in (356 mm) (4x3), 14 × 5 in (127 mm) (14x1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor: 13.5in Belt / 3.5in Deck
  • Speed: 21 knots
  • Ships in class: 3: USS New Mexico, USS Mississippi, and USS Idaho
  • Commissioned: 18 December 1917 (Mississippi)
  • Decommissioned: 17 September 1956 (Mississippi)
  • Fate: New Mexico & Idaho scrapped 1947; Mississippi converted to trials ship (AG-128) 1946, scrapped 1956

Tennessee-class

USS California
  • Displacement: 32,000 tons
  • Armament: 12 × 14 in (356 mm) (4x3), 14 × 5 in (127 mm) (14x1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor: 13.5in Belt / 3.5in Deck
  • Speed: 21 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS Tennessee, and USS California
  • Commissioned: 3 June 1920 (Tennessee)
  • Decommissioned: 14 February 1947 (both)
  • Fate: sold for scrap 1959

Colorado-class

USS Maryland
  • Displacement: 32,600 tons
  • Armament: 8 × 16 in (406 mm) (4x2), 12 × 5 in (127 mm) (12x1), 8 × 3 in (76 mm) (8x1), 2 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes
  • Armor:13.5in Belt / 3.5in Deck
  • Speed: 21 knots
  • Ships in class: 4: USS Colorado, USS Maryland, USS Washington, and USS West Virginia
  • Commissioned: Maryland in 1921, Colorado and West Virginia in 1923, Washington not completed and sunk as target
  • Fate: Remaining three decommissioned 1947 and sold for scrap 1959.

South Dakota-class (1920)

USS Washington

North Carolina-class

  • Displacement: 35,000 tons
  • Armament: 9 × 16 in (406 mm) (3x3), 20 × 5 in (127 mm) (10x2), 16 × 1.1 inch AA (4x4)
  • Armor: 12in Belt / 7in Deck
  • Speed: 28 knots
  • Ships in class: 2: USS North Carolina and USS Washington
  • Commissioned: 1941
  • Fate: North Carolina preserved as memorial 1965; Washington scrapped 1962
USS Massachusetts

South Dakota-class (1939)

  • Displacement: 38,000 tons
  • Armament: 9 × 16 in (406 mm) (3 × 3), 20 (16 on South Dakota) × 5 inch (10 or 8 × 2), up to 40 × 40mm AA (17 × 4), up to 76 × 20 mm AA (76x1), 3 aircraft
  • Armor: 12in Belt / 7.5in Deck
  • Speed: 27 knots
  • Ships in class: 4: USS South Dakota, USS Indiana, USS Massachusetts, and USS Alabama
  • Commissioned: 1942
  • Fate: South Dakota and Indiana scrapped 1962 and 1963 respectively; Alabama preserved as memorial 1964; Massachusetts preserved as memorial 1965
USS Missouri (1980s refit)

Iowa-class

USS Montana (artist impression)

Montana-class

  • Displacement: 65,000 tons
  • Armament: 12 × 16 in (406 mm) (4x3), 20 × 5 in (127 mm) (10x2), undesignated number of 40 mm and 20 mm
  • Armor: 16in Belt / 8.2in Deck
  • Speed: 28 knots
  • Ships in class: 5: USS Montana, USS Ohio, USS Maine, USS New Hampshire, and USS Louisiana
  • Fate: All cancelled in 1943 before being laid down

See also

Notes

Footnotes

  1. ^ USS Maine is not listed here because she was built as an armored cruiser but later reclassified as a second-rate battleship.

Citations

  1. ^ Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 21, 35.
  2. ^ Miller (1997), p. 149.
  3. ^ Sweetman (2002), p. 87.
  4. ^ Friedman (1985), pp. 17, 20.
  5. ^ https://www.loc.gov/law/help/statutes-at-large/51st-congress/session-1/c51s1ch640.pdf
  6. ^ Miller (1997), pp. 144, 153, 157.
  7. ^ Silverstone (1970), p. 29.
  8. ^ Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 210; (Cites this article from a 1986 edition of Scientific American.
  9. ^ Miller (1997), pp. 144, 155.
  10. ^ Reilly & Scheina (1980), pp. 21, 33, 35, 37, 39, 48.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g DANFS: Texas (1892).
  12. ^ Allen (1993), pp. 238-39.
  13. ^ The New York Times, 21 October 1896.
  14. ^ Allen (1993), p. 239.
  15. ^ Allen (1993), pp. 239, 241.
  16. ^ a b Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 35.
  17. ^ Allen (1993), p. 244.
  18. ^ Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 19.
  19. ^ Allen (1993), pp. 247-48.
  20. ^ Allen (1993), pp. 250, 256.
  21. ^ a b c Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 48.
  22. ^ NavWeaps: 12"/35 Mark 1 and Mark 2.
  23. ^ Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 37.
  24. ^ NavWeaps: 13"/35 (33 cm) Marks 1 and 2.
  25. ^ Friedman (1985), p. 26.
  26. ^ Chesneau, Koleśnik & Campbell (1979), p. 140.
  27. ^ Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 58.
  28. ^ a b DANFS: Indiana (BB-1).
  29. ^ The New York Times, 27 February 1893.
  30. ^ The New York Times, 19 November 1895.
  31. ^ a b Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 69.
  32. ^ The New York Times, 10 June 1893.
  33. ^ a b DANFS: Massachusetts (BB-2).
  34. ^ The New York Times, 26 October 1893.
  35. ^ a b DANFS: Oregon (BB-3).
  36. ^ City of Art: USS Iowa (BB-4).
  37. ^ The Patriot Files: USS Iowa (BB-4.
  38. ^ a b c DANFS: Iowa (BB-4).
  39. ^ United States Navy: USS Iowa (Battleship # 4).
  40. ^ Friedman (1985), p. 30.
  41. ^ a b c Chesneau, Koleśnik & Campbell (1979), p. 141.
  42. ^ a b Reilly & Scheina (1980), p. 94.
  43. ^ a b Houston Daily Post, 25 March 1898.
  44. ^ The Times, 20 February 1900.
  45. ^ Albertson (2007), p. 177.
  46. ^ Alexandria Gazette, 15 May 1900.
  47. ^ DANFS: Kentucky (BB-6).

References

  • Albertson, Mark (2007). They'll Have to Follow You!: The Triumph of the Great White Fleet. Tate Publishing & Enterprises. ISBN 978-1-60462-145-7.
  • Chesneau, Roger; Koleśnik, Eugène M.; Campbell, N.J.M. (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1860–1905. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-133-5.
  • Friedman, Norman (1985). U.S. Battleships, An Illustrated Design History. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-715-9.
  • Miller, Nathan (1997). The U.S. Navy: A History (3rd ed.). Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-595-0. OCLC 37211290.
  • Reilly, John C.; Scheina, Robert L. (1980). American Battleships 1896–1923: Predreadnought Design and Construction. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-524-7.
  • Silverstone, Paul H. (20 May 1970). U.S. Warships of World War I. Doubleday. ISBN 0711000956.
  • Sweetman, Jack (2002). American Naval History: An Illustrated Chronology of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, 1775-present. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-867-4.

Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships

Journals

Publications

  • "Kentucky is Launched" (PDF). Houston Daily Post. 25 March 1898. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
  • "The New Kearsarge" (PDF). The Times. Washington, D.C. 20 February 1900. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
  • "The Kentucky in Commission" (PDF). Alexandria Gazette. 15 May 1900. Retrieved 3 January 2013.

The New York Times

  • "The war steamer Indiana; to be launched from the Cramp yards today" (PDF). The New York Times. 27 February 1893. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  • "New battle ship launched; the Massachusetts floated in the broad Delaware" (PDF). The New York Times. 10 June 1893. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  • "The Oregon in her element" (PDF). The New York Times. 26 October 1893. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  • "The Indiana is Accepted; Capt. Evans Placed in Command – The Boston Goes to China" (PDF). The New York Times. 19 November 1895. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
  • "The Accident to the Texas: Capt. Glass Held Wholly Irresponsible for the Trouble" (PDF). The New York Times. 21 October 1896. Retrieved 3 October 2011.

Online resources

  • "United States of America 12"/35 (30.5 cm) Mark 1 and Mark 2". NavWeaps.com. 19 September 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  • "United States of America 13"/35 (33 cm) Mark 1 and Mark 2". NavWeaps.com. 15 August 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  • "USS IOWA (BB-4)". The Patriot Files. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
  • "USS Iowa (Battleship # 4), 1897–1923. Later renamed Coast Battleship # 4". Department of the Navy — Naval Historical Center. 13 April 2003. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
  • "U.S.S. Iowa (BB-4), 1898". City of Art. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009.


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