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List of baryons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A diagram of a proton, one of the most famous baryons, containing two up quarks and one down quark

Baryons are composite particles made of three quarks, as opposed to mesons, which are composite particles made of one quark and one antiquark. Baryons and mesons are both hadrons, which are particles composed solely of quarks or both quarks and antiquarks. The term baryon is derived from the Greek "βαρύς" (barys), meaning "heavy", because, at the time of their naming, it was believed that baryons were characterized by having greater masses than other particles that were classed as matter.

Until a few years ago, it was believed that some experiments showed the existence of pentaquarks – baryons made of four quarks and one antiquark.[1][2] The particle physics community as a whole did not view their existence as likely by 2006.[3] On 13 July 2015, the LHCb collaboration at CERN reported results consistent with pentaquark states in the decay of bottom Lambda baryons0
b
).[4]

Since baryons are composed of quarks, they participate in the strong interaction. Leptons, on the other hand, are not composed of quarks and as such do not participate in the strong interaction. The most famous baryons are the protons and neutrons that make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe, whereas electrons, the other major component of atoms, are leptons. Each baryon has a corresponding antiparticle known as an antibaryon in which quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks. For example, a proton is made of two up quarks and one down quark, while its corresponding antiparticle, the antiproton, is made of two up antiquarks and one down antiquark.

Lists of baryons

These lists detail all known and predicted baryons in total angular momentum J = ​12 and J = ​32 configurations with positive parity.[5]

  • Baryons composed of one type of quark (uuu, ddd, ...) can exist in J = ​32 configuration, but J = ​12 is forbidden by the Pauli exclusion principle.
  • Baryons composed of two types of quarks (uud, uus, ...) can exist in both J = ​12 and J = ​32 configurations
  • Baryons composed of three types of quarks (uds, udc, ...) can exist in both J = ​12 and J = ​32 configurations. Two J = ​12 configurations are possible for these baryons.

The symbols encountered in these lists are: I (isospin), J (total angular momentum), P (parity), u (up quark), d (down quark), s (strange quark), c (charm quark), b (bottom quark), Q (charge), B (baryon number), S (strangeness), C (charm), B′ (bottomness), as well as a wide array of subatomic particles (hover for name). (See the baryon article for a detailed explanation of these symbols.)

Antibaryons are not listed in the tables; however, they simply would have all quarks changed to antiquarks, and Q, B, S, C, B′, would be of opposite signs. Particles with next to their names have been predicted by the Standard Model but not yet observed. Values in red have not been firmly established by experiments, but are predicted by the quark model and are consistent with the measurements.[6][7]

JP = ​12+ baryons

JP = ​12+ baryons 
Particle name Symbol Quark content Rest mass (MeV/c2) I J P Q (e) S C B' Mean lifetime (s) Commonly
decays to
proton[8]
p
/
p+
/
N+

u

u

d
938.272046(21)[a] 12 12+ +1 0 0 0 Stable[b] Unobserved
neutron[9]
n
/
n0
/
N0

u

d

d
939.565379(21)[a] 12 12+ 0 0 0 0 (8.800±0.009)×10+2[c]
p+
+
e
+
ν
e
Lambda[10]
Λ0

u

d

s
1115.683±0.006 0 12+ 0 −1 0 0 (2.632±0.020)×10−10
p+
+
π
or


n0
+
π0
charmed Lambda[11]
Λ+
c

u

d

c
2286.46±0.14 0 12+ +1 0 +1 0 (2.00±0.06)×10−13 See Λ+ c decay modes
bottom Lambda[12]
Λ0
b

u

d

b
5619.4±0.6 0 12+ 0 0 0 −1 (1.429±0.024)×10−12 See Λ0 b decay modes
Sigma[13]
Σ+

u

u

s
1189.37±0.07 1 12+ +1 −1 0 0 (8.018±0.026)×10−11
p+
+
π0
or


n0
+
π+

Sigma[14]
Σ0

u

d

s
1192.642±0.024 1 12+ 0 −1 0 0 (7.4±0.7)×10−20
Λ0
+
γ
Sigma[15]
Σ

d

d

s
1197.449±0.030 1 12+ −1 −1 0 0 (1.479±0.011)×10−10
n0
+
π
charmed Sigma[16]
Σ++
c

u

u

c
2453.98±0.16 1 12+ +2 0 +1 0 (2.91±0.32)×10−22[d]
Λ+
c
+
π+
charmed Sigma[16]
Σ+
c

u

d

c
2452.9±0.4 1 12+ +1 0 +1 0 >1.43×10−22[d]
Λ+
c
+
π0
charmed Sigma[16]
Σ0
c

d

d

c
2453.74±0.16 1 12+ 0 0 +1 0 (3.05±0.37)×10−22[d]
Λ+
c
+
π
bottom Sigma[17]
Σ+
b

u

u

b
5811.3+0.9
−0.8
 ± 1.7
1 12+ +1 0 0 −1 6.8+2.7
−3.5
×10−23
[d]

Λ0
b
+
π+
bottom Sigma
Σ0
b

u

d

b
Unknown 1 12+ 0 0 0 −1 Unknown Unknown
bottom Sigma[17]
Σ
b

d

d

b
5815.5+0.6
−0.5
 ± 1.7
1 12+ −1 0 0 −1 1.34+0.87
−1.15
×10−22
[d]

Λ0
b
+
π
Xi[18]
Ξ0

u

s

s
1314.86±0.20 12 12+ 0 −2 0 0 (2.90±0.09)×10−10
Λ0
+
π0
Xi[19]
Ξ

d

s

s
1321.71±0.07 12 12+ −1 −2 0 0 (1.639±0.015)×10−10
Λ0
+
π
charmed Xi[20]
Ξ+
c

u

s

c
2467.8+0.4
−0.6
12 12+ +1 −1 +1 0 (4.42±0.26)×10−13 See Ξ+ c decay modes
charmed Xi[21]
Ξ0
c

d

s

c
2470.88+0.34
−0.80
12 12+ 0 −1 +1 0 1.12+0.13
−0.10
×10−13
See Ξ0 c decay modes
charmed Xi prime[22]
Ξ′+
c

u

s

c
2575.6±3.1 12 12+ +1 −1 +1 0 Unknown
Ξ+
c
+
γ
(seen)
charmed Xi prime[23]
Ξ′0
c

d

s

c
2577.9±2.9 12 12+ 0 −1 +1 0 Unknown
Ξ0
c
+
γ
(seen)
double charmed Xi[24]
Ξ++
cc

u

c

c
3621.40 ± 0.72 ± 0.27 ± 0.14 12 12+ +2 0 +2 0 Unknown
Λ+
c
+
K
+
π+
+
π+
(seen)
double charmed Xi[e]
Ξ+
cc

d

c

c
Unknown 12 12+ +1 0 +2 0 Unknown Unknown
bottom Xi[25]
(or Cascade B)

Ξ0
b

u

s

b
5787.8±5.0 ± 1.3 12 12+ 0 −1 0 −1 Unknown See Ξ b decay modes
bottom Xi[25]
(or Cascade B)

Ξ
b

d

s

b
5791.1±2.2 12 12+ −1 −1 0 −1 (1.56+0.27
−0.25
 ± 0.02)×1012
See Ξ b decay modes
bottom Xi prime
Ξ′0
b

u

s

b
Unknown 12 12+ 0 −1 0 −1 Unknown Unknown
bottom Xi prime
Ξ′
b

d

s

b
Unknown 12 12+ −1 −1 0 −1 Unknown Unknown
double bottom Xi
Ξ0
bb

u

b

b
Unknown 12 12+ 0 0 0 −2 Unknown Unknown
double bottom Xi
Ξ
bb

d

b

b
Unknown 12 12+ −1 0 0 −2 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Xi
Ξ+
cb

u

c

b
Unknown 12 12+ +1 0 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Xi
Ξ0
cb

d

c

b
Unknown 12 12+ 0 0 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Xi prime
Ξ′+
cb

u

c

b
Unknown 12 12+ +1 0 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Xi prime
Ξ′0
cb

d

c

b
Unknown 12 12+ 0 0 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
charmed Omega[26]
Ω0
c

s

s

c
2695.2±1.7 0 12+ 0 −2 +1 0 (6.9±1.2)×10−14 See Ω0 c decay modes
bottom Omega[27]
Ω
b

s

s

b
6071±40 0 12+ −1 −2 0 −1 (1.13+0.55
−0.42
 ± 0.02)×1012
(
Ω
+
J/ψ
seen)
double charmed Omega
Ω+
cc

s

c

c
Unknown 0 12+ +1 −1 +2 0 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Omega
Ω0
cb

s

c

b
Unknown 0 12+ 0 −1 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Omega prime
Ω′0
cb

s

c

b
Unknown 0 12+ 0 −1 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
double bottom Omega
Ω
bb

s

b

b
Unknown 0 12+ −1 −1 0 −2 Unknown Unknown
double charmed bottom Omega
Ω+
ccb

c

c

b
Unknown 0 12+ +1 0 +2 −1 Unknown Unknown
charmed double bottom Omega
Ω0
cbb

c

b

b
Unknown 0 12+ 0 0 +1 −2 Unknown Unknown

^ Particle has not yet been observed.
[a] ^ The masses of the proton and neutron are known with much better precision in atomic mass units (u) than in MeV/c2, due to the relatively poorly known value of the elementary charge. In atomic mass units, the mass of the proton is 1.007276466812(90) u whereas that of the neutron is 1.00866491600(43) u.
[b] ^ At least 1035 years. See proton decay.
[c] ^ For free neutrons; in most common nuclei, neutrons are stable.
[d] ^ PDG reports the resonance width (Γ). Here the conversion τ = ​ħΓ is given instead.
[e] ^ There is a controversial discovery claim, disfavored by other experimental data.[28][24]

JP = ​32+ baryons

JP = ​32+ baryons 
Particle name Symbol Quark
content
Rest mass (MeV/c2) I J P Q (e) S C B' Mean lifetime (s) Commonly
decays to
Delta[29]
Δ++
(1232)

u

u

u
1232±2 32 32+ +2 0 0 0 (5.63±0.14)×10−24[h]
p+
+
π+
Delta[29]
Δ+
(1232)

u

u

d
1232±2 32 32+ +1 0 0 0 (5.63±0.14)×10−24[h]
π+
+
n0
or


π0
+
p+

Delta[29]
Δ0
(1232)

u

d

d
1232±2 32 32+ 0 0 0 0 (5.63±0.14)×10−24[h]
π0
+
n0
or


π
+
p+

Delta[29]
Δ
(1232)

d

d

d
1232±2 32 32+ −1 0 0 0 (5.63±0.14)×10−24[h]
π
+
n0
Sigma[30]
Σ∗+
(1385)

u

u

s
1382.8±0.4 1 32+ +1 −1 0 0 (1.839±0.0041)×10−23[h]
Λ0
+
π+
or


Σ+
+
π0
or


Σ0
+
π+

Sigma[30]
Σ∗0
(1385)

u

d

s
1383.7±1.0 1 32+ 0 −1 0 0 (1.83±0.25)×10−23[h]
Λ0
+
π0
or


Σ+
+
π
or


Σ0
+
π0

Sigma[30]
Σ∗−
(1385)

d

d

s
1387.2±0.5 1 32+ −1 −1 0 0 (1.671±0.089)×10−23[h]
Λ0
+
π
or


Σ0
+
π
or


Σ
+
π0
or

charmed Sigma[31]
Σ∗++
c
(2520)

u

u

c
2517.9±0.6 1 32 + +2 0 +1 0 (4.42±0.44)×10−23[h]
Λ+
c
+
π+
charmed Sigma[31]
Σ∗+
c
(2520)

u

d

c
2517.5±2.3 1 32 + +1 0 +1 0 >3.87×10−23[h]
Λ+
c
+
π0
charmed Sigma[31]
Σ∗0
c
(2520)

d

d

c
2518.8±0.6 1 32 + 0 0 +1 0 (4.54±0.47)×10−23[h]
Λ+
c
+
π
bottom Sigma[32]
Σ∗+
b

u

u

b
5832.1±0.7 +1.7
−1.8
1 32 + +1 0 0 −1 (5.7±1.8)×10−23[h]
Λ0
b
+
π+
bottom Sigma[e]
Σ∗0
b

u

d

b
Unknown 1 32 + 0 0 0 −1 Unknown Unknown
bottom Sigma[32]
Σ∗−
b

d

d

b
5835.1±0.6 +1.7
−1.8
1 32 + −1 0 0 −1 8.8+3.7
−3.6
×10−23
[h]

Λ0
b
+
π
Xi[33]
Ξ∗0
(1530)

u

s

s
1531.80±0.32 12 32+ 0 −2 0 0 (7.23±0.40)×10−23[h]
Ξ0
+
π0
or


Ξ
+
π+

Xi[33]
Ξ∗−
(1530)

d

s

s
1535.0±0.6 12 32+ −1 −2 0 0 6.6+1.3
−1.1
×10−23
[h]

Ξ0
+
π
or


Ξ
+
π0

charmed Xi[34]
Ξ∗+
c
(2645)

u

s

c
2645.9+0.5
−0.6
12 32 + +1 −1 +1 0 >2.1×10−22[h]
Ξ+
c
+
π0
(seen)
charmed Xi[34]
Ξ∗0
c
(2645)

d

s

c
2645.9±0.5 12 32 + 0 −1 +1 0 >1.2×10−22[h]
Ξ+
c
+
π
(seen)
double charmed Xi
Ξ∗++
cc

u

c

c
Unknown 12 32 + +2 0 +2 0 Unknown Unknown
double charmed Xi
Ξ∗+
cc

d

c

c
Unknown 12 32 + +1 0 +2 0 Unknown Unknown
bottom Xi[35]
Ξ∗0
b

u

s

b
5945.5±0.8±2.2 12 32 + 0 −1 0 −1 (3.1±2.5)×10−22[h]
Ξ
b
+
π+
(seen)
bottom Xi
Ξ∗−
b

d

s

b
Unknown 12 32 + −1 −1 0 −1 Unknown Unknown
double bottom Xi
Ξ∗0
bb

u

b

b
Unknown 12 32 + 0 0 0 −2 Unknown Unknown
double bottom Xi
Ξ∗−
bb

d

b

b
Unknown 12 32 + −1 0 0 −2 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Xi
Ξ∗+
cb

u

c

b
Unknown 12 32 + +1 0 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Xi
Ξ∗0
cb

d

c

b
Unknown 12 32 + 0 0 +1 −1 Unknown Unknown
Omega[36]
Ω

s

s

s
1672.45±0.29 0 32+ −1 −3 0 0 (8.21±0.11)×10−11[h]
Λ0
+
K
or

Ξ0
+
π
or

Template:Nowrap

charmed Omega[37] Template:Subatomic particle(2770) Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Template:Val 0 Template:Sort + 0 Template:Sort Template:Sort 0 Unknown Template:Nowrap
bottom Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + Template:Sort> Template:Sort 0 Template:Sort Unknown Unknown
double charmed Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort 0 Unknown Unknown
charmed bottom Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + 0 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Unknown Unknown
double bottom Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + Template:Sort Template:Sort 0 Template:Sort Unknown Unknown
triple charmed Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + Template:Sort 0 Template:Sort 0 Unknown Unknown
double charmed bottom Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + Template:Sort 0 Template:Sort Template:Sort Unknown Unknown
charmed double bottom Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + 0 0 Template:Sort Template:Sort Unknown Unknown
triple bottom Omega Template:Subatomic particle Template:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particleTemplate:Subatomic particle Unknown 0 Template:Sort + Template:Sort 0 0 Template:Sort Unknown Unknown

Template:Note Particle has not yet been observed.
[h] Template:Note PDG reports the resonance width (Γ). Here the conversion τ = Template:Frac is given instead.

Baryon resonance particles

This table gives the name, quantum numbers (where known), and experimental status of baryons resonances confirmed by the PDG.[38] Baryon resonance particles are excited baryon states with short half lives and higher masses. Despite significant research, the fundamental degrees of freedom behind baryon excitation spectra are still poorly understood.[39] The spin-parity JP (when known) is given with each particle. For the strongly decaying particles, the JP values are considered to be part of the names, as is the mass for all resonances.

Baryon resonance particles
Nucleons Δ particles Λ particles Σ particles Ξ and Ω particles Charmed particles Bottomed particles
p 1/2+ **** Δ(1232) 3/2+ **** Λ 1/2+ **** Σ+ 1/2+ **** Ξ0 1/2+ **** Template:Physics particle 1/2+ **** Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
n 1/2+ **** Δ(1600) 3/2+ *** Λ(1405) 1/2 **** Σ0 1/2+ **** Ξ 1/2+ **** Λc(2595)+ 1/2 *** Λb(5912)0 1/2 ***
N(1440) 1/2+ **** Δ(1620) 1/2 **** Λ(1520) 3/2 **** Σ 1/2+ **** Ξ(1530) 3/2+ **** Λc(2625)+ 3/2 *** Λb(5920)0 3/2 ***
N(1520) 3/2 **** Δ(1700) 3/2 **** Λ(1600) 1/2+ *** Σ(1385) 3/2+ **** Ξ(1620) * Λc(2765)+ * Σb 1/2+ ***
N(1535) 1/2 **** Δ(1750) 1/2+ * Λ(1670) 1/2 **** Σ(1480) * Ξ(1690) *** Λc(2880)+ 5/2+ *** Template:Physics particle 3/2+ ***
N(1650) 1/2 **** Δ(1900) 1/2 ** Λ(1690) 3/2 **** Σ(1560) ** Ξ(1820) 3/2 *** Λc(2940)+ *** Template:Physics particle, Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
N(1675) 5/2 **** Δ(1905) 5/2+ **** Λ(1710) 1/2+ * Σ(1580) 3/2 * Ξ(1950) *** Ξb(5945)0 3/2+ ***
N(1680) 5/2+ **** Δ(1910) 1/2+ **** Λ(1800) 1/2 *** Σ(1620) 1/2 * Ξ(2030) Template:Sfrac? *** Σc(2455) 1/2+ **** Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
N(1685) * Δ(1920) 3/2+ *** Λ(1810) 1/2+ *** Σ(1660) 1/2+ *** Ξ(2120) * Σc(2520) 3/2+ ***
N(1700) 3/2 *** Δ(1930) 5/2 *** Λ(1820) 5/2+ **** Σ(1670) 3/2 **** Ξ(2250) ** Σc(2800) ***
N(1710) 1/2+ *** Δ(1940) 3/2 ** Λ(1830) 5/2 **** Σ(1690) ** Ξ(2370) **
N(1720) 3/2+ **** Δ(1950) 7/2+ **** Λ(1890) 3/2+ **** Σ(1730) 3/2+ * Ξ(2500) * Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
N(1860) 5/2+ ** Δ(2000) 5/2+ ** Λ(2000) * Σ(1750) 1/2 *** Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
N(1875) 3/2 *** Δ(2150) 1/2 * Λ(2020) 7/2+ * Σ(1770) 1/2+ * Ω 3/2+ **** Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
N(1880) 1/2+ ** Δ(2200) 7/2 * Λ(2050) 3/2 * Σ(1775) 5/2 **** Ω(2250) *** Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
N(1895) 1/2 ** Δ(2300) 9/2+ ** Λ(2100) 7/2 **** Σ(1840) 3/2+ * Ω(2380) ** Ξc(2645) 3/2+ ***
N(1900) 3/2+ *** Δ(2350) 5/2 * Λ(2110) 5/2+ *** Σ(1880) 1/2+ ** Ω(2470) ** Ξc(2790) 1/2 ***
N(1990) 7/2+ ** Δ(2390) 7/2+ * Λ(2325) 3/2 * Σ(1900) 1/2 * Ξc(2815) 3/2 ***
N(2000) 5/2+ ** Δ(2400) 9/2 ** Λ(2350) 9/2+ *** Σ(1915) 5/2+ **** Ξc(2930) *
N(2040) 3/2+ * Δ(2420) 11/2+ **** Λ(2585) ** Σ(1940) 3/2+ * Ξc(2980) ***
N(2060) 5/2 ** Δ(2750) 13/2 ** Σ(1940) 3/2 *** Ξc(3055) **
N(2100) 1/2+ * Δ(2950) 15/2+ ** Σ(2000) 1/2 * Ξc(3080) ***
N(2120) 3/2 ** Σ(2030) 7/2+ **** Ξc(3123) *
N(2190) 7/2 **** Σ(2070) 5/2+ *
N(2220) 9/2+ **** Σ(2080) 3/2+ ** Template:Physics particle 1/2+ ***
N(2250) 9/2 **** Σ(2100) 7/2 * Ωc(2770)0 3/2+ ***
N(2300) 1/2+ ** Σ(2250) ***
N(2570) 5/2 ** Σ(2455) ** Template:Physics particle *
N(2600) 11/2 *** Σ(2620) **
N(2700) 13/2+ ** Σ(3000) *
Σ(3170) *
**** Existence is certain, and properties are at least fairly well explored.
*** Existence ranges from fairly certain to certain, but further confirmation is desirable
and/or quantum numbers, branching fractions, etc. are not well determined.
** Evidence of existence is only fair.
* Evidence of existence is poor.

See also

Template:Wikipedia books

Template:Clear

References

Template:Reflist

Bibliography

Template:Refbegin

Template:Refend

Further reading

Template:Refbegin

Template:Refend

External links

  • Particle Data Group – Review of Particle Physics (2008).
  • Georgia State University – HyperPhysics
  • Baryons made thinkable, an interactive visualisation allowing physical properties to be compared

Template:Particles

Template:Featured list

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