List of anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms

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The following is a list of anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms, where "anti-cultural" means sentiments of hostility towards a particular culture, "anti-national" refers to sentiments of hostility towards a particular state or other national administrative entity, and "anti-ethnic" refers to ethnic hatred or sentiments of hostility towards an ethnic group.

The use of all of these terms is controversial, as they tend to be used prominently in local rhetorical appeals to fallacy—namely the natural confusion between politically directed opposition and ethnically directed hostility, often deliberately disregarding this distinction for propaganda purposes.

These discriminatory attitudes are similar in nature to various religion-based hostile movements, such as Christianophobia and Anti-Catholicism, based on the mixture of xenophobia and ideological/political opposition.[citation needed]

The linguist and activist Noam Chomsky noted that perhaps the original Western use of the[which?] term, from which all similar terms originate, was by the Israelite King Ahab, in calling the prophet Elijah as "thou troubler of Israel." Chomsky further argues that such terms are similar in that they are used by nationalists and their associated governments to espouse the supremacy of nationalism over dissent within the culture, and are considered absurd in the context of cultures which have a much deeper connection to their ethnic history.[citation needed]


Anti-religious terms

  • Theophobia
  • Atheophobia

While religion related phobias are formally defined as negative attitude to religion, also interpreted as attitudes to cultures associated with these religions.

Anti-ideological terms


The suffix -phobia has gained popularity in its non-clinical use to refer to various negative attitudes.


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