List of amphibians of Bulgaria

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Topographic map of Bulgaria

Bulgaria is a country in southeastern Europe situated entirely in the Balkan peninsula. Bulgaria is inhabited by 20 amphibian species, which makes the amphibians the least diverse class of vertebrates in the country.[1] They include seven species of newts and salamanders from a single family, Salamandridae, as well as 13 frog and toad species from five families—Bombinatoridae, Bufonidae, Hylidae, Pelobatidae and Ranidae. The most recently classified species are the northern crested newt, identified in 2005,[2] and the Macedonian crested newt, identified in 2007.[3] Some of the most common species include the European green toad, yellow-bellied toad, and marsh frog.

The foundations of Bulgarian herpetology (the study of amphibians and reptiles) were laid in the end of the 19th century by the teacher Vasil Kovachev, who published a number of articles on the subject and the 1912 book Herpetologic Fauna of Bulgaria.[4] In the 1930s and 1940s zoologist Ivan Buresh and his associate Yordan Tsonkov conducted in-depth research on the diversity and distribution of the amphibian and reptile species in the country. In the second half of the 20th century the leading Bulgarian herpetologist was Dr. Vladimir Beshkov.[4]

Bulgaria provides various habitats for amphibians. The country falls within six terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic ecozone: Balkan mixed forests, Rodope montane mixed forests, Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests, East European forest steppe and Pontic–Caspian steppe.[5] Bulgaria has varied topography. From north to south the main geomorphological regions are the Danubian Plain, the Balkan Mountains, the Sub-Balkan valleys, the RilaRhodope massif to the south-west, the Upper Thracian Plain and the Strandzha mountains to the south-east. The country has a dense network of rivers but with the notable exception of the Danube, they are mostly short and with low water flow.[6] The average annual precipitation is 670 mm; the rainfall is lower in the lowlands and higher in the mountains. The driest region is Dobrudzha in the north-eastern part of the Danubian Plain (450 mm), while the highest rainfall has been measured in the upper valley of the river Ogosta in the western Balkan Mountains (2293 mm).[7]

List of species

Order Caudata

Family Salamandridae

Salamandridae, or true salamanders, are a family of terrestrial and aquatic salamanders, mostly distributed in Asia and Europe, although some species are found in North Africa and North America. Most species have slightly toxic skin secretions and many develop dorsal body and tail fins when they return to an aquatic stage. There are 109 species in 21 genera; of them, seven species in four genera are found in Bulgaria.[8]

Salamandridae
Species Common name Distribution Statusa[›] Image
Lissotriton vulgaris smooth newt Found in the whole country, up to 1500 m altitude[9]
 LC [10]
TriturusVulgarisFemale.jpg
Mesotriton alpestris Alpine newt Most common in the Rila and western Rhodope Mountains; isolated populations in the western Balkan Mountains, central Sredna Gora and Osogovo[1]
 LC [11]
Triturus alpestris.jpg
Salamandra salamandra fire salamander Moist wooded areas in the mountains, mostly absent from the Danubian Plain and the Upper Thracian Plain[12]
 LC [13]
Fire salamander Germany 10 2014.jpg
Triturus cristatus northern crested newt First discovered in Bulgaria in 2005; found in the western Balkan Mountains near Vratsa which is its southernmost locality[2][14][15]
 LC [16]
Kammmolchmaennchen.jpg
Triturus dobrogicus Danube crested newt Occurs in the Danube river and the lower course of its tributaries[17]
 NT [18]
Triturus dobrogicus dunai tarajosgőte.jpg
Triturus ivanbureschi Balkan-Anatolian crested newt Common in the country up to 1500 m altitude; absent from the Danube river and the lower course of its tributaries[19]
 NE 
Triturus ivanbureschi holotype (RMNH.RENA.47200) lateral.jpg
Triturus macedonicus Macedonian crested newt Slavyanka mountain in south-western Bulgaria[3]
 NE 
Benny Trapp Triturus macedonicus Griechenland.jpg

Order Anura

Family Bombinatoridae

Bombinatoridae are an Old World toad family often referred to as fire-bellied toads because of their brightly coloured ventral sides which demonstrate their high toxicity. It includes ten species in two genera, Barbourula and Bombina, both of which have flattened bodies, of which two species from genus Bombina occur in Bulgaria.[20]

Bombinatoridae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Bombina bombina European fire-bellied toad Found in the lowlands of the country, up to 250 m altitude: the Danube and Upper Thracian Plains and the Black Sea Coast[21]
 LC [22]
Bombina bombina 1 (Marek Szczepanek) tight crop.jpg
Bombina variegata yellow-bellied toad Common species in the lower mountains, up to 2000 m altitude (in Pirin and the Balkan Mountains)[23]
 LC [24]
Bombina variegata 32.jpg

Family Bufonidae

Bufonidae are a family of toads native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica. Bufonidae include the typical toads with shortened forelimbs, hindlimbs used for walking or hopping, dry warty skin, and parotoid glands behind eyes. The family contains 590 species in 50 genera, of which 2 species from genus Bufo are found in Bulgaria.[25]

Bufonidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Bufo bufo common toad Found all over the country, up to 1300 m altitude, with the exception of Pirin, where it has been recorded at 1960 m[26]
 LC [27]
Amplexus Bufo bufo 2010-03-29.jpg
Bufo viridis European green toad Found all over the country, up to 1200 m altitude; recorded in Rila at an altitude of 2000 m[28]
 LC [29]
Bufo viridis.jpg

Family Hylidae

Hylidae or tree frogs are the most diverse amphibian family with 951 species in 51 genera, and worldwide distribution. Most species inhabit tropical areas with warm and humid climate, especially the Neotropics. Hylids range from small to large in size and usually have distinct adhesive toe discs that contain a cartilage offsetting the terminal phalanx, which aids in climbing. The only genus found in Europe is Hyla, with 6 species out of 37 worldwide, and one in Bulgaria.[30]

Hylidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Hyla arborea European tree frog Found all over the country, up to 1300 m altitude; recorded in Rila at an altitude of 2300 m[31]
 LC [32]
Europäischer Laubfrosch 6412.jpg

Family Pelobatidae

Pelobatidae, also known as spadefoot toads, are a small family of frogs with one genus and four species spread in Europe, Western Asia and North-western Africa. They have short legs, stocky bodies with vertical pupils and produce an odour similar to garlic, hence their name in Bulgarian is чесновица (chesnovica), 'garlic toad'. Two of the four species inhabit the country.[33]

Pelobatidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Pelobates fuscus common spadefoot Found in the areas along the Danube river, the northernmost Black Sea coast, as well as in isolated populations in Sofia Valley[34]
 LC [35]
Pelobates fuscus insubricus01.jpg
Pelobates syriacus eastern spadefoot toad Found in the areas along the Danube river, the whole Black Sea coast, the Upper Thracian Plain and the southern Struma valley[34]
 LC [36]
Syrische Schaufelkröte.jpg

Family Ranidae

Ranidae are a widespread family also known as true frogs. They have generalized frog body plans and a generalized aquatic tadpole stage. The family includes 379 species in 14 genera, of which six species in two genera occur in Bulgaria.[33]

Ranidae
Species Common name Distribution Status Image
Pelophylax kl. esculentus edible frog Found along the Danube river and the lower course of its tributaries, as well as along the Black Sea coast[37]
 LC [38]
Teichfrosch.jpg
Pelophylax lessonae pool frog Westernmost areas along the Bulgarian Danube bank[39]
 LC [40]
RanaLessonae1.JPG
Pelophylax ridibundus marsh frog Found all over the country, up to 1300 m altitude; recorded in Belasitsa at an altitude of 2000 m[41]
 LC [42]
RanaRidibundaFemale.jpg
Rana dalmatina agile frog Found all over the country, up to 1200 m altitude, with singular records up to 2000 m[43]
 LC [44]
Rana dalmatina01.jpg
Rana graeca Greek stream frog Occurs in south-western Bulgaria[45]
 LC [46]
Benny Trapp Griechischer Frosch Rana graeca.jpg
Rana temporaria common frog Found mostly in the mountains, between 1000 and 2000 m altitude: Balkan Mountains, Rila, Pirin, Vitosha, Osogovo, Rhodope Mountains[47]
 LC [48]
European Common Frog Rana temporaria (cropped).jpg

See also

Footnotes

Notes

^ a: Conservation status at a world level (not exclusive to Bulgaria) of the species according to the IUCN Red List: Conservation status - IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:

 EX  - Extinct,  EW  - Extinct in the wild
 CR  - Critically endangered,  EN  - Endangered,  VU  - Vulnerable
 NT  - Near threatened,  LC  - Least concern
 DD  - Data deficient,  NE  - Not evaluated

Citations

  1. ^ a b Biserkov 2007, p. 34
  2. ^ a b Biserkov 2007, p. 37
  3. ^ a b Naumov, Borislav; Tzankov, Nikolay (2008). "First record of Triturus macedonicus (Karaman, 1922) (Amphibia: Salamandridae) in Bulgaria" (PDF). Historia Naturalis Bulgarica. National Museum of Natural History. 19: 111–114. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Biserkov 2007, p. 28
  5. ^ "Ecoregions of Bulgaria". The Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  6. ^ Дончев (Donchev) & Каракашев (Karakashev) 2004, p. 68
  7. ^ Дончев (Donchev) & Каракашев (Karakashev) 2004, pp. 57–58
  8. ^ "Salamandridae". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  9. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 33
  10. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Lissotriton vulgaris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  11. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Mesotriton alpestris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  12. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 32
  13. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Salamandra salamandra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  14. ^ Tzankov, Nikolay; Stoyanov, Andrei (2008). Triturus cristatus (Laurenti, 1768): a new species for Bulgaria from its southernmost localities. ISSN 0036-3375. 
  15. ^ "Triturus cristatus". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  16. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Triturus cristatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  17. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 38
  18. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Triturus dobrogicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  19. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 36
  20. ^ "Bombinatoridae". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  21. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 45
  22. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Bombina bombina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  23. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 46
  24. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Bombina variegata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  25. ^ "Bufonidae". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  26. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 51
  27. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Bufo bufo". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  28. ^ Biserkov 2007, pp. 52–53
  29. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Bufo viridis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  30. ^ "Hylidae". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  31. ^ Biserkov 2007, pp. 54
  32. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Hyla arborea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  33. ^ a b "Pelobatidae". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 18 March 2015. 
  34. ^ a b Biserkov 2007, p. 48
  35. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Pelobates fuscus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  36. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Bufo viridis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  37. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 60
  38. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Pelophylax kl. esculentus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  39. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 62
  40. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Pelophylax lessonae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  41. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 59
  42. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Pelophylax ridibundus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  43. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 56
  44. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Rana dalmatina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  45. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 57
  46. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Rana graeca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  47. ^ Biserkov 2007, p. 58
  48. ^ Arntzen, J.W.; et al. (2009). "Rana temporaria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 

References

Sources

  • Biserkov, V. (2007). Определител на земноводните и влечугите в България (A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Bulgaria) (in Bulgarian). София (Sofia): Зелени Балкани (Green Balkans). ISBN 978-954-9433-07-4. 
  • Beshkov, Vladimir; Nanev, Krastyo (2002). Земноводни и влечуги в България (Amphibians and Reptiles of Bulgaria) (in Bulgarian). София (Sofia): Пенсофт (Pensoft). ISBN 954-642-147-2. 
  • Дончев (Donchev), Дончо (Doncho); Каракашев (Karakashev), Христо (Hristo) (2004). Теми по физическа и социално-икономическа география на България (Topics on Physical and Social-Economic Geography of Bulgaria) (in Bulgarian). София (Sofia): Ciela. ISBN 954-649-717-7. 

External links

  • Naumov, B.; Stanchev, M. "Amphibians and reptiles of Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula" (in Bulgarian). An online edition of the Bulgarian Herpetological Society. Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  • Mazzei, P. "Amphibians and reptiles of Europe". Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  • "AmphibiaWeb". Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  • "The IUNC List of Threatened Species". Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
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