List of World Heritage Sites in Serbia

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List of World Heritage Sites in Serbia is located in Serbia
Stećci-Perućac
Stećci-Perućac
Stećci-Rastište
Stećci-Rastište
Stećci-Hrta
Stećci-Hrta
Location of UNESCO World Heritage Sites within Serbia and Kosovo

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Serbia succeeded the convention on 11 September 2001, following the breakup of Yugoslavia.[2]

As of 2017, there are five sites in Serbia on the list and eleven on the tentative list. The first site in Serbia to be added to the list was Stari Ras and Sopoćani, inscribed at the 3rd UNESCO session in 1979.[3] Further sites were added to the list in 1986, 2004, 2007, and 2017.[2] All are listed as cultural sites, as determined by the organization's selection criteria.[2] Four out of five sites date to the medieval period while the fifth, the Gamzigrad complex, dates to late antiquity. The Medieval Monuments in Kosovo site, first added to the list in 2004 and expanded two years later, has been on UNESCO's list of endangered sites since 2006 due to difficulties in its management and conservation stemming from the region's political instability.[4][a] The Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards site is a transnational entry, shared with three neighboring countries.[9]

World Heritage Sites

UNESCO lists sites under ten criteria; each entry must meet at least one of the criteria. Criteria i through vi are cultural, whereas vii through x are natural.[10]

  * Transnational site
  In danger In danger
Site Image Location Year listed UNESCO data Description
Stari Ras and Sopoćani Manastir Sopocani 2.jpg Raška 1979 96; i, iii (cultural) Stari Ras was the first capital of Serbia and contains an impressive group of medieval monuments consisting of fortresses, churches and monasteries. The monastery at Sopoćani is a reminder of the contacts between Western civilization and the Byzantine world.[3]
Studenica Monastery Studenica monastery (Manastir Studenica) - by Pudelek.jpg Kraljevo 1986 389; i, ii, iv, vi (cultural) The Studenica Monastery, established in the late 12th century by Stefan Nemanja, founder of the medieval Serb state, is the largest and richest of Serbia’s Orthodox monasteries. Its two principal monuments, the Church of the Virgin and the Church of the King, both built of white marble, enshrine priceless collections of 13th- and 14th-century Byzantine painting.[11]
Medieval Monuments in KosovoIn danger Visoki Dečani Dečani, Gračanica, Peć, Prizren 2004 724; ii, iii, iv (cultural) The site encompasses four monuments: Gračanica Monastery, Our Lady of Ljeviš church, Patriarchate of Peć monastery, and Visoki Dečani monastery. The four edifices of the site reflect the high points of the Byzantine-Romanesque ecclesiastical culture, with its distinct style of wall painting, which developed in the Balkans between the 13th and 17th centuries. The style played a decisive role in subsequent Balkan art.[12]

This site was inscribed on the list of World Heritage in Danger in 2006 due to difficulties in its management and conservation stemming from the region's political instability.[4]

Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius Palace of Galerius Zaječar 2007 1253; iii, iv (cultural) The Late Roman fortified palace compound and memorial complex was commissioned by Emperor Caius Valerius Galerius Maximianus in the late 3rd and early 4th centuries. It was known as Felix Romuliana, named after the emperor’s mother. The site consists of fortifications, the palace in the north-western part of the complex, basilicas, temples, hot baths, memorial complex, and a tetrapylon. The group of buildings is also unique in its intertwining of ceremonial and memorial functions.[13]
Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards* Mramorje, Perućac Perućac, Rastište, Hrta 2016 1504; iii, vi (cultural) Stećci (sing. stećak) or the medieval tombstones are the monolith stone monuments found in the regions of the present Bosnia and Herzegovina, parts of Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro. They first appeared in the 12th century and reached their peak in the 14th and 15th century. There are three sites inscribed in Serbia, at Perućac, Rastište, and Hrta.[9]

Tentative list

In addition to the sites inscribed on the World Heritage list, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage list are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[14] As of 2018, Serbia recorded twelve sites on its tentative list.[15]

Site Image Location Year listed UNESCO criteria Description
Đerdap National Park Golubac fortress Bor District 2002 vii, x (natural) The national park encompasses the Đerdap (Iron Gates) canyon of the Danube river. The area exhibits various morphological phenomena, such as gorges, karst reliefs, and limestone plateaus, and is a home to a wide variety of animal and plant species. The important prehistoric archaeological site Lepenski Vir is also in this area.[16]
The Deliblato Sands Special Natural Reserve Šušaračkokobrdo.jpg Banat 2002 viii, ix, x (natural) A large sandy area, the remains of an ancient desert originating from the withdrawal of the Pannonian Sea. The area is mostly covered by vegetation, introduced in a planned manner over the last 170 years.[17]
The Đavolja Varoš ("Devil's Town") Natural Landmark Djavolja varos 3.jpg Kuršumlija 2002 vii (natural) Rock formations, formed as a result of water erosion of volcanic tuff. There are over 200 pillars, standing between 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) and 15 metres (49 ft) high. Most of them have andesite blocks on the top, protecting them from further erosion.[18]
The Tara National Park with the Drina River Canyon Parc national Tara Serbie.jpg Zlatibor District 2002 x (natural) An important conservation area inhabited by a wide variety of plant and animal species. Among the endangered animal species, there are brown bear, chamois, and golden eagle.[19]
Mt. Sara National Park Šar Mountains, view from the Republic of Macedonia.jpg South-west Serbia (Kosovo and Metohija) 2002 vii, x (natural) The national park represents one of the most important protected areas in the Balkans, being home to more than 1,500 vascular plant species, of which about 20% are endemic and relict. There are also numerous bird species present. The high parts of the massif have transitional characteristics of the Alpine and oro-Mediterranean regions.[20]
Caričin Grad – Iustiniana Prima, archaeological site Justiniana Prima Jablanica District 2010 ii, iii (cultural) The town was built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I near his birthplace, to instill Byzantine control and help spread Christianity.[21]
Fortified Manasija Monastery Monastery Manasija - Serbia.JPG Despotovac 2010 i, ii, iv, vi (cultural) The monastery was built after the Battle of Kosovo as an endowment of the Despot Stefan Lazarević. Construction lasted from 1406–7 to 1418. Its special feature is its fortification, capable of defending and protecting the monastery settlement.[22]
Historical place of Bač and its Surroundings Bač fortress, view from the south-east.jpg Bač 2010 iv, v, vi, ix (mixed) The town of Bač contains buildings built from the 12th to the 19th century under the influences of Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Byzantine and Islamic art, and the baroque. The area has a multi-ethnic population of Serbs, Slovaks, Croats, Hungarians, Romanians, and Roma. They live off farming and animal husbandry.[23]
Negotinske Pivnice Streets of Rajac, Serbia.jpg Negotin 2010 iii, iv, v, vi (cultural) Wine cellars in the Negotin area, dating from the second half of the 19th century on. These wine cellars were often built as more monumental and better quality structures than the family houses were. People living in the area preserve a variety of traditional customs, connected to the wine production.[24]
Smederevo Fortress Smederevo small town panorama 1.jpg Smederevo 2010 iv, v (cultural) The fortress is the last great creation of Serbian military construction and one of the largest fortifications in south-east Europe. It was built in order to replace Belgrade, which was handed over to the Hungarians in 1427 after the death of Stefan Lazarević. Unlike Belgrade, the new Smederevo Fortress covered a somewhat smaller defensive area, with a simpler interior arrangement. The defense system is based on the use of cold weapons, a result of adopting traditional solutions from Byzantine military architecture. The design of the fortress was influenced by the Walls of Constantinople.[25]
Frontiers of the Roman Empire (expansion of the already existing World Heritage Site) Petrovaradin fortress several sites along the Danube river 2015 ii, iii, iv (cultural) Fortifications along the Roman Limes. Sites in Serbia, among others, include the remains at Petrovaradin, Belgrade, Zemun, Kladovo, Golubac, and Tabula Traiana.[26]
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (expansion of the already existing World Heritage Site) Forest on the Kukavica Mountain several forest in different parts of Serbia 2018 ix (natural) These forests are representative of a complex forest vegetation from the lowlands to the sub-alpine belt of the Balkan Peninsula. The site encompasses several different forests adapted to different geographical areas, altitudes and habitats. Included are: Vinatovača, Busovata, Felješana, Kukavica, Golema reka, Danilova kosa, Iznad Tatalije, Zelenika, Zeleničje, Mala Jasenova Glava, and Vrh Željina-Pločka Čuka.[27]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ In February 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia.[5] It has been recognized as an independent state by over 110 countries as of 2017.[6] Serbia considers Kosovo as a part of its sovereign territory while the United Nations is strictly neutral on whether or not Kosovo is an independent state. In April 2013, Serbia and Kosovo began to formalize relations under the Brussels Agreement.[6] Kosovo unsuccessfully attempted to become a member of UNESCO in 2015.[7] In 2017, the government decided to postpone future bids.[8]

References

  1. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – The World Heritage Convention". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 25 October 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c "Serbia". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 25 October 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Stari Ras and Sopoćani – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  4. ^ a b "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – World Heritage Committee puts Medieval Monuments in Kosovo on Danger List and extends site in Andorra, ending this year's inscriptions". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  5. ^ "Ten Stories The World Should Hear More About". un.org. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Which Countries Recognize Kosovo as a Country?". WorldAtlas.com. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  7. ^ "Kosovo fails in Unesco membership bid | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  8. ^ "Kosovo gives up bid to join UNESCO". GazetaExpress. Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Stećci Medieval Tombstones Graveyards – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  10. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 17 August 2018. 
  11. ^ "Studenica Monastery – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  12. ^ "Medieval Monuments in Kosovo – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  13. ^ "Gamzigrad-Romuliana, Palace of Galerius – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  14. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Tentative Lists". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 25 October 2015. 
  15. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Tentative Lists: Serbia". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 25 October 2015. 
  16. ^ "Djerdap National Park – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  17. ^ "The Deliblato Sands Special Natural Reserve – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  18. ^ "The Djavolja Varos (Devil's Town) Natural Landmark – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  19. ^ "The Tara National Park with the Drina River Canyon – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  20. ^ "Mt. Sara National Park – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  21. ^ "Caričin Grad – Iustiniana Prima, archaeological site – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  22. ^ "Fortified Manasija Monastery – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  23. ^ "Historical place of Bač and its Surroundings – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  24. ^ "Negotinske Pivnice – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  25. ^ "Smederevo Fortress – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  26. ^ "Frontiers of the Roman Empire (WHS FRE) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 14 September 2017. 
  27. ^ "Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (Serbia)". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 

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