List of World Heritage Sites in Peru

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Locations of World Heritage Sites in Peru (red for cultural, green for natural, blue for mixed)

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Peru ratified the convention on February 24, 1982, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list.[2]

As of 2018, Peru has 12 sites on the World Heritage List. The first sites within Peru were inscribed on the list at the 7th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Florence, Italy in 1983: "City of Cuzco" and the "Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu".[3] Eight sites are listed as cultural sites, two as natural, and two as mixed, meeting both cultural and natural selection criteria, as determined by the organization's selection criteria.[2] The site Chan Chan Archaeological Zone was inscribed to the list in 1986 and immediately placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger as the adobe constructions are easily damaged by heavy rain and erosion.[4] The Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System site is a transnational site, also shared with Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. In addition, there are eight sites on the tentative list.[5]

World Heritage Sites

UNESCO lists sites under ten criteria; each entry must meet at least one of the criteria. Criteria i through vi are cultural, whereas vii through x are natural.[6]

  * Transnational site
  In danger In danger
Site Image Location (region) Year listed UNESCO data Description
City of Cuzco Cathedral of Cuzco Cuzco 1983 273; iii, iv (cultural) Cuzco was developed by the Inca king Pachacutec, who ruled the Kingdom of Cuzco as it expanded to become the Inca Empire in the 15th century. It became the most important city of the Inca Empire, divided into distinct areas for religious and administrative use, and surrounded by an organized system of agriculture, artisan, and industrial uses. The Spanish conquered the empire in the 16th century. They built Baroque churches and buildings over the Inca ruins. Cuzco is one of the highest cities in the world.[7][8]
Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu Machu Picchu Cuzco 1983 274; i, iii, vii, ix (mixed) At 2,340 metres (7,680 ft) above sea level, the site of Machu Picchu was constructed as an expansive mountain estate around the middle of the 15th century, and abandoned approximately 100 years later. It includes walls, terraces, and buildings constructed from rock that is earthquake-resistant.[9] The city was home to about 1,200 people, mostly priests, women, and children. It was left abandoned prior to the Spanish arrival in Cuzco most likely due to smallpox.[10][11]
Chavín (Archaeological Site) Chavín de Huantar Ancash 1985 330; iii (cultural) The Chavín culture developed in the Andean highlands between 1500 and 300 BC. The site is now known as Chavín de Huantar, which served as the center. The site consists of a complex of terraces and squares cut from rock. It is believed the Chavín were primarily a religious-based society whose influence resulted from their culture, rather than aggressive expansion. [12][13]
Huascarán National Park Taulliraju Mountain in Huascarán National Park Ancash 1985 333; vii, viii (natural) Huascarán National Park is located in the Cordillera Blanca mountain range of the Andes. It surrounds Huascarán, the tallest peak in Peru. The physical environment includes glaciers, ravines, and lakes, while the park is home to several regional animal species. The national park is uninhabited, but native llamas and alpacas graze in the lowlands.[14][15]
Chan Chan Archaeological ZoneIn danger Chan Chan La Libertad 1986 366; i, iii (cultural) The city of Chan Chan served as the capital of the Chimú culture. The Chimú kingdom developed along the coast of northern Peru. Chan Chan is divided into nine walled units indicating political and social division. The Chimú were conquered by the Inca in 1470. The site was listed to the List of World Heritage in Danger when it was first inscribed, as the adobe constructions are easily damaged by heavy rain and erosion.[16][17][18]
Manú National Park Manú National Park Cuzco 1987 402; ix, x (natural) The park spreads over 1,500,000 hectares (5,800 sq mi) and from 150 metres (490 ft) to 4,200 metres (13,800 ft) above sea-level. Manú is home to 1,000 bird species, over 200 species of mammals (100 of which are bats), and over 15,000 species of flowering plants. Jaguars have been seen throughout the national park. The giant otter and giant armadillo are just a few rare species found in the national park.[19] Prior to being recognized as a World Heritage site in 1987, it was designated as a biosphere reserve in 1977. [20][21]
Historic Centre of Lima Plaza de Armas, Lima Lima Province1 1988 500; iv (cultural) Lima was founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1535 as La Ciudad de los Reyes (City of the Kings). Until the middle of the 18th century, it was the most important city in Spanish South America. The architecture and decoration combine the style of both the local population and Europe, such as in the Monastery of San Francisco. Also, hospitals, schools and universities were built. San Marcos University was built in 1551. The city’s social and cultural life was organized within these places, giving Lima a convent image which characterized its urban profile until half of the 20th century.[22]
Rio Abiseo National Park Cataratas del Breo San Martín 1990 548; iii, vii, ix, x (mixed) The park was created in 1983 in order to protect the region's rainforest habitat. The park is home to many endemic species such as the yellow-tailed woolly monkey, which was thought to be extinct. The site is also listed under cultural criteria, as over 30 Pre-Columbian sites have been discovered since 1985.[23]
Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca and Pampas de Jumana Nazca monkey Ica 1994 700; i, iii, iv (cultural) The large designs in the Nazca Desert are believed to have been created by the Nazca culture between 400 and 650 AD. They were created by scratching lines into the ground surface. Designs include animals such as a monkey and hummingbird, plants, and geographic shapes on a large scale. It is believed that they served a ritualistic purpose. [24][25]
Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa Cathedral of Arequipa Arequipa 2000 1016; i, iv (cultural) Arequipa is built primarily on top of sillar, a white volcanic rock, the product of nearby El Misti volcano. The architecture of the city is known for its combination of traditional indigenous styles with the new techniques of the European colonial settlers.[26]
Sacred City of Caral-Supe Caral Lima 2009 1269; ii, iii, iv (cultural) The archaeological site belonged to the Norte Chico civilization that inhabited the area during the Late Archaic period. Caral is one of 18 complex urban settlements in the region and features many monuments and pyramids. Caral is the earliest known American settlement. A quipu recovered from the site demonstrates its influence on later Andean cultures.[27]
Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System* Inca trail several regions 2014 1459; ii, iii, iv, vi (cultural) The site covers an extensive road system in the Andes built over several centuries by the Incas, partly based on pre-Inca infrastructure. The sistem spans over more than 6,000 kilometres (3,700 mi) running through various geographical terrains - the coast, rainforests, valleys, deserts, and mountainous regions above 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) of altitute. The site includes 273 component sites in six countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Tentative list

In addition to the sites inscribed on the World Heritage list, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage list are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[28] As of 2018, Peru recorded eight sites on its tentative list.[29]

Site Image Location (region) Year listed UNESCO criteria Description
Archaeological Complex of Pachacamac Pachacamac Lima 1996 (cultural) [30]
Historic Center of the City of Trujillo Freedom Monument, Trujillo La Libertad 1996 (cultural) [31]
The Great Inka Trail: state transportation system originally named "Qhapac Ñan" Inca trail several regions 2001 ii, iii, iv, v, vi (cultural) "The Great Inka Trail" is an entry exclusive to Peru.[2] "The Sistema Vial Andino/Qhapaq Ñan" is a site also listed by Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. The movement to include the road system was initiated with Peru's addition of it to the tentative list in 2001. Argentina and Chile joined the movement shortly afterwards. On January 29, 2003, the six Andean states approached the World Heritage Centre, requesting that it take charge of coordinating the joint project.[32] The latter site was inscribed to the list in 2014.[33][34]
The Historic Centre of Cajamarca Catedral de Cajamarca Cajamarca 2002 ii, iv (cultural) [35]
Lake Titicaca Lake Titicaca Puno 2005 ii, iii, v, vi, vii, x (mixed) [36]
Kuelap Archaeological Complex Kuelap Amazonas 2011 iii, iv (cultural) [37]
Chankillo Astronomical Complex Chanquillo Ancash 2013 i, iii, iv (cultural) [38]
Santa Bárbara mining complex Huancavelica Huancavelica 2017 ii, iv (cultural) [39]

Notes

1. ^ Lima Province is the only one of the 195 provinces of Peru not within a region.

References

  1. ^ "The World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c "Peru". UNESCO. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  3. ^ "Report of the Rapporteur". UNESCO. January 1984. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  4. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Chan Chan Archaeological Zone". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  5. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Tentative Lists". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  6. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – The Criteria for Selection". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 17 August 2018. 
  7. ^ "Inca Highway | Arts & Culture | Smithsonian". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  8. ^ "City of Cuzco". UNESCO. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  9. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "City of Cuzco - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  10. ^ "Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu". UNESCO. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Machu Picchu". Archaeological Sites. Minnesota State University. October 14, 2004. Archived from the original on August 27, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Chavín (Archaeological Site)". UNESCO. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  13. ^ "Chavín de Huantar, Peru". Global Heritage Network. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved October 24, 2010. 
  14. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Huascarán National Park - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  15. ^ "Huascarán National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Chan Chan Archaeological Zone". UNESCO. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Chan Chan Archaeological Zone – Threats to the Site". UNESCO. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Historia". Complejo Arqueologico de Chan Chan (in Spanish). Patrimonio Mundial de la Humanidad. Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  19. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Manú National Park - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  20. ^ "Manú National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Conservation". The Living Edens – Manu. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Historic Centre of Lima". UNESCO. Retrieved September 23, 2010. 
  23. ^ "Rio Abiseo National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved September 24, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca and Pampas de Jumana". UNESCO. Retrieved September 27, 2010. 
  25. ^ Brown, David & Helaine Silverman. "New evidence for the date of the Nazca lines". Antiquity. 65 (247): 208–220. Retrieved September 27, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa". UNESCO. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Sacred City of Caral-Supe". UNESCO. Retrieved September 28, 2010. 
  28. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Centre – Tentative Lists". unesco.org. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 25 July 2017. 
  29. ^ "Tentative Lists (Peru)". UNESCO. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  30. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (1996-08-30). "Archaeological Complex of Pachacamac - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  31. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (1996-08-30). "Historic Center of the City of Trujillo - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  32. ^ "Main Andean Road – Qhapaq Ñan". UNESCO. Retrieved September 21, 2010. 
  33. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  34. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2001-10-16). "The Great Inka Trail: state transportation system originally named "Qhapac Ñan" - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  35. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2002-02-15). "The Historic Centre of Cajamarca - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  36. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2005-06-17). "Lake Titicaca - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  37. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2011-12-14). "Kuelap Archaeological Complex - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  38. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2013-01-18). "Chankillo Astronomical Complex - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 
  39. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2002-02-28). "Santa Bárbara mining complex - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-26. 

External links

  • Comisión Nacional Peruana de Cooperación con UNESCO (in Spanish)

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_World_Heritage_Sites_in_Peru&oldid=856753762"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_Sites_in_Peru
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "List of World Heritage Sites in Peru"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA