List of Victoria Cross recipients by campaign

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The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals, and may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command.[1] The award was officially constituted when Queen Victoria issued a warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that was gazetted on 5 February 1856.[2] The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War.[3] The first awards ceremony was held on 26 June 1857, where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park.[4]

The first citations of the VC, particularly those in the initial gazette of 24 February 1857, varied in the details of each action; some specify date ranges while some specify a single date. The original Royal Warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was to not award the VC posthumously.[5] Between 1897 and 1901, several notices were issued in the London Gazette regarding soldiers who would have been awarded the VC had they survived. In a partial reversal of policy in 1902, six of the soldiers mentioned were granted the VC, but not "officially" awarded the medal. In 1907, the posthumous policy was completely reversed and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six soldiers.[6] The Victoria Cross warrant was not officially amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920, but one quarter of all awards for the First World War were posthumous.[7][8] Three people have been awarded the VC and Bar, which is a medal for two actions; Noel Chavasse, Arthur Martin-Leake and Charles Upham.[9] Chavasse received both medals for actions in the First World War, while Martin-Leake was awarded his first VC for actions in the Second Boer War, and his second for actions during the First World War. Charles Upham received both VCs for actions during the Second World War.

The Victoria Cross has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. The largest number of recipients for one campaign is the First World War, for which 628 medals were awarded to 627 recipients.[10] The largest number awarded for actions on a single day was 24 on 16 November 1857, at the Second Relief of Lucknow, during the Indian Mutiny.[11] The largest number awarded for a single action was 18, for the assault on Sikandar Bagh, during the Second Relief of Lucknow. The largest number awarded to one unit during a single action was 7, to the 2nd/24th Foot, for the defence of Rorke's Drift (22–23 January 1879), during the Zulu War.[12]

Since 1991, Australia, Canada and New Zealand have created their own separate Victoria Crosses: the Victoria Cross for Australia, the Victoria Cross (Canada), and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand. Only five of these separate medals have been awarded, all for actions in the War in Afghanistan; Willie Apiata received the Victoria Cross for New Zealand on 26 July 2007; on 16 January 2009 Mark Donaldson, on 24 August 2010 Daniel Keighran, on 23 January 2011 Ben Roberts-Smith, and on 13 February 2014 Cameron Baird (posthumous award), were awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia. As these are separate medals, they are not included in this list.[13]

Recipients

  •   This along with a ‡ indicates that the row is a link to a separate page containing the recipients of wars or campaigns with a large number of recipients.
  •   This along with a * indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously.
Recipients Unit Campaign Dates Location
000 a111 Crimean War recipients 000 a Crimean WarCrimean War 1854–18561854–1856 000 a
John Wood 02020th Bombay Native Infantry Anglo-Persian War 1856-08-099 August 1856 Bushire, Persia
John Malcolmson 0033rd Bombay Light Cavalry Anglo-Persian War 1857-02-088 February 1857 Khoosh-ab, Persia
Arthur Moore 0033rd Bombay Light Cavalry Anglo-Persian War 1858-02-078 February 1857 Khoosh-ab, Persia
000.1182 Indian Mutiny recipients 000.1 Indian MutinyIndian Mutiny 18581857–1859 000.1
Nathaniel Burslem 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
John Chaplin 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Andrew Fitzgibbon 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Thomas Lane 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Edmund Lenon 06767th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
John McDougall 04444th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
Robert Rogers 04444th Regiment of Foot Third China War 1860-08-2121 August 1860 Taku Forts, China
000.1515 New Zealand Land Wars recipients 000.15 New Zealand Land WarsNew Zealand Land Wars 1860–18651860–1865 000.15
George Hinckley Naval Brigade Taiping Rebellion 1862-10-099 October 1862 Fenghua, China
George Fosbery 0044th Bengal European Regiment Umbeyla Campaign 1863-10-3030 October 1863 Crag Picquet, India
Henry Pitcher 0044th Punjab Infantry Umbeyla Campaign 1863-10-3030 October 1863 Crag Picquet, India
Duncan Boyes HMS Euryalus Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864-09-066 September 1864 Kanmon Straits, Japan
Thomas Pride Royal Navy Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864-09-066 September 1864 Kanmon Straits, Japan
William Seeley HMS Euryalus Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864-09-066 September 1864 Kanmon Straits, Japan
James Dundas Bengal Engineers Bhutan War 1865-04-3030 April 1865 Dewan-Giri, India
William Trevor Bengal Engineers Bhutan War 1865-04-3030 April 1865 Dewan-Giri, India
Timothy O'Hea Rifle Brigade [A] 1866-06-099 June 1866 Danville, Quebec
Samuel Hodge West India Regiment The Gambia 1866-06-3030 June 1866 Tubabecelong, Gambia|
David Bell 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
Campbell Douglas 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
James Cooper 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
Thomas Murphy 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
William Griffiths 02424th Regiment of Foot Andaman Islands Expedition 1867-05-077 May 1867 Little Andaman
James Bergin 03333rd Regiment of Foot Abyssinian War 1868-04-1313 April 1868 Battle of Magdala, Abyssinia
Michael Magner 03333rd Regiment of Foot Abyssinian War 1868-04-1313 April 1868 Battle of Magdala, Abyssinia
Donald Macintyre 0022nd Gurkha Rifles Looshai Expedition 1872-01-044 January 1872 Lalgnoora, India
Edric Gifford 02424th Regiment of Foot First Ashanti Expedition 1873–1874 Becquah, Ashanti
Reginald Sartorius 0066th Bengal Cavalry First Ashanti Expedition 1874-01-1717 January 1874 Abogu, Ashanti
Samuel McGaw 04242nd Regiment of Foot First Ashanti Expedition 1874-01-2121 January 1874 Amoaful, Ashanti
Mark Bell Corps of Royal Engineers First Ashanti Expedition 1874-02-044 February 1874 Ordashu, Ashanti
George Channer Bengal Staff Corps Perak War 1875-12-2020 December 1875 Malaya, Malaysia
Andrew Scott Bengal Staff Corps Baluchistan 1877-07-2626 July 1877 Quetta, India
Hans Moore 08888th Regiment of Foot 9th Cape Frontier War 1877-12-2929 December 1877 King William's Town, Cape Colony
000.223 Zulu War recipients 000.2 Zulu WarZulu War 18791879 000.2
000.316 Second Afghan War recipients 000.3 Second Afghan WarSecond Afghan War 1878–18801878–1880 000.3
Peter Brown Cape Mounted Riflemen Basuto War 1879-04-088 April 1879 Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Robert Scott Cape Mounted Riflemen Basuto War 1879-04-088 April 1879 Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Edmund Hartley Cape Mounted Riflemen Basuto War 1879-06-055 June 1879 Morosi's Mountain, South Africa
Francis Fitzpatrick Connaught Rangers Basuto War 1879-11-2828 November 1879 Sekukuni's Town, South Africa
Thomas Flawn Connaught Rangers Basuto War 1879-11-2828 November 1879 Sekukuni's Town, South Africa
John McCrea 0011st Cape Mounted Yeomanry Basuto War 1881-01-1414 January 1881 Tweefontein, South Africa
Richard Ridgeway Bengal Staff Corps Second Naga Hills Expedition 1879-11-2222 November 1879 Konama, India
John Danaher Nourse's Horse First Boer War 1881-01-1616 January 1881 Elandsfontein, South Africa
James Murray Connaught Rangers First Boer War 1881-01-1616 January 1881 Elandsfontein, South Africa
John Doogan 0011st King's Dragoon Guards First Boer War 1881-01-2828 January 1881 Laing's Nek, South Africa
Alan Hill Northamptonshire Regiment First Boer War 1881-01-2828 January 1881 Laing's Nek, South Africa
James Osborne Northamptonshire Regiment First Boer War 1881-02-2222 February 1881 Wesselstroom, South Africa
Joseph Farmer Royal Army Medical Corps First Boer War 1881-02-2727 February 1881 Majubu Hill, South Africa
Israel Harding HMS Alexandra Occupation of Egypt 1882-07-1111 July 1882 Alexandria, Egypt
Frederick Corbett King's Royal Rifle Corps Occupation of Egypt 1882-08-055 August 1882 Kafr Dowar, Egypt
William Edwards Highland Light Infantry Occupation of Egypt 1882-09-1313 September 1882 Tel-el-Kebir, Egypt
William Marshall 01919th Hussars Sudan Campaign 1884-02-2929 February 1884 El Teb, Sudan
Arthur Wilson HMS Hecla Sudan Campaign 1884-02-2929 February 1884 El Teb, Sudan
Thomas Edwards Black Watch Sudan Campaign 1884-03-1313 March 1884 Tamai, Sudan
Percival Marling King's Royal Rifle Corps Sudan Campaign 1884-03-1313 March 1884 Tamai, Sudan
Alfred Smith Royal Regiment of Artillery Sudan Campaign 1885-01-1717 January 1885 Abu Klea, Sudan
Thomas Byrne 02121st Lancers Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
Raymond De Montmorency 02121st Lancers Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
Paul Kenna 02121st Lancers Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
Nevill Smyth 0022nd Dragoon Guards Sudan Campaign 1898-09-022 September 1898 Omdurman, Sudan
Alexander Hore-Rithven Highland Light Infantry Sudan Campaign 1898-09-2222 September 1898 Gedarif, Sudan
John Crimmin Bombay Medical Service British rule in Burma 1889-01-011 January 1889 Karenni, Burma
Ferdinand Le Quesne Royal Army Medical Corps British rule in Burma 1889-05-044 May 1889 Tartan, Burma
Charles Grant Indian Staff Corps Manipur Expedition 1891-03-2121 March 1891 to
9 April 1891
Thobal, Burma
Fenton Aylmer Corps of Royal Engineers Hunza-Naga Campaign 1891-12-022 December 1891 Nilt Fort, India
Guy Boisragon 0055th Gurkha Rifles Hunza-Naga Campaign 1891-12-022 December 1891 Nilt Fort, India
John Smith 0055th Gurkha Rifles Hunza-Naga Campaign 1891-12-2020 December 1891 Nilt Fort, India
William Gordon West India Regiment The Gambia 1892-03-1313 March 1892 Toniataba, Gambia
Owen Lloyd Royal Army Medical Corps Kachin Hills Expedition 1893-01-066 January 1893 Fort Sima, Burma
Harry Whitchurch Indian Medical Service Chitral Expedition 1895-03-033 March 1895 Chitral Fort, India
Herbert Henderson Bulawayo Field Force Matabeleland Rebellion 1896-03-3030 March 1896 Bulawayo, Rhodesia
Frank Baxter Bulawayo Field Force Matabeleland Rebellion 1896-04-2222 April 1896* Umguza, Rhodesia
Randolph Nesbitt Mashonaland Mounted Police Mashona Rebellion 1896-06-1919 June 1896 Salisbury, Rhodesia
Edmond Costello 02222nd Punjab Infantry Siege of Malakand 1897-07-2626 July 1897 Malakand, India
James Colvin Corps of Royal Engineers Mohmand Campaign 1897-09-1616 September 1897 Bilot, India
James Smith Corps of Royal Engineers Mohmand Campaign 1897-09-1616 September 1897 Bilot, India
Thomas Watson Corps of Royal Engineers Mohmand Campaign 1897-09-1616 September 1897 Bilot, India
Robert Adams Corps of Guides Tirah Campaign 1897-08-1717 August 1897 Swat, India
Hector MacLean Corps of Guides Tirah Campaign 1897-08-1717 August 1897* Swat, India
Alexander Fincastle 01616th Lancers Tirah Campaign 1897-08-1717 August 1897 Swat, India
Henry Pennell Sherwood Foresters Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
George Findlater Gordon Highlanders Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
Edward Lawson Gordon Highlanders Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
Samuel Vickery Dorset Regiment Tirah Campaign 1897-10-2020 October 1897 Dargai, India
William Maillard HMS Hazard Occupation of Crete 1898-09-066 September 1898 Crete, Greece
John Mackenzie Seaforth Highlanders Third Ashanti Expedition 1900-06-066 June 1900 Dompoassi, Ashanti
Charles Melliss Indian Staff Corps Third Ashanti Expedition 1900-09-3030 September 1900 Obassa, Ashanti
Lewis Halliday Royal Marine Light Infantry Boxer Rising 1900-06-2424 June 1900 Peking, China
Basil Guy Naval Brigade Boxer Rising 1900-07-1313 July 1900 China
000.478 Second Boer War recipients 000.4 Second Boer WarSecond Boer War 1899–19021899–1902 000.4
Alexander Cobbe King's African Rifles Second Somaliland Expedition 1902-10-066 October 1902 Erego, Somaliland
William Walker 0044th Gurkha Rifles Third Somaliland Expedition 1903-04-2222 April 1903 Daratoleh, Somaliland
John Gough Rifle Brigade Third Somaliland Expedition 1903-04-2222 April 1903 Daratoleh, Somaliland
George Rolland 0011st Bombay Grenadiers Third Somaliland Expedition 1903-04-2222 April 1903 Daratoleh, Somaliland
Herbert Carter Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry Fourth Somaliland Expedition 1903-12-1919 December 1903 Jidballi, Somaliland
Clement Smith Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry Fourth Somaliland Expedition 1904-01-1010 January 1904 Jidballi, Somaliland
Wallace Wright 002Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey) Kano-Sokoto Expedition 1903-02-2626 February 1903 Northern Nigeria
John Grant 0088th Gurkha Rifles Armed Mission to Tibet 1904-07-066 July 1904 Gyantse Fortress
000.5627 First World War recipients[B] 000.5 First World WarFirst World War 1914–19181914–1918 000.5
Augustus Agar HM Coastal Motor Boat 4 North Russia Relief Force 1919-06-1717 June 1919 Kronstadt, Russia
Arthur Sullivan Royal Fusiliers North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-1010 August 1919 Sheika River, Russia
Claude Dobson HM Coastal Motor Boat 31 North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-1818 August 1919 Kronstadt, Russia
Gordon Steele HM Coastal Motor Boat 88 North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-1818 August 1919 Kronstadt, Russia
Samuel Pearse Royal Fusiliers North Russia Relief Force 1919-08-2929 August 1919* Emtsa, Russia
Henry Andrews Indian Medical Service Waziristan Campaign 1919-10-2222 October 1919* Khajuri, Waziristan
William Kenny 03939th Garhwal Rifles Waziristan Campaign 1920-01-022 January 1920* Kot Kai, Waziristan
Ishar Singh 02828th Punjab Regiment Waziristan Campaign 1921-04-1010 April 1921 Haidari Kach, Waziristan
George Henderson Manchester Regiment Arab Revolt 1920-07-2424 July 1920* Hillah, Mesopotamia
Godfrey Meynell 01212th Frontier Force Regiment Second Mohmand Campaign 1935-09-2929 September 1935* Mamund Valley, India
000.6181 Second World War recipients[C] 000.6 Second World WarSecond World War 1939–19451939–1945 000.6
Kenneth Muir Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders Korean War 1950-09-2323 September 1950* Songju, Korea
James Carne Gloucestershire Regiment Korean War 1950-04-2222–23 April 1951 Imjin River, Korea
Philip Curtis Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry Korean War 1950-04-2222–23 April 1951* Imjin River, Korea
Bill Speakman Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) Korean War 1951-11-044 November 1951 Hill 217, Korea
Rambahadur Limbu 01010th Gurkha Rifles Malaysia-Indonesia Confrontation 1965-11-2121 November 1965 Sarawak, Borneo
Kevin Wheatley Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1965-11-1313 November 1965* Tra Bong, Vietnam
Peter Badcoe Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1967-02-2323 February 1967
7 March 1967
7 April 1967*
Huong Tra, Vietnam
Ray Simpson Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1969-05-066–11 May 1969 Kon Tum province, Vietnam
Keith Payne Australian Army Training Team Vietnam Vietnam War 1969-05-2424 May 1969 Ben Het, Vietnam
Herbert Jones Parachute Regiment Falklands War 1982-05-2828 May 1982* Goose Green, Falkland Islands
Ian McKay Parachute Regiment Falklands War 1982-06-1212 June 1982* Mount Longdon, Falkland Islands
Johnson Beharry Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment Iraq War 2004-05-011 May 2004
11 June 2004
Al-Amarah, Iraq
Bryan Budd Parachute Regiment War in Afghanistan 2006-07-2727 July 2006
20 August 2006*
Sangin, Afghanistan
James Ashworth Grenadier Guards War in Afghanistan 2012-06-1313 June 2012* Nahiri Saraj District, Afghanistan
Joshua Leakey Parachute Regiment War in Afghanistan 2013-08-2222 August 2013 Helmand Province, Afghanistan

Notes

  • ^ Between 1858 and 1881, the Victoria Cross could be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy. O'Hea single handedly put out a fire in an ammunition cart, and was awarded the VC for that action. This rule was changed in 1881 to allow only acts "in the presence of the enemy".[14]
  • ^ 628 Medals were awarded to 627 recipients. Two Bars were awarded; Noel Godfrey Chavasse was awarded the Victoria Cross and Bar for two separate actions; Arthur Martin-Leake was awarded a VC in the Second Boer War, and his Bar for actions in the First World War.
  • ^ 182 medals were awarded to 181 recipients; Charles Upham was awarded the Victoria Cross and Bar.

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ Ashcroft, Michael; preface; XI–XIII
  2. ^ The Gazette publishing the original Royal Warrant
    "No. 21846". The London Gazette. 5 February 1856. pp. 410–411. 
  3. ^ Ashcroft, Michael; pp.7–10
  4. ^ Ashcroft, Michael; Preface to Victoria Cross Heroes
  5. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  6. ^ "No. 27986". The London Gazette. 15 January 1907. p. 325. 
  7. ^ Crook, MJ, Chapter 8 pp.68–90
  8. ^ "No. 31946". The London Gazette. 18 June 1920. p. 6702. 
  9. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, Introduction: A brief History of the VC (pp.14–18)
  10. ^ Arthur, Max; pp.185–371
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2006. 
  12. ^ Arthur, Max; p.XIV
  13. ^ "Press kit related to July 2007 gallantry awards (NZ)" (PDF). NZ Government through news agency. 2 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007. 
  14. ^ "VC background". British War Graves Memorial. Archived from the original on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
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