List of Turkish football champions

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Turkish football championships
Founded 1924
Country Turkey
Number of teams 18
Level on pyramid Level 1
Current champions Galatasaray SK
(2017–18)
Most championships Galatasaray SK (21 titles)
Football team of Harbiye in 1924, the first national champions in Turkish football history
Football team of Harbiye in 1924, the first national champions in Turkish football history

The Turkish football champions are the annual winners of the highest association football competition in Turkey. Brought to the country by Englishmen, the sport had first taken root in Istanbul, where the Istanbul Football League was founded and became the first football league in Turkey. Other regional and local leagues followed in other major cities, such as Ankara (1923), Eskişehir (1920), and İzmir (1923).

The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the Turkish Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası), which began in 1924 and continued until 1951.[1] The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues. At the end of the 1924 season, Harbiye were the first club to be crowned champions after completing their fixtures unbeaten.[2] They are also the only club who have ever changed their name after winning a championship title, changing their name to Harp Okulu after the first of their three titles. Started in 1937, the National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was the first national league competition and was held until 1950.[3]

A few years later, in 1959, the professional nationwide league was introduced, currently known as the Süper Lig. The league is contested on a round robin basis and the championship is awarded to the team that is top of the league at the end of the season. The league originally contained 16 teams. Today the Süper Lig is contested by 18 teams. Of the founding teams in the league, only Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, and Galatasaray have not been relegated to date. Fenerbahçe are the most successful club, having won 28 titles in total so far.[4][5]

History

Turkish newspaper Son Posta announcing the Turkish championship title of Fenerbahçe on 9 September 1935
Turkish newspaper Son Posta announcing the Turkish championship title of Fenerbahçe on 9 September 1935

Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica (then part of the Turkish Empire).[6] The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, a regional league for Istanbul clubs which took place in the 1904–05 season. The first champions were HMS Imogene FC. The league went through several variations until the creation of the professional nationwide league (Süper Lig) in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul Football League and Süper Lig, several other regional leagues took place: Adana (1923), Ankara (1923), Eskişehir (1920), İzmir (1923), Kayseri (1936), and Trabzon (1923).[7]

The first competition to bring forth a national champion was the Turkish Football Championship (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Şampiyonası), which began in 1924 and continued until 1951. The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of the country's regional leagues. In some of the early years, the championship could not be held due to insufficient funds.[8]

Started in 1937, the National Division (Turkish: Millî Küme) was a national league competition between the strongest clubs of Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir, which hosted the strongest regional leagues in those decades. The league lasted until 1950.[9] From 1940 to 1950, both top-level championships existed at the same time, which resulted in there being two national champions within a year.

The Federation Cup was created in 1956 and took place as a cup competition to decide a national champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The competition was held for two years until it was replaced by the Süper Lig (then known as Millî Lig). Beşiktaş won both editions and earned the right to represent Turkey twice in the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the Turkish Football Federation failed to register them for the draw in time, they were not able to participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[10][11]

The top clubs from Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 National League. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958–59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The clubs who competed in the first season were Adalet, Beşiktaş, Galatasaray, Beykoz, Karagümrük, Fenerbahçe, İstanbulspor, Vefa (all from Istanbul), Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Gençlerbirliği, Hacettepe (all from Ankara), Altay, Göztepe, İzmirspor, and Karşıyaka (all from İzmir). Five of these clubs are currently competing in the Süper Lig: Ankaragücü, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, and Göztepe. The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" (top scorer) was Metin Oktay.[12]

The 2.Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the National League (Millî Lig) became known as the 1.Lig (First League). After the creation of a new second division in 2001, from then on known as 1.Lig, the formerly titled 1.Lig became the current Süper Lig.[13]

Champions

Turkish Football Championship (1924–1951)

(not recognised by TFF)

Season Winners[4][14] Runners-up[4] Leading goalscorer Goals
1924 Harbiye (1) Bahriye not available
1925
Not held due to insufficient funds.
1926
1927 Muhafızgücü (1) Altınordu not available
1928
Not held due to insufficient funds.
1929
1930
1931
1932 İstanbulspor (1) Altınordu not available
1933 Fenerbahçe (1) İzmirspor Turkey Zeki Rıza Sporel (Fenerbahçe) 10
1934 Beşiktaş (1) Altay not available
1935 Fenerbahçe (2) Altınordu not available
1936
Not held due to the introduction of the National Division.
1937
1938
1939
1940 Eskişehir Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe not available
1941 Gençlerbirliği (1) Beşiktaş not available
1942 Harp Okulu (2) Göztepe not available
1943
Not held
1944 Fenerbahçe (6) Harp Okulu not available
1945 Harp Okulu (3) İzmit Harp Filosu not available
1946 Gençlerbirliği (2) Beşiktaş not available
1947 Ankara Demirspor (1) Fenerbahçe not available
1948
Not held due to the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.
1949 Ankaragücü (1) Galatasaray not available
1950 Göztepe (1) Gençlerbirliği not available
1951 Beşiktaş (5) Altay not available

National Division (1937–1950)

(not recognised by TFF)

Season Winners[4][9] Runners-up[4] Third place[4][9] Leading goalscorer[15][16] Goals
1937 Fenerbahçe (3) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Turkey Said Altınordu (Üçok) 13
1938 Güneş (1) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Turkey Şeref Görkey (Beşiktaş) 13
1939 Galatasaray (1) Ankara Demirspor AS-FA Gücü Turkey Cemil Erlertürk (Galatasaray)
Turkey Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş)
13
1940 Fenerbahçe (4) Galatasaray Muhafızgücü Turkey Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 23
1941 Beşiktaş (2) Galatasaray Fenerbahçe Turkey Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş) 18
1942
Not held as a result of the weather conditions and some international organizations delaying the regional leagues.
1943 Fenerbahçe (5) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Turkey Şeref Görkey (Beşiktaş) 13
1944 Beşiktaş (3) Fenerbahçe Göztepe Turkey Kemal Gülçelik (Beşiktaş)
Turkey Hakkı Yeten (Beşiktaş)
15
1945 Fenerbahçe (7) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Turkey Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 17
1946 Fenerbahçe (8) Beşiktaş Kayagücü Turkey Melih Kotanca (Fenerbahçe) 12
1947 Beşiktaş (4) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Turkey İsmet Artun (Vefa)
Turkey Şükrü Gülesin (Beşiktaş)
12
1948
Not held due to the 1948 Summer Olympics in London.
1949
Not held due to the Mediterranean Games.
1950 Fenerbahçe (9) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Turkey Lefter Küçükandonyadis (Fenerbahçe) 14

Federation Cup (1956–1958)

(not recognised by TFF until 2002)

Season Winners[4][17] Runners-up[10] Third place[10] Leading goalscorer[15][18] Goals
1956–57 Beşiktaş (6) Galatasaray Altay Turkey Nazmi Bilge (Beşiktaş) 8
1957–58 Beşiktaş (7) Galatasaray Turkey Lefter Küçükandonyadis (Fenerbahçe)
Turkey Metin Oktay (Galatasaray)
10

Süper Lig (1959–present)

Season Winners[4][17] Runners-up[19] Third place[19] Leading goalscorer[15][20] Goals
1959 Fenerbahçe (10) Galatasaray Turkey Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 11
1959–60 Beşiktaş (8) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Turkey Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 33
1960–61 Fenerbahçe (11) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Turkey Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 36
1961–62 Galatasaray (2) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Turkey Fikri Elma (Ankara Demirspor) 21
1962–63 Galatasaray (3) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe Turkey Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 38
1963–64 Fenerbahçe (12) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Turkey Güven Önüt (Beşiktaş) 19
1964–65 Fenerbahçe (13) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Turkey Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 17
1965–66 Beşiktaş (9) Galatasaray Gençlerbirliği Turkey Ertan Adatepe (Ankaragücü) 20
1966–67 Beşiktaş (10) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Turkey Ertan Adatepe (Ankaragücü) 18
1967–68 Fenerbahçe (14) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Turkey Fevzi Zemzem (Göztepe) 19
1968–69 Galatasaray (4) Eskişehirspor Beşiktaş Turkey Metin Oktay (Galatasaray) 17
1969–70 Fenerbahçe (15) Eskişehirspor Altay Turkey Fethi Heper (Eskişehirspor) 13
1970–71 Galatasaray (5) Fenerbahçe Göztepe Turkey Ogün Altıparmak (Fenerbahçe) 16
1971–72 Galatasaray (6) Eskişehirspor Fenerbahçe Turkey Fethi Heper (Eskişehirspor) 20
1972–73 Galatasaray (7) Fenerbahçe Eskişehirspor Turkey Osman Arpacıoğlu (Fenerbahçe) 16
1973–74 Fenerbahçe (16) Beşiktaş Boluspor Turkey Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe) 14
1974–75 Fenerbahçe (17) Galatasaray Eskişehirspor Turkey Ömer Kaner (Eskişehirspor) 14
1975–76 Trabzonspor (1) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Turkey Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe)
Turkey Ali Osman Renklibay (Ankaragücü)
17
1976–77 Trabzonspor (2) Fenerbahçe Altay Turkey Necmi Perekli (Trabzonspor) 18
1977–78 Fenerbahçe (18) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Turkey Cemil Turan (Fenerbahçe) 17
1978–79 Trabzonspor (3) Galatasaray Fenerbahçe Turkey Özer Umdu (Adanaspor) 15
1979–80 Trabzonspor (4) Fenerbahçe Zonguldakspor Turkey Mustafa Denizli (Altay)
Turkey Bahtiyar Yorulmaz (Bursaspor)
12
1980–81 Trabzonspor (5) Adanaspor Galatasaray Turkey Bora Öztürk (Adanaspor) 15
1981–82 Beşiktaş (11) Trabzonspor Fenerbahçe Turkey Selçuk Yula (Fenerbahçe) 16
1982–83 Fenerbahçe (19) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Turkey Selçuk Yula (Fenerbahçe) 19
1983–84 Trabzonspor (6) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Tarik Hodžić (Galatasaray) 16
1984–85 Fenerbahçe (20) Beşiktaş Trabzonspor Turkey Aykut Yiğit (Sakaryaspor) 20
1985–86 Beşiktaş (12) Galatasaray Samsunspor Turkey Tanju Çolak (Samsunspor) 33
1986–87 Galatasaray (8) Beşiktaş Samsunspor Turkey Tanju Çolak (Samsunspor) 25
1987–88 Galatasaray (9) Beşiktaş Malatyaspor Turkey Tanju Çolak (Galatasaray) 39
1988–89 Fenerbahçe (21) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Turkey Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 29
1989–90 Beşiktaş (13) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Turkey Feyyaz Uçar (Beşiktaş) 28
1990–91 Beşiktaş (14) Galatasaray Trabzonspor Turkey Tanju Çolak (Galatasaray) 31
1991–92 Beşiktaş (15) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Turkey Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 25
1992–93 Galatasaray (10) Beşiktaş Trabzonspor Turkey Tanju Çolak (Fenerbahçe) 27
1993–94 Galatasaray (11) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Turkey Bülent Uygun (Fenerbahçe) 22
1994–95 Beşiktaş (16) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Turkey Aykut Kocaman (Fenerbahçe) 27
1995–96 Fenerbahçe (22) Trabzonspor Beşiktaş Georgia (country) Shota Arveladze (Trabzonspor) 25
1996–97 Galatasaray (12) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe Turkey Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 38
1997–98 Galatasaray (13) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Turkey Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 33
1998–99 Galatasaray (14) Beşiktaş Fenerbahçe Turkey Hakan Şükür (Galatasaray) 19
1999–00 Galatasaray (15) Beşiktaş Gaziantepspor Turkey Serkan Aykut (Samsunspor) 30
2000–01 Fenerbahçe (23) Galatasaray Gaziantepspor Turkey Okan Yılmaz (Bursaspor) 23
2001–02 Galatasaray (16) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Turkey Arif Erdem (Galatasaray)
Turkey İlhan Mansız (Beşiktaş)
21
2002–03 Beşiktaş (17) Galatasaray Gençlerbirliği Turkey Okan Yılmaz (Bursaspor) 24
2003–04 Fenerbahçe (24) Trabzonspor Beşiktaş Turkey Zafer Biryol (Konyaspor) 25
2004–05 Fenerbahçe (25) Trabzonspor Galatasaray Turkey Fatih Tekke (Trabzonspor) 31
2005–06 Galatasaray (17) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Turkey Gökhan Ünal (Kayserispor) 25
2006–07 Fenerbahçe (26) Beşiktaş Galatasaray Brazil Alex (Fenerbahçe) 19
2007–08 Galatasaray (18) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Turkey Semih Şentürk (Fenerbahçe) 17
2008–09 Beşiktaş (18) Sivasspor Trabzonspor Czech Republic Milan Baroš (Galatasaray) 20
2009–10 Bursaspor (1) Fenerbahçe Galatasaray Portugal Ariza Makukula (Kayserispor) 21
2010–11 Fenerbahçe (27) Trabzonspor Bursaspor Brazil Alex (Fenerbahçe) 28
2011–12 Galatasaray (19) Fenerbahçe Trabzonspor Turkey Burak Yılmaz (Trabzonspor) 33
2012–13 Galatasaray (20) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Turkey Burak Yılmaz (Galatasaray) 24
2013–14 Fenerbahçe (28) Galatasaray Beşiktaş Morocco Aatif Chahechouhe (Sivasspor) 17
2014–15 Galatasaray (21) Fenerbahçe Beşiktaş Brazil Fernandão (Bursaspor) 22
2015–16 Beşiktaş (19) Fenerbahçe Konyaspor Germany Mario Gómez (Beşiktaş) 26
2016–17 Beşiktaş (20) Başakşehir Fenerbahçe Brazil Vágner Love (Alanyaspor) 23
2017–18 Galatasaray (22) Fenerbahçe Başakşehir France Bafétimbi Gomis (Galatasaray) 29

Performances

Over the history of the Turkish football championships 14 different clubs have won the title. The most successful club are Fenerbahçe with 28 titles to their credit, most of those coming in Süper Lig competition. They are also the most successful pre-Süper Lig club with 9 titles overall in that era, 6 of them won in the National Division and 3 in the Turkish Football Championship.

All-time performance (1924–)

In the table below all national championship titles since 1924 are included, including the Turkish Football Championship and National Division, which are denied and not recognised by the Turkish Football Federation, even though they were official championships organised by the TFF itself.

Club Winners[4] Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
Fenerbahçe 28 26 1933, 1935, 1937, 1940, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, 1950, 1959, 1960–61, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1969–70, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1977–78, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1988–89, 1995–96, 2000–01, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2006–07, 2010–11, 2013–14 1940, 1944, 1947, 1947, 1959–60, 1961–62, 1966–67, 1970–71, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1979–80, 1983–84, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1993–94, 1997–98, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2009–10, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2015–16, 2017–18
Galatasaray 22 18 1939, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1968–69, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1992–93, 1993–94, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2001–02, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2014–15, 2017–18 1937, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1949, 1950, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1959, 1960–61, 1965–66, 1974–75, 1978–79, 1985–86, 1990–91, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2013–14
Beşiktaş 20 19 1934, 1941, 1944, 1947, 1951, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1959–60, 1965–66, 1966–67, 1981–82, 1985–86, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1991–92, 1994–95, 2002–03, 2008–09, 2015–16, 2016–17 1938, 1941, 1945, 1946, 1946, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1967–68, 1973–74, 1984–85, 1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1992–93, 1996–97, 1998–99, 1999–2000, 2006–07
Trabzonspor 6 8 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1983–84 1977–78, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1994–95, 1995–96, 2003–04, 2004–05, 2010–11
Harp Okulu 3 1 1924, 1942, 1945 1944
Gençlerbirliği 2 1 1941, 1946 1950
Ankara Demirspor 1 1 1947 1939
Göztepe 1 1 1950 1942
Muhafızgücü 1 1927
İstanbulspor 1 1932
Güneş 1 1938
Eskişehir Demirspor 1 1940
MKE Ankaragücü 1 1949
Bursaspor 1 2009–10

Performance since 1957

Only five clubs have been champions since the beginning of the Süper Lig in 1959: Galatasaray 21 times, Fenerbahçe 19 times, Beşiktaş 15 times (with an additional two titles counted for star purposes, see note below), Trabzonspor 6 times, and Bursaspor once.

Club Winners[17] Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
Galatasaray
Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg
21 10 1962, 1963, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1987, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2018 1959, 1961, 1966, 1975, 1979, 1986, 1991, 2001, 2003, 2014
Fenerbahçe
Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg
19 22 1959, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2014 1960, 1962, 1967, 1971, 1973, 1976, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2018
Beşiktaş
Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svg
15 14 19571, 19581, 1960, 1966, 1967, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2009, 2016, 2017 1963, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1974, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2007
Trabzonspor
Star full.svg
6 8 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984 1978, 1982, 1983, 1995, 1996, 2004, 2005, 2011
Bursaspor 1 2010
Eskişehirspor 3 1969, 1970, 1972
Adanaspor 1 1981
Sivasspor 1 2009
Başakşehir 1 2017

1 Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956–57 and 1957–58 editions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish championship titles to the Turkish Football Federation. The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002 which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Federation Cup will be considered as national championship titles. Beşiktaş were given permission to represent Turkey in the 1957–58 and 1958–59 seasons of the European Cup.[11] However, since the Turkish Football Federation missed to register them for the draw in time, they were not able to participate in the 1957–58 season after all.[10]

Star rating system

The honor of Golden Stars was introduced to recognize sides that have won multiple championships or other honours by the display of gold stars on their team badges and jerseys. In Turkey clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest for every five national championships won. For the 2018–19 season Galatasaray are permitted four golden stars, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş are permitted three golden stars, and Trabzonspor are permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.[21]

Performance by city (1924–)

Location of Turkish football champions

The 14 clubs that have won the championship are from a total of 6 cities:

City Number of titles Clubs
Istanbul 73 Fenerbahçe (28), Galatasaray (22), Beşiktaş (20), Harbiye (1), İstanbulspor (1), Güneş (1)
Ankara 7 Harp Okulu (2), Gençlerbirliği (2), Muhafızgücü (1), Ankara Demirspor (1), MKE Ankaragücü (1)
Trabzon 6 Trabzonspor (6)
Bursa 1 Bursaspor (1)
Eskişehir 1 Eskişehir Demirspor (1)
İzmir 1 Göztepe (1)

See also

References

  1. ^ "1936'ya kadar süren bu dönemde ilk Türkiye Şampiyonası Ankara'da yapılmış ve şampiyon Harbiye olmuştur". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  2. ^ "TamSaha dergisi – Memleketin ilk futbol birincisi" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation, Mehmet Yüce. p. 66. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017. 
  3. ^ "...ilk deplasmanlı lig kapsamındaki Milli Küme maçları da yine bu dönemde tertip edilmiştir". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Baki Demirkiran. "Turkey – List of Champions". rsssf.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  5. ^ "19 değil, 28 şampiyonluk". trthaber.com (in Turkish). TRT Haber. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  6. ^ "Before the national Turkish leagues". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  7. ^ "The champions of the regional leagues". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  8. ^ "TamSaha – Ayaktopu Hikayeleri (14)" (PDF) (in Turkish). No. 135. Turkish Football Federation. February 2016. p. 90. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c "Milli Küme". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Federation Cup 56/57". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  11. ^ a b "Federation Cup 57/58". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  12. ^ "1959 Milli Lig". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  13. ^ "1963–1964 1. Lig". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  14. ^ "Türkiye Futbol Birinciliği". Erdinç Sivritepe. Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c "Turkey – List of Topscorers". rsssf.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 20 May 2018. 
  16. ^ "Türkiye Milli Eğitim Kupası". mackolik.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  17. ^ a b c "Süper Lig Şampiyonu Takımlar". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  18. ^ "Türkiye Federasyon Kupası". mackolik.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  19. ^ a b "Turkey – Final Tables". rsssf.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 8 June 2018. 
  20. ^ "Ligin Gol Kralları". tff.org (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 24 April 2018. 
  21. ^ "15. şampiyonluk, 3 yıldız" (in Turkish). Eurosport. Retrieved 25 April 2018. 
Sources
  • Yüce, Mehmet (2015). İdmancı Ruhlar: Futbol Tarihimizin Klasik Devreleri: 1923–1952 Türkiye Futbol Tarihi – 2. Cilt (in Turkish). Istanbul: İletişim Yayınları. ISBN 9789750516955. 

External links

  • Turkey – List of Champions, RSSSF
  • Official Website of TFF (in Turkish)

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