List of St. Louis Cardinals coaches

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St. Louis Cardinals

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The St. Louis Cardinals, based in St. Louis, Missouri, are a professional baseball franchise that compete in the National League of Major League Baseball (MLB). The club employs coaches who support – and report directly to – the manager. Coaches for various aspects of the game, including pitching, hitting, baserunning and fielding, give instruction to players to assist them in exercising the major disciplines that must be successfully executed to compete at the highest level. These specialized roles are a relatively new development, as coaches initially did not have specific roles and instead had titles such as "first assistant", "second assistant", etc. St. Louis Cardinals coaches have played an important role in the team's eleven World Series titles. Many are retired players who at one time played for the team. Coaching is often part of the path for Major League managerial hopefuls, as a coach's previous experiences typically include managing and/or coaching at the minor league level. Charley O'Leary and Heinie Peitz, both former Cardinals players, became the first coaches the Cardinals employed as positions separate from the manager in 1913.

The longest-tenured coach in Cardinals' franchise history is Red Schoendienst, who has filled a variety of roles for the St. Louis Cardinals. First, he played 15 seasons as a second baseman for the Cardinals before becoming an on-field coach in 1962 in his penultimate season as an active player. He continued to coach through 1964, and the next season, became the Cardinals' manager. Returning as an on-field coach for the Cardinals in 1979, Schoendienst remained in that capacity until 1995. Since 1996, he has served as a special assistant to the general manager as a coaching advisor. In all, Schoendienst has coached for St. Louis for 38 total seasons.[1] He has also worn a St. Louis Major League uniform in eight different decades, won four World Series titles as part of on-field personnel and two more World Series titles since moving into his role as an advisor.[2][3]

The current longest-tenured coach through 2015 is third-base coach José Oquendo, who has been coaching for the Cardinals since 1999. The latest addition is assistant hitting coach Bill Mueller, who was hired before the 2015 season. The longest-tenured on-field coach in franchise history is Buzzy Wares; he is also the only coach for the Cardinals with a consecutive on-field season streak of 20 or more seasons with 23. Schoendienst is the only other with 20 or more total seasons; he also had a streak of 17 consecutive seasons. Dave Duncan and Dave McKay are both tied for third with 16 total seasons and both with a streak of 16 consecutive seasons. Jose Oquendo is also tied with Duncan and McKay with 16 years during the 2015 season as it marks his 16 consecutive season as an on field coach. Others with ten or more seasons include Mike González, Johnny Lewis, Marty Mason, Gaylen Pitts and Dave Ricketts. Dal Maxvill is the only former Cardinals coach to have become a general manager for the Cardinals. Ray Blades, Ken Boyer, González, Johnny Keane, Jack Krol, Marty Marion, Bill McKechnie, Schoendienst and Harry Walker have all also managed the Cardinals. Cardinals coaches who have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum include Bob Gibson, McKechnie and Schoendienst.

Current coaching staff

Lists of coaches

Key
# Ordinal number in the succession of coaches
Prior role, other notes: Previous Cardinal coaching assignment or assignment in another organization: M (Manager), BN (Bench coach), PT (Pitching), BP (Bullpen), H (Hitting), AH (Assistant hitting), 1BC (First base), 3BC (Third base), QC (Quality Control), SA (Special assistant), MI (Coached or managed in minor leagues)
Ref Reference(s)
Roles Also a player (*), manager (M), or executive (E) for the Cardinals
Awards Former Gold Glove (G), Silver Slugger (S), Cy Young (C) or MVP (V) Award winner
Former MLB All-Star (1933–present only)
§ Inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame as a Cardinal
, Inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame primarily as a player (†) or as a manager and/or an executive (‡)

Bench coaches

Shown here in 1983, Red Schoendienst has served the Cardinals in some capacity in eight different decades, including as a coach and advisor since 1979.
José Oquendo is currently the longest-tenured on-field coach.
Buzzy Wares, pictured here during the 1946 World Series, spent the most seasons as an on-field coach for the Cardinals (193052).
Pitching coach Dave Duncan coached for the Cardinals with manager Tony La Russa from 1996 to 2011.
Ken Boyer won an MVP, eleven All-Star selections, five Gold Glove awards, coached and managed for the Cardinals between 1955 and 1980.
Mike González played or coached on five World Series champion Cardinals teams in the 1930s and 1940s.
# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Jim Riggleman 198990 MI (1983–88) [12][13]
Ron Hassey 1996 Vars. coaching pos, Colorado Rockies (199395) [14][15]
Carney Lansford S∂ 1998 St. Louis Cardinals coach, 1997 [16]
José Oquendo * 1999 MI (1998) [17]
Joe Pettini 20022011 MI (1989–2001) [18][19]
Mike Aldrete 20122014 AH (2008–11) [20]
David Bell * 20152017 AH (2014) [21]
Mike Shildt 2018–July 14, 2018[4] QC / 3BC (2017); MI Cardinals' farm system 8 yrs, (2009-2016) [22]

Hitting coaches

# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Stan Hack 195758 [14]
Mickey Vernon 1965 [23]
Gaylen Pitts 1991 MI (1980–90) [24]
Don Baylor SV∂ 1992 [14]
Chris Chambliss G∂ 199395 [14]
George Hendrick *S∂ 199697 MI (1993–95) [14][25]
Dave Parker GSV∂ 1998 Coach, Anaheim Angels (1997) [26]
Mike Easler 19992001 H (Boston Red Sox, 199394) [27][28]
Mitchell Page 200104 MI (1997–2001) [29][30]
Hal McRae S∂ 200509 Special assistant to GM, Tampa Bay Devil Rays [31]
Mark McGwire *GS∂ 201012 Major League player (19862001) [32][33]
John Mabry * 2013–July 14, 2018[4] AH (2012) [7]

Assistant hitting coaches

# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Mike Aldrete 200811 H (Arizona Diamondbacks, 2005–06) [34]
John Mabry * 2012 [7]
Bengie Molina G 2013 Major League player (19982010) [35]
David Bell * 2014 3BC (Chicago Cubs, 2013) [21][36]
Bill Mueller S 2015–July 14, 2018[4] Major League player (19962006) [9]

Pitching coaches

# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Joe Becker 196566 [14]
Hub Kittle 198183 MI (1977) [37][38]
Joe Coleman 199194 BP (California Angels, 198790) [14][39]
Bob Gibson *GCV∂†§ 1995 PT (Atlanta Braves, 198284) [40]
Mark Riggins 1995 MI (1979–94) [41]
Dave Duncan 19962011 PT (Oakland Athletics, 198795) [42][43][44]
Derek Lilliquist 201117 BP (2011) [45][46]
Mike Maddux 2018–present PT (Washington Nationals, 2016-2017) [10]

Bullpen coaches

# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Tom Zimmer 1976 MI (1971–75) [47][48][49]
Gaylen Pitts 199295 H (1991) [24]
Mark DeJohn 19962001 MI (1986–95) [50]
Marty Mason 200010 MI (1986–99) [51][52]
Derek Lilliquist 2011 MI (2002–10) [53]
Dyar Miller 2012 MI (1985–86; 1996–2011) [54]
Blaise Ilsley 201317 MI (2008–12) [55][56]
Bryan Eversgerd 2018–present PT (AAA-Memphis, 2013-2017) [10]

First base coaches

# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Nick Leyva 198485 MI (1978–83) [57][58]
Rich Hacker 198688 MI (1982–85) [14][59]
Dave Collins * 199192 Major League player (197590) [14][60]
José Cardenal * 199495 [14]
Dave McKay 19962011 1BC (Oakland Athletics, 198995) [18][61][62]
Chris Maloney 20122016 MI (1991–96; 1998–2001; 2005–11) [63][64]
Oliver Marmol * 2017-present MI A-Palm Beach (2015-2016), R-JC Cardinals (2012-2014); H GCL Cardinals (2011) [65]

Third base coaches

# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
George Kissell 196975 MI (1946–57, 1961–68) [66][67][68]
Chuck Hiller 1983 Coach (1981–82) [14][69]
Rich Hacker 198890 1BC (1986–87) [14][59]
Nick Leyva 198688 1BC (1984–85) [57][58]
Bucky Dent 199194 M (New York Yankees, 1989 & 1990) [14][70]
Rene Lachemann 199799 M (Florida Marlins, 199396) [71]
José Oquendo * 2018–present 3BC (2000-2015), BN (1999), MI (1998) [5] [72]

Special assistants

# Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Gaylen Pitts 2009–present Assistant for player development; MI (2008) [73][74]
Willie McGee * G,S, MVP ∂ 2018-present Assistant to GM John Mozeliak (2013-2017) [5]

Unspecified roles

Coach Seasons Prior role, other notes: Ref
Charley O'Leary * 191317 MI (1912) [75][76]
Heinie Peitz * 1913 Coach (Cincinnati Reds, 1912) [77][78]
Newt Hunter 1920 MI (1903–18) [79][80]
Joe Sugden * 192125 Major League player (18931912) [81][82]
Roy Thomas 1922 MI (1922) [83][84]
Burt Shotton * 192325 Major League player (190923) [85][86]
Tink Turner 1924 MI (1913–16) [87][88]
Bill Killefer 1926 M (Chicago Cubs, 192125) [89]
Otto Williams * 192627 Coach (Detroit Tigers, 1925) [90]
Bill McKechnie M 1927 M (Pittsburgh Pirates, 192226) [91]
Allen Sothoron * 192728 Major League player (191426) [92]
Jack Onslow 1928 Coach (Washington Senators, 1927) [93][94]
Greasy Neale 1929 MI (1927–28) [95][96]
Ray Blades *M 193032, 1951 [14]
Buzzy Wares 193052 [14][97]
Mike González *M 193446 MI (1933) [14][98]
Tony Kaufmann 194650 MI (1941–42) [99][100]
Terry Moore * 194952, 195658 Major League player (193548) [101]
Marty Marion *MV∂ 1950 Major League player (1940–50) [102][103]
Mike Ryba * 195155 MI (1925–50) [104][105]
Johnny Riddle 195255 Coach (Pittsburgh Pirates, 194850) [106]
Dixie Walker 1953, 1955 MI (1950–53, 1954–55) [107][108]
Lou Kahn 195455 MI (1936–53) [109][110]
Bill Posedel 195457 1BC (Pittsburgh Pirates, 194953) [111]
Johnny Hopp * 1956 MI (1955) [112][113]
Walker Cooper * 1957 Major League player (1940–57) [14][114]
Al Hollingsworth 195758 MI (1948–53) [115][116]
Ray Katt * 195961 Major league player (195259) [117]
Johnny Keane M 195961 MI (1930–58) [118][119]
Harry Walker *M 195962 MI (1956–58) [120][121]
Howie Pollet * 195964 Major League player (194156) [122]
Darrell Johnson * 196061 Major league player (195260) [123]
Red Schoendienst *M∂†§ 196265, 197995 Major League player (194563), coach (Oakland Athletics, 197778) [124]
Hal Smith * 1962 Major League player (195961) [125]
Joe Schultz, Jr. 196368 MI (1958–62) [126][127]
Vern Benson * 196465, 197075 MI (1956–61) [14][128][129]
Bob Milliken 196570, 1976 Major league player (195354) [130]
Mickey Vernon 1965 H (Pittsburgh Pirates, 1964) [131]
Dick Sisler * 196670 M (Cincinnati Reds, 196465) [132]
Billy Muffett * 196770 Major league player (195762) [133]
Bart Zeller * 1970 MI (1963–69) [134][135]
Ken Boyer *MGV∂ 197172 MI (1970) [14][136][137]
Barney Schultz * 197175 Major League Player (195565) [138]
Lee Thomas 1972, 1983 MI (1970, 1974) [139][140]
Johnny Lewis * 197376, 198489 Major League player (196467) [141]
Dave Ricketts * 197475, 197891 BP (Pittsburgh Pirates, 197073); MI (1976–77) [142][143]
Tony Auferio 1975 [14]
Fred Koenig 1976 MI (1951–72) [144][145]
Preston Gómez 1976 M (Houston Astros, 197475) [146]
Jack Krol M 197780 MI (1954–76) [147][148]
Mo Mozzali 197778 Minor leagues (1946–58) [149][150]
Claude Osteen * 197780 Major League player (195775) [151]
Sonny Ruberto 197778 Minor leagues (1964–76) [152][153]
Dal Maxvill *EG 197980 Coach (New York Mets, 1978) [154][155]
Chuck Hiller 198182 Coach (Kansas City Royals, 197679) [14][69]
Hal Lanier 198185 MI (1977–80) [156][157]
Joe Cunningham 1982 [14]
Mike Roarke 198490 PT (Chicago Cubs, 197680) [158]
Darold Knowles * 1983 Major League player (196580) [159]
Steve Braun * 1990 [14]
Gaylen Pitts 199195 MI (1964–90) [160][161]
Jack Hubbard 1993 [162]
Tommie Reynolds 1996 3BC (Oakland Athletics, 198995) [163]
Carney Lansford S∂ 1997 Coach (Oakland Athletics, 199495) [16]

Related lists

See also

References

Source notes

  1. ^ Jove, Dave (January 18, 2013). "Red Schoendienst's 90th birthday". Fox2Now, KTVI St. Louis. Retrieved November 10, 2013. 
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  6. ^ "Cards' 3B coach Oquendo taking medical leave". MLB.com. March 27, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c "John Mabry #47". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Cards' 3B coach Oquendo taking medical leave". MLB.com. March 27, 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Galanis, Sam (November 17, 2014). "Bill Mueller hired as St. Louis Cardinals' assistant hitting coach". New England Sports Network. Retrieved July 5, 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Mike Maddux hired to be Cards pitching coach". MLB.com. October 26, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Jamie Pogue #39". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
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  26. ^ "Dave Parker". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 10, 2013. 
  27. ^ "Mike Easler". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 10, 2013. 
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  37. ^ "Hub Kittle". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
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  39. ^ "Joe Coleman". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 10, 2013. 
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  45. ^ "Derek Lilliquist #34". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  46. ^ "Derek Lilliquist". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  47. ^ "Tom Zimmer". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
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  50. ^ "Mark DeJohn". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Marty Mason". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
  52. ^ Strauss, Joe (October 18, 2010). "Cardinals dismiss bullpen coach". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
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  54. ^ Walton, Brian (October 25, 2012). "(The other) Miller time ends with Cardinals". The Cardinal Nation.com. Retrieved November 6, 2013 – via Scout.com. 
  55. ^ "Blaise Illsley #49". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  56. ^ "Cardinals promote John Mabry". ESPN.com. Associated Press. November 5, 2012. Retrieved November 5, 2012. 
  57. ^ a b "Nick Leyva". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  58. ^ a b "Nick Leyva minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  59. ^ a b Vincent, Dave. "Rich Hacker". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved November 10, 2013. 
  60. ^ "Dave Collins". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  61. ^ Goold, Derrick (April 16, 2012). "McKay believes Cubs will 'get good quickly'". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved November 6, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Dave McKay". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  63. ^ "Chris Maloney #77". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  64. ^ Leach, Matthew (November 16, 2011). "Cards retain Duncan, McGwire, Oquendo". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved November 6, 2013. Aldrete takes over as bench coach, Maloney new first-base coach 
  65. ^ "Cardinals, manager Mike Matheny agree to 3-year contract extension". ESPN. November 3, 2016. 
  66. ^ Goldstein, Richard (October 8, 2008). "George Kissell, 88, Dies; Taught the Techniques of Baseball". New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  67. ^ "George Kissell". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  68. ^ "George Kissell minor league statistics & history". Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  69. ^ a b "Chuck Hiller". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  70. ^ "Bucky Dent". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  71. ^ "Rene Lachemann". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  72. ^ "Cards' 3B coach Oquendo taking medical leave". MLB.com. March 27, 2016. 
  73. ^ "Gaylen Pitts". www.stlouis.cardinals.mlb.com. Retrieved September 3, 2013. 
  74. ^ Morgan, Marlon (April 24, 2009). "Former 'Birds manager back with Cards". The Commercial Appeal. Retrieved November 6, 2013. 
  75. ^ "Charlie O'Leary". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  76. ^ "Charlie O'Leary minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  77. ^ "Heinie Peitz". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  78. ^ "Heinie Peitz minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  79. ^ "Newt Hunter". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  80. ^ "Newt Hunter minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  81. ^ "Joe Sugden statistics & history". Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  82. ^ "Joe Sugden". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  83. ^ "Roy Thomas". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  84. ^ "Roy Thomas minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  85. ^ "Bruce Shotton statistics & history". Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  86. ^ "Burt Shotton". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  87. ^ "Tink Turner". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  88. ^ "Tink Turner minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  89. ^ "Bill Killefer". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  90. ^ "Otto Williams". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  91. ^ "Bill McKechnie". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  92. ^ "Allen Sothoron". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  93. ^ "Jack Onslow". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  94. ^ "Jack Onslow minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  95. ^ "Greasy Neale". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  96. ^ "Greasy Neale minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 27, 2013. 
  97. ^ "Buzzy Wares". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  98. ^ "Mike González". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  99. ^ "Tony Kaufmann". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  100. ^ "Tony Kaufmann minor league statistics & history". Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  101. ^ "Terry Moore". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 10, 2013. 
  102. ^ "Marty Marion". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  103. ^ "Marty Marion minor league statistics & history". Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  104. ^ "Mike Ryba". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  105. ^ "Mike Ryba minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  106. ^ "Johnny Riddle". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 
  107. ^ "Dixie Walker". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 5, 2014. 
  108. ^ "Dixie Walker minor league statistics & history". Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  109. ^ "Lou Kahn". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  110. ^ "Lou Kahn minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  111. ^ "Bill Posedel". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 31, 2013. 
  112. ^ "Johnny Hopp minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  113. ^ "Johnny Hopp". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  114. ^ "Walker Cooper". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  115. ^ "Al Hollingsworth". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  116. ^ "Al Hollingsworth minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  117. ^ "Ray Katt". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  118. ^ "Johnny Keane". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  119. ^ "Johnny Keane minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  120. ^ "Harry Walker". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  121. ^ "Harry Walker minor league statistics & history". Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  122. ^ "Howie Pollet". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  123. ^ "Darrell Johnson". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  124. ^ "Red Schoendienst". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  125. ^ "Hal Smith". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 16, 2013. 
  126. ^ Broeg 1998: 278
  127. ^ "Joe Schultz". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  128. ^ "Vern Benson". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 17, 2013. 
  129. ^ "Vern Benson minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 17, 2013. 
  130. ^ "Bob Milliken". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  131. ^ "Mickey Vernon". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 
  132. ^ "Dick Sisler". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 3, 2014. 
  133. ^ "Billy Muffett". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 14, 2013. 
  134. ^ "Bart Zeller". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  135. ^ "Bart Zeller minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  136. ^ "Ken Boyer". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  137. ^ "Ken Boyer minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 17, 2013. 
  138. ^ "Barney Schultz". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 2, 2014. 
  139. ^ "Lee Thomas". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 3, 2014. 
  140. ^ "Lee Thomas minor league statistics & history". Retrieved January 3, 2014. 
  141. ^ "Johnny Lewis". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  142. ^ "Dave Ricketts". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  143. ^ "Dave Ricketts minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  144. ^ "Fred Koenig". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  145. ^ "Fred Koenig minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  146. ^ "Preston Gómez". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  147. ^ "Jack Krol". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  148. ^ "Jack Krol minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  149. ^ "Mo Mozzali". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  150. ^ "Mo Mozzali minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  151. ^ "Claude Osteen". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 14, 2013. 
  152. ^ "Sonny Ruberto". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  153. ^ "Sonny Ruberto minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  154. ^ Broeg 1998: 277
  155. ^ "Dal Maxville". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 9, 2013. 
  156. ^ "Hal Lanier". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
  157. ^ "Hal Lanier minor league statistics & history". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
  158. ^ "Mike Roarke". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 17, 2013. 
  159. ^ "Darold". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  160. ^ "Gaylen Pitts". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  161. ^ "Gaylen Pitts minor league statistics & history". Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  162. ^ "Jack Hubbard". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved December 30, 2013. 
  163. ^ "Tommie Reynolds". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved January 1, 2014. 

Bibliography

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