List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Essex

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Tidal mud flats, East Mersea
Tidal mud flats, East Mersea, in the Colne Estuary

Essex is a county in the east of England.[1] In the early Anglo-Saxon period it was the Kingdom of the East Saxons, but it gradually came under the control of more powerful kingdoms, and in the ninth century it became part of Wessex.[2] The modern county is bounded by Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Greater London to the south-west, Kent across the River Thames to the south, and the North Sea to the east.[3] It has an area of 1,420 square miles (3,700 km2), with a coastline of 400 miles (640 km),[4] and a population according to the 2011 census of 1,393,600.[5] At the top level of local government are Essex County Council and two unitary authorities, Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock. Under the county council, there are twelve district and borough councils.[6]

In England, Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural England, which is responsible for protecting England's natural environment. Designation as an SSSI gives legal protection to the most important wildlife and geological sites.[7] As of August 2016, there are 86 sites designated in Essex.[8] There are 19 sites with a purely geological interest, and 64 listed for biological interest. A further three sites are designated for both reasons.

The largest is Foulness, which is internationally important for wildfowl and waders, and has 71 nationally rare invertebrate species.[9] The smallest is Holland-on-Sea Cliff, a geological site which throws light on the course of the River Thames before it was diverted south by the Anglian glaciation around 450,000 years ago.[10] Hangman's Wood and Deneholes has deneholes, shafts created by medieval chalk mining which are now used by hibernating bats.[11] Lion Pit is the site of flint-knapping by Neanderthals around 200,000 years ago, and it has been possible to fit back together some of the flint flakes.[12]

Key

Sites

Site name Photograph B G Area[a] Public access Location[a] Other classifications Map[b] Citation[c] Description
Abberton Reservoir Abberton Reservoir Green tickY 718.3 hectares (1,775 acres) PP Layer de la Haye
51°49′30″N 0°51′43″E / 51.825°N 0.862°E / 51.825; 0.862 (Abberton Reservoir)
TL973179
EWT,[13] NCR,[14] Ramsar,[15] SPA[16] Map Citation This site is of international significance for wintering wigeons, and nationally important for twelve other waterfowl species, including mute swans, gadwalls, tufted ducks, goldeneyes and goosanders. It is also very unusual in having cormorants nesting in trees.[14]
Ardleigh Gravel Pit Ardleigh Gravel Pit Green tickY 1.2 hectares (3.0 acres) PP Ardleigh
51°54′50″N 0°59′10″E / 51.914°N 0.986°E / 51.914; 0.986 (Ardleigh Gravel Pit)
TM055281
GCR[17] Map Citation This site exposes a number of interglacials, including one dated to the Hoxnian Stage around 400,000 years ago, and some much older. It also has a horizon with very rare plant micro-fossils dating to a cold period.[18]
Ashdon Meadows Ashdon Meadows Green tickY 1.4 hectares (3.5 acres) YES Saffron Walden
52°02′10″N 0°19′05″E / 52.036°N 0.318°E / 52.036; 0.318 (Ashdon Meadows)
TL591401
Map Citation The site is unimproved grassland which is used for hay growing, with some areas calcareous and others neutral. It is the only known example of grassland on chalky boulder clay in north-west Essex. Flora includes salad burnet, downy oat-grass and fen bedstraw.[19]
Basildon Meadows Basildon Meadows Green tickY 6.8 hectares (17 acres) NO Basildon
51°33′11″N 0°27′18″E / 51.553°N 0.455°E / 51.553; 0.455 (Basildon Meadows)
TQ703867
Map Citation The site is composed of three unimproved meadows which have a wide variety of herbs. Flowers include the green-winged orchid and yellow rattle, which are rare in Essex. There is also a small pond and scattered scrub.[20]
Belcher's and Broadfield Woods Broadfield Wood Green tickY 14.4 hectares (36 acres) YES Halstead
51°54′32″N 0°37′48″E / 51.909°N 0.630°E / 51.909; 0.630 (Belcher's and Broadfield Woods)
TL810267
EWT[21][22] Map Citation The site is coppice woodland on chalky boulder clay. There is a variety of woodlands types, such as wet ash and maple, and acid birch, ash and lime. The ground flora includes species which are locally uncommon, including greater butterfly-orchid and bird's-nest orchid.[23]
Benfleet and Southend Marshes Benfleet and Southend Marshes Green tickY 2,373.7 hectares (5,866 acres) PP Southend-on-Sea
51°34′N 0°41′E / 51.57°N 0.68°E / 51.57; 0.68 (Benfleet And Southend Marshes)
TQ859842
EWT,[24] LNR,[25] NCR,[26] NNR,[26] Ramsar,[15] SPA[27] Map Citation The marshes and mudflats have internationally important numbers of wildfowl and waders, including the dark-bellied brent goose, grey plover, redshank and knot. Some areas are very important for scarce invertebrates, such as white-letter hairstreak and marbled white butterflies.[26]
Blackwater Estuary Blackwater Estuary Green tickY 4,403.5 hectares (10,881 acres) YES Maldon
51°44′N 0°49′E / 51.74°N 0.81°E / 51.74; 0.81 (Blackwater Estuary)
TL943084
EWT,[28][29] NCR,[30]NNR,[31] Ramsar,[15] SAC,[32] SPA[33] Map Citation The estuary has internationally important numbers of wintering dark-bellied brent geese, ringed plover and dunlin, and nationally important numbers of nine species. There are sixteen invertebrates on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[30]
Blake's Wood & Lingwood Common Bluebells in Blakes Wood Green tickY 87.3 hectares (216 acres) YES Danbury
51°43′41″N 0°34′01″E / 51.728°N 0.567°E / 51.728; 0.567 (Blake's Wood & Lingwood Common)
TL774064
NT[34] Map Citation This site has a variety of heath, woodland and marsh habitats, and four of the woodland types are unusual in Britain. The woodlands have diverse bird species, and two unusual moths, the silver barred and rosy marbled, have been recorded on the common.[34]
Bovingdon Hall Woods Bovingdon Wood Green tickY 71.3 hectares (176 acres) NO Braintree
51°55′41″N 0°33′18″E / 51.928°N 0.555°E / 51.928; 0.555 (Bovingdon Hall Woods)
TL758286
Map Citation The site is coppice woodland of medieval origin on chalky boulder clay. It has unusual woodland types, such as small-leaved lime and plateau alder. Other trees include sessile and peduculate oak, ash, maple and hornbeam, with occasional wild service tree.[35]
Bullock Wood Bullock Wood Green tickY 23.5 hectares (58 acres) NO Colchester
51°54′43″N 0°56′02″E / 51.912°N 0.934°E / 51.912; 0.934 (Bullock Wood)
TM019278
Map Citation The site is mature coppice with a wide variety of trees. The main woodland type is hazel and sessile oak, which is rare nationally. The understorey is mainly coppiced hazel, and the ground flora is dominated by bramble and bracken.[36]
Canvey Wick Canvey Wick Green tickY 93.2 hectares (230 acres) YES Canvey Island
51°31′19″N 0°32′10″E / 51.522°N 0.536°E / 51.522; 0.536 (=Canvey Wick)
TQ760834
Buglife,[37] RSPB[37] Map Citation Canvey Wick has a nationally important population of invertebrates, including 22 on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and three which had been recorded as extinct in Britain. It also has a nationally important population of shrill carder bees. Scrub edges provide additional habitats.[38]
Cattawade Marshes Cattawade Marshes Green tickY 89.2 hectares (220 acres) NO Manningtree
51°57′18″N 1°02′24″E / 51.955°N 1.040°E / 51.955; 1.040 (Cattawade Marshes)
TM090329
DVAONB,[39] Ramsar,[40] RSPB,[41] SPA[39] Map Citation The site is a marsh area between two arms of the River Stour. It is of major importance for breeding birds, especially waders and wildfowl, such as Shoveler, Teal, Tufted Duck and Water Rail. Other habitats are grassland and ditches.[42][43]
Chalkney Wood Chalkney Wood Green tickY 73.7 hectares (182 acres) YES Earls Colne
51°54′58″N 0°43′23″E / 51.916°N 0.723°E / 51.916; 0.723 (Chalkney Wood)
TL874277
Map Citation The ancient woodland is on acid silts and sands. Trees include, ash, lime birch and pedunculated oak. The ground layer is dominated by bramble, and other plants include primrose and wood anemone. The wood is divided by grassy rides, and there are over twenty ponds.[44]
Clacton Cliffs and Foreshore Clacton Cliffs and Foreshore Green tickY 26.3 hectares (65 acres) PP Clacton-on-Sea
51°46′44″N 1°07′52″E / 51.779°N 1.131°E / 51.779; 1.131 (Clacton Cliffs and Foreshore)
TM161136
GCR[45] Map Citation This site dates to the warm Hoxnian Stage around 400,000 years ago. Flint tools found there have made it the type site for the Clactonian, a core-and-flake industry of homo erectus, although paleontologists disagree whether it is really a separate industry from the Acheulian.[46][47]
Cliff, Burnham-on-Crouch, TheThe Cliff, Burnham-on-Crouch The Cliff, Burnham-on-Crouch Green tickY 3.8 hectares (9.4 acres) YES Burnham-on-Crouch
51°38′10″N 0°46′30″E / 51.636°N 0.775°E / 51.636; 0.775 (The Cliff, Burnham-On-Crouch)
TQ921967
GCR[48][49] Map Citation Fossils birds dating to the Lower Eocene, around 55 to 48 million years ago, have been found at this site, and it has yielded the type material of two species. Considerable quantities of fossil fishes have also been found, mainly sharks, and it is the type locality for several species.[50]
Colne Estuary Colne Estuary Green tickY Green tickY 2,986.5 hectares (7,380 acres) YES Brightlingsea
51°49′N 0°59′E / 51.81°N 0.99°E / 51.81; 0.99 (Colne Estuary)
TM062161
EWT[51] GCR,[52] NCR,[51] NNR,[51] Ramsar,[15] SAC,[32] SPA[53] Map Citation The site has varied habitats, such as saltmarsh, mud flats, shingle spits and former gravel pits. It is of international importance for wintering brent geese and black-tailed godwits, and of national importance for six other bird species, including little terns.[51]
Coppice, Kelvedon Hatch, TheThe Coppice, Kelvedon Hatch The Coppice, Kelvedon Hatch Green tickY 9.3 hectares (23 acres) NO Kelvedon Hatch
51°40′12″N 0°16′23″E / 51.67°N 0.273°E / 51.67; 0.273 (The Coppice, Kelvedon Hatch)
TQ573992
Map Citation The site is an ancient semi-natural wood in the valley of a small tributary of the River Roding. It is base-rich alder on the valley floor, and oak and hornbeam in other areas. The geology is complex, with areas of Claygate Beds and Bagshot Beds.[54]
Cornmill Stream and Old River Lea Cornmill Meadows Green tickY 25.1 hectares (62 acres) YES Waltham Abbey
51°41′35″N 0°00′22″W / 51.693°N 0.006°W / 51.693; -0.006 (Cornmill Stream and Old River Lea)
TL379012
Map Citation The slow-moving Cornmill Stream and Old River Lea form a freshwater habitat with one of the most diverse invertebrate fauna in Essex. Eighteen species of dragonflies and damselflies have been recorded, including the uncommon and nationally declining white-legged damselfly.[55]
Crouch and Roach Estuaries Crouch Estuary Green tickY 1,729.1 hectares (4,273 acres) YES Burnham-on-Crouch
51°37′N 0°44′E / 51.62°N 0.73°E / 51.62; 0.73 (Crouch and Roach Estuaries)
TQ889953
EWT[56][57][58][59] Ramsar,[15] SAC,[32] SPA[60] Map Citation The site is internationally important for wintering dark-bellied brent geese, and nationally important for black-tailed godwits, shelducks and shoveler ducks. There are invertebrates on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, such as the ground lackey moth, and dense populations of the nationally scarce Roesel's bush-cricket.[61]
Curtismill Green Curtismill Green Green tickY 47.8 hectares (118 acres) YES Epping
51°38′42″N 0°11′35″E / 51.645°N 0.193°E / 51.645; 0.193 (Curtismill Green)
TQ518963
Map Citation This is unimproved grassland and scrub with both damp and dry areas, with a number of uncommon species. Notable plant species in grassland areas include Orange Foxtail, Lesser Spearwort and Yellow Rattle.[62]
Danbury Common Danbury Common Green tickY 71.0 hectares (175 acres) YES Danbury
51°42′32″N 0°34′41″E / 51.709°N 0.578°E / 51.709; 0.578 (Danbury Common)
TL782043
EWT,[63][64] NT[65] Map Citation The common is one of the largest areas of heathland left in the county, and also has bracken and gorse scrub, and woodland with oak and birch. Upper parts are on glacial gravel, and lower down there is boggy heath. This is the main British site for the rosy marbled moth.[64]
Debden Water Debden Water Green tickY 21.3 hectares (53 acres) YES Newport
51°58′59″N 0°13′55″E / 51.983°N 0.232°E / 51.983; 0.232 (Debden Water)
TL534340
Map Citation The flood plain of the stream has tall fen vegetation, mainly common reed, while in some areas plants such as tussock sedge and lesser pond-sedge are locally dominant. Other habitats are neutral grassland, broad-leaved woodland and species-rich calcareous grassland.[66]
Dengie Dengie Green tickY Green tickY 3,132.4 hectares (7,740 acres) YES Bradwell-on-Sea
51°41′N 0°57′E / 51.69°N 0.95°E / 51.69; 0.95 (Dengie)
TM042037
EWT,[67] GCR,[68] NCR,[69] NNR,[31] Ramsar,[15] SAC,[32] SPA[70] Map Citation This is a large area of tidal mudflats and salt marshes. It has internationally important winter populations of brent geese and grey plovers, and nationally significant numbers of knots, dunlins and turnstones.[69]
Elsenham Woods Elsenham Woods Green tickY 44.4 hectares (110 acres) NO Elsenham
51°54′22″N 0°16′05″E / 51.906°N 0.268°E / 51.906; 0.268 (Elsenham Woods)
TL561255
Map Citation The site comprises two separate areas, the larger Eastend Wood and the smaller Plegdon Wood. They are both ancient mixed woods on chalky boulder clay. There are also damp grass rides and ponds which provide additional habitats for invertebrates and birds.[71]
Epping Forest Epping Forest Green tickY 1,787.9 hectares (4,418 acres) YES Epping
51°39′N 0°03′E / 51.65°N 0.05°E / 51.65; 0.05 (Epping Forest)
TQ418971
EWT,[72] NCR,[72] SAC,[73] SM[74][75] Map Citation The site has ancient semi-natural woodland, grassland and wetland. The inverebrate fauna is described by Natural England as "of outstanding national significance", including 66 subcortical (under bark) and dead wood fauna on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[72]
Foulness Foulness Green tickY 10,946.1 hectares (27,048 acres) PP Foulness
51°34′N 0°55′E / 51.57°N 0.92°E / 51.57; 0.92 (Foulness)
TR022902
EWT,[76] LNR,[77] NCR,[9] Ramsar,[15] SAC,[78] SPA[79] Map Citation This coastland site is of international importance for nine species of wildfowl and waders, such as dark-bellied brent geese. Rare plants include soft hornwort and spiral tasselwood, and the site is also important for invertebrates, with 71 nationally rare species.[9]
Garnetts Wood and Barnston Lays Garnetts Wood Green tickY 25.0 hectares (62 acres) YES Great Dunmow
51°50′17″N 0°22′23″E / 51.838°N 0.373°E / 51.838; 0.373 (Garnetts Wood / Barnston Lays)
TL636182
Map Citation The site is coppiced woodland, mostly ancient, on glacial silt, sands, gravels and clay soils. It contains some of the best lime woodland in the county. There are two ponds, which have the unusual water purslane.[80]
Garrold's Meadow Garrold's Meadow Green tickY 5.0 hectares (12 acres) NO Leigh-on-Sea
51°34′05″N 0°37′44″E / 51.568°N 0.629°E / 51.568; 0.629 (Garrold's Meadow)
TQ823887
Map Citation This site is unimproved grassland on gravel in it southern part and clay in the north. There is also an area of marsh. The plant community is diverse, with a number of uncommon species. Grasses include common bent, sweet vernal grass and crested dog's-tail.[81]
Glemsford Pits Glemsford Pits Green tickY 33.2 hectares (82 acres) PP Glemsford
52°05′06″N 0°40′52″E / 52.085°N 0.681°E / 52.085; 0.681 (Glemsford Pits)
TL838463
Map Citation Thirteen species of dragonfly and damselfly have been recorded in these former gravel workings, including one which is rare in Britain, the ruddy darter dragonfly. Aquatic plants include the yellow water-lily and mare's tail.[82]
Globe Pit Globe Pit Green tickY 0.4 hectares (0.99 acres) NO Little Thurrock
51°28′44″N 0°20′20″E / 51.479°N 0.339°E / 51.479; 0.339 (Globe Pit)
TQ625782
GCR[83] Map Citation Natural England describes Globe Pit as "an important site for the interrelationship of archaeology with geology since it is vital in the correlation of the Lower Palaeolithic chronology with the Pleistocene Thames Terrace sequence". There are many Clactonian flint tools.[84]
Goldsands Road Pit Goldsands Road Pit Green tickY 1.2 hectares (3.0 acres) NO Southminster
51°39′22″N 0°49′55″E / 51.656°N 0.832°E / 51.656; 0.832 (Goldsands Road Pit)
TQ960990
GCR[85] Map Citation This site provides the earliest evidence of an ancient course of the combined Thames and Medway rivers, which flowed north-east across eastern Essex in the late Anglian period around 400,000 years ago.[86]
Grays Thurrock Chalk Pit Grays Thurrock Chalk Pit Green tickY 17.3 hectares (43 acres) YES Grays
51°29′10″N 0°18′58″E / 51.486°N 0.316°E / 51.486; 0.316 (Grays Thurrock Chalk Pit)
TQ609789
EWT[87][88] Map Citation This former chalk pit has a range of woodland, grassland and scrub habitats which are important for invertebrates. Beetles include two species on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Mordellistena humeralis and Mordellistena neuwaldeggiana.[89]
Great Wood and Dodd's Grove Great Wood Green tickY 37.1 hectares (92 acres) YES Leigh-on-Sea
51°33′32″N 0°37′23″E / 51.559°N 0.623°E / 51.559; 0.623 (Great Wood and Dodd's Grove)
TQ819877
EWT,[90] LNR[91] Map Citation This is a small remnant of the ancient Hadleigh Great Wood. It is coppiced oak woodland on sands, gravels and clay, and one of the largest areas of old woodland in the south of the county. Plants include the rare broad-leaved helleborine.[91]
Hainault Forest Hainault Forest Green tickY 135.3 hectares (334 acres) YES Lambourne
51°37′23″N 0°08′02″E / 51.623°N 0.134°E / 51.623; 0.134 (Hainault Forest)
TQ478937
Map Citation The woodland and scrub in this country park have varied flora and fauna, including diverse breeding birds. The shrub layer haas plants such as wood sorrel and butcher's-broom, and birds include wood warblers and spotted flycatchers.[92]
Hales and Shadwell Woods Shadwell Wood Green tickY 15.4 hectares (38 acres) PP Saffron Walden
52°02′35″N 0°17′28″E / 52.043°N 0.291°E / 52.043; 0.291 (Hales and Shadwell Woods)
TL572408
EWT,[93] NCR,[94] NNR[31] Map Citation The woods are ancient coppice wet ash and maple on chalky boulder clay. The shrub layer is diverse, with plants including the wayfaring-tree and the nationally uncommon oxlip. Seven species of orchid have been recorded in Shadwell Wood, which also has herb-rich grassy rides.[95]
Hall's Quarry Hall's Quarry Green tickY 0.7 hectares (1.7 acres) NO Elsenham
51°55′44″N 0°12′22″E / 51.929°N 0.206°E / 51.929; 0.206 (Hall's Quarry)
TL518279
GCR[96] Map Citation The site exposes glacial gravels, silts and tills deposited during the Anglian ice age around 450,000 years ago. It is described by Natural England as "extremely important for the study of the Anglian glaciation and its associated deposits".[97]
Hamford Water Hamford Water Green tickY 2,188.6 hectares (5,408 acres) PP Walton-on-the-Naze
51°53′N 1°14′E / 51.88°N 1.24°E / 51.88; 1.24 (Hamford Water)
TM230253
EWT,[98][99][100] NCR,[98] NNR,[31] Ramsar,[15] SPA[101] Map Citation The site is a tidal inlet which has marsh grasslands, creeks, mud and sand flats, salt marshes, islands and beaches. It is internationally significant for breeding little terns and wintering dark-bellied brent geese. Rare plants include hog's fennel and slender hare's-ear.[98]
Hangman's Wood and Deneholes Denehole Green tickY 5.2 hectares (13 acres) YES Little Thurrock
51°29′20″N 0°20′46″E / 51.489°N 0.346°E / 51.489; 0.346 (Hangman's Wood and Deneholes)
TQ630793
SM[102] Map Citation The deneholes, which were created by medieval chalk mining, are the most important underground hibernation sites for bats in Essex, with three species; Brown long-eared bat, Natterer's bat and Daubenton's bat. The oak woodland is ancient, and it provides a feeding habitat for the bats.[11]
Hanningfield Reservoir Hanningfield Reservoir Green tickY 402.9 hectares (996 acres) YES Chelmsford
51°39′22″N 0°30′04″E / 51.656°N 0.501°E / 51.656; 0.501 (Hanningfield Reservoir)
TQ731982
BSO,[103] EWT[104] Map Citation The reservoir has a nationally important population of gadwalls, and it also has significant numbers of pochards, teal, tufted ducks and pintails. The chalk sludge lagoon has several unusual plants, and there is a rare moss Brachythecium mildeanum at the foot of the southern dam.[105]
Harlow Woods Harlow Woods Green tickY 45.2 hectares (112 acres) YES Harlow
51°44′24″N 0°05′02″E / 51.74°N 0.084°E / 51.74; 0.084 (Harlow Woods)
TL440066
LNR[106][107] Map Citation The woods are mainly pedunculate oak and hornbeam, and other trees include ash, hazel and birch. There are also some elms which are regenerating from coppice following Dutch elm disease.[106]
Harwich Foreshore Harwich Foreshore Green tickY 10.3 hectares (25 acres) YES Harwich
51°56′24″N 1°17′28″E / 51.940°N 1.291°E / 51.940; 1.291 (Harwich Foreshore)
TM263320
GCR[108] Map Citation This site exposes bands of ash from explosive volcanoes in Scotland during the Eocene epoch around 50 million years ago. It also has many London Clay fossils from the Eocene rainforest, including mammals such as Hyracotherium, the earliest ancestor of the horse.[109]
Hatfield Forest Hatfield Forest Green tickY 410.8 hectares (1,015 acres) YES Bishop's Stortford
51°51′22″N 0°13′37″E / 51.856°N 0.227°E / 51.856; 0.227 (Hatfield Forest)
TL535198
NCR,[94] NNR,[31] NT,[110] SM,[111] Map Citation This is the last Royal Forest to remain nearly intact. It has ancient coppice woodland, scrub, unimproved grassland, a large lake and extensive marshes. The woodland is mainly wet ash and maple. There are many rare plants and over sixty bird species.[112]
High Wood, Dunmow Gatehouse at High Wood, Dunmow Green tickY 41.5 hectares (103 acres) NO Great Dunmow
51°52′23″N 0°19′37″E / 51.873°N 0.327°E / 51.873; 0.327 (High Wood, Dunmow)
TL603219
Map Citation The site on boulder clay and loess has areas of wet ash and maple woodland, and others of pedunculate oak and hornbeam. Some areas are ancient woodland. There is a diverse layer of ground flora, and damp woodland rides provide additional habitat for birds and invertebrates.[113]
Hockley Woods Hockley Woods Green tickY 92.1 hectares (228 acres) YES Hockley
51°35′38″N 0°38′35″E / 51.594°N 0.643°E / 51.594; 0.643 (Hockley Woods)
TQ832917
LNR[114] Map Citation The woods are on pre-glacial gravels and clay, with trees including hornbeam, pedunculate oak, sessile oak, birch and hazel. Ground flora include three species of orchid, and there is a stream and area of bog.[115]
Holehaven Creek Holehaven Creek Green tickY 272.8 hectares (674 acres) YES Canvey Island
51°31′19″N 0°31′30″E / 51.522°N 0.525°E / 51.522; 0.525 (Holehaven Creek)
TQ753834
Map Citation The creek's intertidal marshes and mudflats support nationally important (and occasionally internationally) numbers of wintering black-tailed godwits. Curlews and dunlins are also sometimes present in nationally significant numbers.[116]
Holland Haven Marshes Holland Haven Marshes Green tickY 210.6 hectares (520 acres) PP Clacton-on-Sea
51°48′58″N 1°12′29″E / 51.816°N 1.208°E / 51.816; 1.208 (Holland Haven Marshes)
TM212179
LNR[117] Map Citation A network of ditches radiates from Holland Brook. These ditches have several nationally scarce aquatic plant species, such as brackish water crowfoot and divided sedge. There are also rare invertebrates, including one on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the soldier fly Stratiomys singularior.[118]
Holland-on-Sea Cliff Holland-on-Sea Cliff Green tickY 0.1 hectares (0.25 acres) YES Clacton-on-Sea
51°48′14″N 1°12′22″E / 51.804°N 1.206°E / 51.804; 1.206 (Holland-On-Sea Cliff)
TM211166
GCR[119] Map Citation This is the type site for the "Lower Holland Gravel", which was laid down by the River Thames before the river was diverted south during the Anglian glaciation around 450,000 years ago, and also for the "Upper Thames Gravel", which was deposited when the Thames was blocked by ice.[10]
Hunsdon Mead Hunsdon Mead Green tickY 34.2 hectares (85 acres) YES Harlow
51°46′44″N 0°03′14″E / 51.779°N 0.054°E / 51.779; 0.054 (Hunsdon Mead)
TL418109
EWT,[120] HMWT[121] Map Citation This is unimproved grassland which is subject to winter flooding. Notable grass species include meadow brome and the quaking grass briza media, and there are other unusual flora such as pepper saxifrage and green-winged orchid.[122]
Inner Thames Marshes Inner Thames Marshes Green tickY 485.9 hectares (1,201 acres) YES Purfleet
51°30′00″N 0°12′14″E / 51.500°N 0.204°E / 51.500; 0.204 (Inner Thames Marshes)
TQ531802
RSPB[123] Map Citation The marshes have a diverse bird population, including internationally important numbers of wintering teal. There are nationally scarce invertebrates such as the water beetles agabus conspersus and haliplus apicalis, the scarce emerald damselfly, and the meniscus midge dixella attica.[124]
Lion Pit Lion Pit Green tickY 2.4 hectares (5.9 acres) YES Grays
51°28′44″N 0°17′53″E / 51.479°N 0.298°E / 51.479; 0.298 (Lion Pit)
TQ597781
EWT,[87][88] GCR[125] Map Citation Evidence has been found on this site of flint-knapping using the Levallois technique by Neanderthals 200,000 years ago, and it has even been possible to fit back together some of the flint flakes. Fossils have been found of mammals including, rhinoceros, bison, mammoth and straight-tusked elephant.[12]
Little Hallingbury Marsh Little Hallingbury Marsh Green tickY 4.5 hectares (11 acres) NO Little Hallingbury
51°49′59″N 0°09′43″E / 51.833°N 0.162°E / 51.833; 0.162 (Little Hallingbury Marsh)
TL491171
Map Citation The site is unimproved wet grassland and fen, which contains uncommon and declining swamp plant species. The site is also of interest for over-wintering birds and aquatic insects, especially dragonflies.[126]
Little Oakley Channel Deposit Little Oakley Channel Deposit Green tickY 3.0 hectares (7.4 acres) NO Little Oakley
51°55′16″N 1°13′52″E / 51.921°N 1.231°E / 51.921; 1.231 (Little Oakley Channel Deposit)
TM223296
GCR[127] Map Citation This site exposed a former channel of the River Thames during an interglacial period around 575,000 years ago. Many fossils were found, including rhinoceros and an extensive pollen record, allowing geologists to reconstruct the fauna and flora.[128]
Lofts Farm Pit Lofts Farm Pit Green tickY 5.0 hectares (12 acres) NO Maldon
51°45′00″N 0°41′56″E / 51.75°N 0.699°E / 51.75; 0.699 (Lofts Farm Pit)
TL864091
GCR[129] Map Citation Many fossils have been found dating to the last Ice Age, 110,000 to 12,000 years ago. Finds included reindeer, woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros. The site is in the "Blackwater Terrace Gravel", dating to a time when the River Blackwater was a tributary of the Thames-Medway River.[130]
Maldon Cutting Maldon Cutting Green tickY 0.2 hectares (0.49 acres) NO Maldon
51°43′44″N 0°39′50″E / 51.729°N 0.664°E / 51.729; 0.664 (Maldon Cutting)
TL841067
GCR[131] Map Citation The site is a former railway cutting which is the type locality for the Maldon Till, which dates to the Pleistocene ice age. It was previously thought to represent a separate advance of the ice sheet, but in the light of later work it was concluded that it is an outlier of the till which covers much of central and northern Essex.[132]
Marks Tey Brickpit Marks Tey Brickpit Green tickY 29.8 hectares (74 acres) NO Marks Tey
51°52′59″N 0°46′30″E / 51.883°N 0.775°E / 51.883; 0.775 (Marks Tey Brickpit)
TL911242
GCR[133] Map Citation This site has a record of pollen throughout the Hoxnian interglacial around 400,000 years ago, and this is the best vegetational record for any British interglacial site. Seasonal layers in lake sediments have made it possible to estimate the duration of the Hoxnian.[134]
Mill Meadows, Billericay Mill Meadows Green tickY 6.8 hectares (17 acres) YES Billericay
51°37′16″N 0°25′37″E / 51.621°N 0.427°E / 51.621; 0.427 (Mill Meadows, Billericay)
TQ681941
LNR[135] Map Citation Five sloping fields on London Clay are separated by old hedge lines. Some areas are wet, and the main grasses are red fescue and common bent. Flowers include harebell and common spotted orchid, and there are herbs such as pignut.[136]
Mucking Flats and Marshes Mucking Flats Green tickY 312.7 hectares (773 acres) PP Tilbury
51°29′06″N 0°26′38″E / 51.485°N 0.444°E / 51.485; 0.444 (Mucking Flats and Marshes)
TQ698791
Ramsar,[137] SPA[138] Map Citation Wildfowl and waders feed and roost on the mudflats and marshes, with internationally important numbers of ringed plover, and nationally significant shelducks, grey plovers, dunlins, black-tailed godwits and redshanks.[139]
Naze, TheThe Naze The Naze Green tickY 24.9 hectares (62 acres) YES Walton-on-the-Naze
51°51′54″N 1°17′24″E / 51.865°N 1.290°E / 51.865; 1.290 (The Naze)
TM266236
GCR[140] Map Citation This is the type site for the Waltonian, the first British stage of the Pleistocene. It also has many plant and bird fossils dating to the Eocene, and it is described by Natural England as important in the study of avian evolution.[141]
Newney Green Pit Newney Green Pit Green tickY 0.1 hectares (0.25 acres) NO Writtle
51°43′55″N 0°23′06″E / 51.732°N 0.385°E / 51.732; 0.385 (Newney Green Pit)
TL648064
GCR[142] Map Citation This former quarry exposed the Kesgrave (Thames) Gravel, dating to the Cromerian interglacial around 500,000 years ago. Higher layers displayed the transition from this warm period to the succeeding severe Anglian ice age.[143]
Norsey Wood Norsey Wood Green tickY 65.6 hectares (162 acres) YES Billericay
51°37′55″N 0°26′10″E / 51.632°N 0.436°E / 51.632; 0.436 (Norsey Wood)
TQ687954
LNR,[144] SM[145] Map Citation This is ancient oak woodland on acid soil which has been converted to mixed sweet chestnut coppice. There are sphagnum mosses in acidic flushes, and the rare water violet in one of the four ponds. There are nine species of dragonfly.[146] Archaeological features include a Bronze Age bowl barrow.[145]
Nunn Wood Nunn Wood Green tickY 9.5 hectares (23 acres) YES Saffron Walden
52°03′43″N 0°16′37″E / 52.062°N 0.277°E / 52.062; 0.277 (Nunn Wood)
TL562429
Map Citation The site is an ancient coppice wood on chalky boulder clay. It is mainly hornbeam with other trees such as pedunculate oak, ash and field maple. Flowers include the nationally uncommon oxlip, and one of the largest colonies of early purple orchids.[147]
Pitsea Marsh Pitsea Marsh Green tickY 92.3 hectares (228 acres) PP Pitsea
51°33′04″N 0°30′25″E / 51.551°N 0.507°E / 51.551; 0.507 (Pitsea Marsh)
TQ739866
Map Citation The site has a variety of habitats, such as grassland, scrub, reedbed, fen, ponds and saltmarsh. Dykes and ponds support the scarce emerald damselfly, and other rare invertebrates include Roesel's bush-cricket and the hoverfly xanthandrus comtus.[148]
Purfleet Chalk Pits Purfleet Chalk Pits Green tickY 9.8 hectares (24 acres) PP Purfleet
51°28′59″N 0°15′00″E / 51.483°N 0.25°E / 51.483; 0.25 (Purfleet Chalk Pits)
TQ563784
GCR[149] Map Citation The chalk pits expose sands and gravels which are associated with the ancient course of the River Thames.[150] The site has been occupied by early humans at several different periods,[151] and MIS9, between about 335,000 and 280,000 years ago, is often informally called the Purfleet interglacial.[152]
Purfleet Road, Aveley Purfleet Road, Aveley Green tickY 4.0 hectares (9.9 acres) YES Aveley
51°29′46″N 0°14′20″E / 51.496°N 0.239°E / 51.496; 0.239 (Purfleet Road, Aveley)
TQ555798
Map Citation This site dates to the interglacial period, MIS7, around 200,000 years ago. It has yielded mollusc insect and mammal fossils, including the first jungle cat discovered in Britain.[153]
Quendon Wood Quendon Wood Green tickY 33.5 hectares (83 acres) PP Stansted Mountfitchet
51°56′46″N 0°12′18″E / 51.946°N 0.205°E / 51.946; 0.205 (Quendon Wood)
TL516298
Map Citation The site has ancient coppiced woods with a rich variety of fauna on different types of soil. It is mainly pedunculate oak/hornbeam woodland, with some areas having ash/maple, and others the rare birch/hazel variant. Plants in the understorey include wild daffodils and herb-paris.[154]
Riddles Wood Riddles Wood Green tickY 37.9 hectares (94 acres) NO Clacton-on-Sea
51°49′12″N 1°05′17″E / 51.820°N 1.088°E / 51.820; 1.088 (Riddles Wood)
TM129180
Map Citation The site has varied ancient pedunculate oak and hazel in some areas and oak and hornbeam in others, as well as chestnut coppice. The soils are glacial gravels in the west and London Clay in the east. Flower include the rare orpine.[155]
River Ter River Ter Green tickY 6.4 hectares (16 acres) PP Great Leighs
51°48′47″N 0°10′48″E / 51.813°N 0.18°E / 51.813; 0.18 (River Ter)
TL737157
GCR[156] Map Citation The site is a stretch of the River Ter and its banks which is representative of a type of lowland stream on glacial till, with a low base flow but high flood peaks, and other features such as pool-riffle sequences and bank erosion.[157]
Roding Valley Meadows Roding Valley Meadows Green tickY 19.3 hectares (48 acres) YES Chigwell
51°38′17″N 0°04′26″E / 51.638°N 0.074°E / 51.638; 0.074 (Roding Valley Meadows)
TQ436953
EWT,[158] LNR[159] Map Citation The meadows are bordered to the south west by the River Roding. They form one of the largest areas of grassland in Essex which are traditionally managed as hay meadows, flood meadows and marshland. Plants include the largest beds in Essex of the rare brown sedge.[160]
Roman River Roman River Green tickY 282.0 hectares (697 acres) YES Colchester
51°50′56″N 0°54′14″E / 51.849°N 0.904°E / 51.849; 0.904 (Roman River)
TM001207
Map Citation There are areas of woodland, grassland, fen, scrub and heath. The woodland, which is mainly ancient, has over a thousand species of moths and butterflies, and nearly seventy of breeding birds, including hawfinches, tree pipits and yellow wagtails.[161]
Sandbeach Meadows Sandbeach Meadows Green tickY 29.4 hectares (73 acres) FP Bradwell-on-Sea
51°42′32″N 0°55′26″E / 51.709°N 0.924°E / 51.709; 0.924 (Sandbeach Meadows)
TM021052
Map Citation The site is almost the only survivor of the formerly extensive Dengie grazing marshes, and in the winter it supports a nationally important population of dark-bellied brent geese. Several ditches have meanders which survive from when they were salt-marsh creeks.[162]
St Osyth Pit St Osyth Pit Green tickY 0.1 hectares (0.25 acres) NO St Osyth
51°48′40″N 1°04′23″E / 51.811°N 1.073°E / 51.811; 1.073 (St Osyth Pit)
TM119170
GCR[163] Map Citation The site has a succession of deposits which throw light of the diversion of the River Thames south to its present course during the Anglian Ice Age around 450,000 years ago, including fine gravel deposited during a brief period when the Thames was blocked by ice.[164]
Stour and Copperas Woods, Ramsey Copperas Wood Green tickY 78.2 hectares (193 acres) YES Wrabness
51°56′13″N 1°11′20″E / 51.937°N 1.189°E / 51.937; 1.189 (Stour and Copperas Woods, Ramsey)
TM193313
EWT,[165] RSPB,[166] SAONB,[167] WT[168] Map Citation The site is ancient coppiced woodland on the southern shore of Stour Estuary, and is the only area in the county where woodland and coastal habitats meet. The dominant tree is chestnut, with a ground layer of bramble. Other plants include yellow archangel and dog's mercury.[169]
Stour Estuary Stour Estuary Green tickY Green tickY 2,248.0 hectares (5,555 acres) PP Wrabness
51°57′N 1°10′E / 51.95°N 1.16°E / 51.95; 1.16 (Stour Estuary)
TM173327
EWT,[170] GCR,[171] LNR,[172] NCR,[173] Ramsar,[15] RSPB,[166] SAONB,[167] SPA[174] Map Citation The estuary is nationally important for thirteen species of wintering wildfowl and three on autumn passage, and also for coastal saltmarsh, sheltered muddy shores, two scarce marine invertebrates, rare plant assemblages and three geological sites.[175]
Thorndon Park Thorndon Park Green tickY 148.5 hectares (367 acres) YES Brentwood
51°35′46″N 0°19′26″E / 51.596°N 0.324°E / 51.596; 0.324 (Thorndon Park)
TQ611911
Map Citation The site is semi-natural woodland and ancient parkland. It has a diverse population of beetles, including one which is rare and threatened in Britain. The parkland has old oak pollards on acid or neutral grassland.[176]
Thrift Wood, Woodham Ferrers Thrift Wood Green tickY 19.5 hectares (48 acres) YES Bicknacre
51°41′10″N 0°35′24″E / 51.686°N 0.59°E / 51.686; 0.59 (Thrift Wood, Woodham Ferrers)
TL791018
EWT[177] Map Citation The site is an ancient semi-natural wood on acid soil. Wild service trees and elders are found in the shrub layer, and a pond has a raised sphagnum bog. Twenty species of butterfly have been recorded.[178]
Thundersley Great Common Thundersley Great Common Green tickY 9.0 hectares (22 acres) YES Thundersley
51°34′26″N 0°35′20″E / 51.574°N 0.589°E / 51.574; 0.589 (Thundersley Great Common)
TQ795893
Map Citation The site is in two separate areas, and has a variety of grass and heath habitats. There is wet and dry heathland, both unusual in Essex, locally uncommon plants. Ponds which dry up in the summer provide an additional habitat.[179]
Tiptree Heath Tiptree Heath Green tickY 24.6 hectares (61 acres) YES Tiptree
51°47′53″N 0°43′41″E / 51.798°N 0.728°E / 51.798; 0.728 (Tiptree Heath)
TL882146
EWT[180] Map Citation This is the largest surviving area of heathland in Essex, and has a number of plants rare in the county. It is dominated by heather and bent grass.[181] A small herd of Dexter cattle help to control the growth of invasive scrub.[180]
Turnford and Cheshunt Pits Cheshunt Pit Green tickY 174.4 hectares (431 acres) YES Waltham Abbey
51°42′22″N 0°01′08″W / 51.706°N 0.019°W / 51.706; -0.019 (Turnford and Cheshunt Pits)
TL370027
SPA[182] Map Citation This site includes ten former gravel pits, which are of national importance for wintering gadwalls and shovelers. It is also valuable for invertebrates, especially grasshoppers and bush-crickets.[183]
Upper Colne Marshes Upper Colne Marshes Green tickY 113.2 hectares (280 acres) PP Wivenhoe
51°51′25″N 0°57′14″E / 51.857°N 0.954°E / 51.857; 0.954 (Upper Colne Marshes)
TM035217
Map Citation The site has grazing marshes, salt tidal marshes, beaches, sea walls and intertidal mud. It has an important assemblage of nationally scarce plants and diverse ditch types. Insects include the nationally scarce Roesel's bush-cricket.[184]
Vange and Fobbing Marshes Vange Marsh Green tickY 167.3 hectares (413 acres) YES Basildon
51°31′55″N 0°29′28″E / 51.532°N 0.491°E / 51.532; 0.491 (Vange and Fobbing Marshes)
TQ729844 TQ725867
RSPB[185] Map Citation The marshes are unimproved coastal grassland, dykes and creeks, with a wide variety of maritime herbs and grasses, some of them nationally rare. The site is the main British location for least lettuce. Insects with restricted distributions include the scarce emerald damselfly.[186]
Waltham Abbey Waltham Abbey Green tickY 33.8 hectares (84 acres) YES Waltham Abbey
51°41′56″N 0°00′43″W / 51.699°N 0.012°W / 51.699; -0.012 (Waltham Abbey)
TL375019
Map Citation The site is alder woodland on damp soils, with other trees including sycamore, ash and crack willow. The trees were planted around 1700 to provide charcoal for the manufacture of gunpowder, and planting ceased at the time of the First World War.[187]
Weeleyhall Wood Weeleyhall Wood Green tickY 31.6 hectares (78 acres) YES Weeley
51°50′42″N 1°07′55″E / 51.845°N 1.132°E / 51.845; 1.132 (Weeleyhall Wood)
TM158209
EWT[188] Map Citation It has a variety of woodland types, reflecting diverse soils. It is mainly pedunculate oak over a layer of coppice hazel and sweet chestnut planted in the nineteenth century. There are two ponds and species-rich damp, grassy rides.[189]
West Thurrock Lagoon and Marshes West Thurrock Marshes Green tickY 66.5 hectares (164 acres) PP West Thurrock
51°27′50″N 0°16′34″E / 51.464°N 0.276°E / 51.464; 0.276 (West Thurrock Lagoon and Marshes)
TQ582763
Map Citation The site is important for wintering waders and wildfowl which feed on the mudflats. Reed warblers and bearded tits breed on reed beds in the lagoon, and teals and grey herons roost on the shallow waters and grassy islands.[190]
West Wood, Little Sampford West Wood Green tickY 23.9 hectares (59 acres) YES Thaxted
51°58′26″N 0°21′25″E / 51.974°N 0.357°E / 51.974; 0.357 (West Wood, Little Sampford)
TL620332
EWT[191] Map Citation The site is ancient woodland on chalky boulder clay and sandy loam. There is a rich variety of plants in wetter areas, such as oxlip and meadow-sweet.[192] There are many species of birds and butterflies, and four ponds which have great crested newts, dragonflies and damselflies.[191]
Wivenhoe Gravel Pit Wivenhoe Gravel Pit Green tickY 1.0 hectare (2.5 acres) YES Wivenhoe
51°52′19″N 0°58′37″E / 51.872°N 0.977°E / 51.872; 0.977 (Wivenhoe Gravel Pit)
TM050235
GCR[193] Map Citation The site is the type locality for the Wivenhoe Gravel, which was laid down by the River Thames before it was diverted south to its present course by the Anglian glaciation around 450,000 years ago. The site is important for establishing the previous course of the Thames.[194]
Woodham Walter Common Woodham Walter Common Green tickY 79.7 hectares (197 acres) YES Danbury
51°43′44″N 0°35′24″E / 51.729°N 0.590°E / 51.729; 0.590 (Woodham Walter Common)
TL790065
EWT[195] Map Citation The site is on glacial sand and gravel over London Clay. it has a number of areas of oak and hornbeam woodland on former heathland. It also has two botanically rich valleys, each of which has a stream along it.[196]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b The area and grid reference are taken from the "Details" page for each site on the Natural England database.[8]
  2. ^ The maps are provided by Natural England on the Magic Map website.
  3. ^ Citations are provided for each site by Natural England.

References

  1. ^ "East of England". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  2. ^ Yorke, B. A. E. (2014). "Essex". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England (2nd ed.). Chichester, UK: Wiley Blackwell. pp. 174–75. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1. 
  3. ^ "Essex". British Services. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  4. ^ "Essex PEEL 2015: More about this area". Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary. Retrieved 18 October 2016. 
  5. ^ "2011 Census (first release) Summary - Essex, districts & unitary areas". Essex Insight. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  6. ^ "Local government structure". Essex County Council. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  7. ^ "Sites of Special Scientific Interest: Designation". Natural England. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Designated Sites View: Essex". Natural England. Retrieved 9 August 2016. 
  9. ^ a b c "Foulness citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016. 
  10. ^ a b "Holland-on-Sea Cliff citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  11. ^ a b "Hangman's Wood and Deneholes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "Lion Pit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  13. ^ "Abberton Reservoir Visitor Centre". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "Abberton Reservoir citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Designated and Proposed Ramsar sites in the UK and Overseas Territories & Crown Dependencies". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  16. ^ "Abberton Reservoir". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  17. ^ "Ardleigh Gravel Pit (Martells Quarry) (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  18. ^ "Ardleigh Gravel Pit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 31 July 2016. 
  19. ^ "Ashdon Meadows citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  20. ^ "Basildon Meadows citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  21. ^ "Brookes Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 15 May 2016. 
  22. ^ "Map of Belcher's and Broadfield Woods". Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 15 May 2016. 
  23. ^ "Belcher's and Broadfield Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  24. ^ "Two Tree Island". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  25. ^ "Southend on Sea Foreshore". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 27 February 2013. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  26. ^ a b c "Benfleet and Southend Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2015. 
  27. ^ "Benfleet and Southend Marshes". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  28. ^ "Tollesbury Wick Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  29. ^ "Abbotts Hall Farm". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 22 August 2016. 
  30. ^ a b "Blackwater Estuary citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  31. ^ a b c d e "Essex's National Nature Reserves". Natural England. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  32. ^ a b c d "Essex Estuaries". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  33. ^ "Blackwater Estuary (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 4)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 November 2015. 
  34. ^ a b "Blake's Wood & Lingwood Common citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2015. 
  35. ^ "Bovingdon Hall Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  36. ^ "Bullock Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  37. ^ a b "About Canvey Wick". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  38. ^ "Canvey Wick citation". Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  39. ^ a b "Dedham Vale AONB and Stour Valley – Management Plan 2010–2015" (PDF). Dedham Vale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and Stour Valley Project. p. 21. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  40. ^ "Cattawade Marshes". Natural England. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  41. ^ "About Cattawade Marshes". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  42. ^ "Cattawade Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  43. ^ "Cattawade Marshes". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 6 December 2015. 
  44. ^ "Chalkney Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  45. ^ "Clacton (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  46. ^ "Clacton Cliffs and Foreshore citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  47. ^ Pettit, Paul; White, Mark (2012). The British Palaeolithic: Human Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 172–92. ISBN 978-0-415-67455-3. 
  48. ^ "Burnham-on-Crouch (Aves)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  49. ^ "Burnham-on-Crouch (Mesozoic - Tertiary Fish/Amphibia)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  50. ^ "The Cliff, Burnham-on-Crouch citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  51. ^ a b c d "Colne Estuary citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  52. ^ "Other Designated Sites in the Sea 3 Area" (PDF). Department of Trade and Industry. 2002. p. 27. Retrieved 7 December 2015. 
  53. ^ "Special Protection Area under the EC Birds Directive: Colne Estuary (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 2)" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  54. ^ "The Coppice, Kelvedon Hatch citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 19 June 2016. 
  55. ^ "Cornmill Stream and Old River Lea citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 December 2015. 
  56. ^ "Lion Creek and Lower Raypits Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  57. ^ "Woodham Fen Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  58. ^ "Blue House Farm". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 19 May 2016. 
  59. ^ "Map of Crouch and Roach Estuaries". Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  60. ^ "Crouch and Roach Estuaries (Mid-Essex)" (PDF). Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 10 December 2015. 
  61. ^ "Crouch and Roach estuaries citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  62. ^ "Curtismill Green citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  63. ^ "Danbury Ridge Nature Reserves". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  64. ^ a b "Danbury Common citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  65. ^ "Danbury Commons and Blakes Wood". National Trust. Retrieved 13 December 2015. 
  66. ^ "Debden Water citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016. 
  67. ^ "Bradwell Shell Bank Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 26 February 2016. 
  68. ^ "Dengie (Coastal Geomorphology of England)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  69. ^ a b "Dengie citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  70. ^ "Dengie (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 1)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 14 December 2015. 
  71. ^ "Elsenham Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  72. ^ a b c "Epping Forest citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
  73. ^ "Epping Forest". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  74. ^ "Ambresbury Banks slight univallate hillfort". Historic England. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  75. ^ "Loughton camp slight univallate hillfort". Historic England. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  76. ^ "Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  77. ^ "Shoeburyness Old Ranges". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  78. ^ "Essex Estuaries". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  79. ^ "Foulness (Mid-Essex Coast Phase 5)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 23 December 2015. 
  80. ^ "Garnetts Wood and Barnston Lays citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  81. ^ "Garrold's Meadow citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016. 
  82. ^ "Glemsford Pits citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 17 May 2016. 
  83. ^ "Globe Pit, Little Thurrock (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  84. ^ "Globe Pit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 29 April 2016. 
  85. ^ "Southminster, Goldsands Road Pit (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  86. ^ "Maldon". GeoEssex. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  87. ^ a b "Chafford Gorges Nature Park". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 27 February 2016. 
  88. ^ a b "Map of Chafford Gorges Nature Park" (PDF). Healthy Life Essex. Retrieved 27 February 2016. 
  89. ^ "Grays Thurrock Chalk Pit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016. 
  90. ^ "Belfairs Woodland Centre". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  91. ^ a b "Great Wood & Dodd's Grove Hadleigh (Belfairs LNR) citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  92. ^ "Hainault Forest citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  93. ^ "Shadwell Wood Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  94. ^ a b Ratcliffe, Derek (1977). A Nature Conservation Review. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-521-21403-2. 
  95. ^ "Hales and Shadwell Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016. 
  96. ^ "Halls Quarry (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  97. ^ "Hall's Quarry citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  98. ^ a b c "Hamford Water citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  99. ^ "Skipper's Island Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  100. ^ "John Weston Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  101. ^ "Hamford Water". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 1 January 2016. 
  102. ^ "Dene holes in Hangman's Wood". Historic England. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  103. ^ "Hanningfield Reservoir" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  104. ^ "Hanningfield Reservoir Visitor Centre". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  105. ^ "Hanningfield Reservoir citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  106. ^ a b "Harlow Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  107. ^ "Parndon Woods and Common". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  108. ^ "Harwich (Tertiary Palaeobotany)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  109. ^ "Harwich Foreshore SSSI". The Essex Field Club. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  110. ^ "Hatfield Forest". National Trust. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  111. ^ "Warren in Collins Coppice, Hatfield Forest". Historic England. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  112. ^ "Hatfield Forest citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  113. ^ "High Wood, Dunmow citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  114. ^ "Hockley Woods". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 25 January 2016. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  115. ^ "Hockley Woods citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  116. ^ "Holehaven Creek citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  117. ^ "Holland Haven". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  118. ^ "Holland Haven Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 June 2016. 
  119. ^ "Holland-on-Sea Cliff (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  120. ^ "Hunsdon Mead Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  121. ^ "Hunsdon and Eastwick Meads". Herts and Middlesex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  122. ^ "Hunsdon Mead citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2014. 
  123. ^ "Rainham Marshes". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 15 January 2016. 
  124. ^ "Inner Thames Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016. 
  125. ^ "Lion Pit Tramway Cutting (West Thurrock) (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  126. ^ "Little Hallingbury Marsh citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  127. ^ "Little Oakley (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  128. ^ "Little Oakley Channel SSSI". The Essex Field Club. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 
  129. ^ "Great Totham (Lofts Farm Pit) (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  130. ^ "Lofts Farm Pit SSSI, Great Totham". The Essex Field Club. Retrieved 10 July 2016. 
  131. ^ "Maldon Railway Cutting (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  132. ^ "Maldon Railway Cutting SSSI". The Essex Field Club. Retrieved 10 July 2016. 
  133. ^ "Marks Tey (Quaternary of East Anglia)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  134. ^ "Marks Tey Brickpit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 5 July 2016. 
  135. ^ "Mill Meadows". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
  136. ^ "Mill Meadows, Billericay citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 12 June 2016. 
  137. ^ "Thames Estuary and Marshes". The Ramsar Convention Secretariat. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  138. ^ "Thames Estuary and Marshes". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  139. ^ "Mucking Flats and Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 3 August 2016. 
  140. ^ "Walton-on-the-Naze (Aves)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  141. ^ "The Naze citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  142. ^ "Newney Green Quarry (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  143. ^ "Newney Green Pit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  144. ^ "Norsey Wood". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  145. ^ a b "Multi-period site at Norsey Wood". Historic England. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  146. ^ "Norsey Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 5 August 2016. 
  147. ^ "Nunn Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  148. ^ "Pitsea Marsh citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  149. ^ "Purfleet: Bluelands, Greenlands, Esso and Botany Pits". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  150. ^ "Purfleet Chalk Pits citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  151. ^ "Purfleet Chalk Pits SSSI, Thurrock District, TQ569786, Site of Special Scientific Interest". Essex Field Club. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  152. ^ Pettit, Paul; White, Mark (2012). The British Palaeolithic: Human Societies at the Edge of the Pleistocene World. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-415-67455-3. 
  153. ^ "Aveley, Purfleet Road SSSI, AVELEY, Thurrock District, TQ555798, Site of Special Scientific Interest". Essex Field Club. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  154. ^ "Quendon Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 24 April 2016. 
  155. ^ "Riddles Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  156. ^ "River Ter at Lyons Hall (Fluvial Geomorphology of England)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  157. ^ "River Ter citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 30 July 2016. 
  158. ^ "Roding Valley Meadows". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  159. ^ "Roding Valley Meadows". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  160. ^ "Roding Valley Meadows citation". Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  161. ^ "Roman River citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  162. ^ "Sandbeach Meadows citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  163. ^ "St Osyth Gravel Pit (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 
  164. ^ "St Osyth Pit citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 9 June 2016. 
  165. ^ "Copperas Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  166. ^ a b "Stour Estuary". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  167. ^ a b "Suffolk Coast & Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Management Plan 2013–2018" (PDF). Suffolk Coast & Heaths AONB. p. 76. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  168. ^ "Stour Wood". [Woodland Trust. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  169. ^ "Stour and Copperas Woods, Ramsey citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  170. ^ "Wrabness Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  171. ^ "Wrabness (Tertiary Palaeobotany)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  172. ^ "Wrabness". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  173. ^ Ratcliffe, Derek (1977). A Nature Conservation Review. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-21403-2. 
  174. ^ "Stour and Orwell Estuaries". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 6 August 2016. 
  175. ^ "Stour Estuary citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  176. ^ "Thorndon Park citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  177. ^ "Thrift Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  178. ^ "Thrift Wood, Woodham Ferrers citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  179. ^ "Thundersley Great Common citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  180. ^ a b "Tiptree Heath Nature Reserve". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  181. ^ "Tiptree Heath citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  182. ^ "Lee Valley". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  183. ^ "Turnford & Cheshunt Pits citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 3 June 2016. 
  184. ^ "Upper Colne Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  185. ^ "Vange Marsh". Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  186. ^ "Vange and Fobbing Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  187. ^ "Waltham Abbey citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  188. ^ "Weeleyhall Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  189. ^ "Weeleyhall Wood citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  190. ^ "West Thurrock Lagoon and Marshes citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 8 August 2016. 
  191. ^ a b "West Wood". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  192. ^ "West Wood, Little Sampford citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  193. ^ "Wivenhoe Gravel Pit (Quaternary of the Thames)". Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  194. ^ "Wivenhoe Gravel Pit SSSI, Wivenhoe, Tendring District, TM050235, Site of Special Scientific Interest". The Essex Field Club. Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
  195. ^ "Danbury Ridge Nature Reserves". Essex Wildlife Trust. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  196. ^ "Woodham Walter Common citation" (PDF). Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Natural England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
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