List of Presidents of Vietnam

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The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch nước Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam), known as Chairman of the Council of State (Vietnamese: Chủ tịch Hội đồng Nhà nước) from 1981 to 1992, is the head of state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Beside, the president is also the head of government with prime minister. The president represents Vietnam internally and externally, supervises the work as well as preserving the stability of the national governmental system and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The president appoints prime minister, vice presidents, ministers and other officials with the consent of the National Assembly. The head of state is the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security, an organ of the National Assembly. Since Vietnam is a one-party state, with the Communist Party of Vietnam being the sole party allowed by the constitution, all the presidents of the Democratic Republic and the Socialist Republic have been members of the party while holding office. The current president is Trần Đại Quang, since 2 April 2016. He is ranked second in the Politburo hierarchy, after General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng.[1]

The modern office of the President of the Socialist Republic traces its lineage back to Hồ Chí Minh, the first President of the Democratic Republic, and the office has no connection, or lineage, officially at least, to the heads of state of the former South Vietnam (with the exception being Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, a communist and the last head of state of South Vietnam). Officially there have been 9 presidents of Vietnam, but there have, in total, been 14 presidents if the ones of South Vietnam are counted.

Presidents of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (1945–1976)

Number
[note 1]
Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Length Rank
[note 2]
Political party Portrait
1 Hồ Chí Minh
(1890–1969)
(Lived: 79 years)
September 2, 1945 September 2, 1969
[note 3]
24 years, 0 days 1 Communist Party of Indochina (until 1951)
Worker's Party of Vietnam (since 1951)
A man with a thick beard wearing traditional clothing
Huỳnh Thúc Kháng
(1876-1947)
(Lived: 70 years)
May 31, 1946 September 21, 1946 113 days Independent
Tôn Đức Thắng
(1888–1980)
(Lived: 91 years)
September 3, 1969 September 23, 1969 20 days Worker's Party of Vietnam
2 September 23, 1969 July 2, 1976 6 years, 283 days 1

Chairman of the Consultative Council of the Republic of South Vietnam (1969–1976)

Number Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Length Political party Portrait
1 Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
(1910–1996)
(Lived: 86 years)
June 8, 1969 July 2, 1976 7 years, 24 days People's Revolutionary Party of Vietnam (influenced by Worker's Party of Vietnam)

Heads of state of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (1976–present)

Presidents (1976–1981)

Number
[note 1]
Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Length Rank
[note 2]
Political party Portrait
1 Tôn Đức Thắng
(1888–1980)
(Lived: 91 years)
July 2, 1976 March 30, 1980
[note 4]
3 years, 272 days 1 Communist Party of Vietnam
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
(1910–1996)
(Lived: 86 years)
March 30, 1980 July 4, 1981 1 year, 96 days Communist Party of Vietnam

Chairmen of the Council of State (1981–1992)

Number
[note 1]
Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Length Rank
[note 2]
Political party Portrait
2 Trường Chinh
(1907–1988)
(Lived: 81 years)
July 4, 1981 June 18, 1987 5 years, 349 days 2 Communist Party of Vietnam A old bald man wearing traditional clothing
3 Võ Chí Công
(1912–2011)
(Lived: 99 years)
June 18, 1987 September 22, 1992 5 years, 96 days 3 Communist Party of Vietnam No image.png

Presidents (1992–present)

Number
[note 1]
Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Length Rank
[note 2]
Political party Portrait
4 Lê Đức Anh
(1920–)
(96 years old)
September 23, 1992 September 23, 1997 5 years, 0 days 2 Communist Party of Vietnam a smiling man with grey hair dressed in a tan military uniform suit with red and gold medals
5 Trần Đức Lương
(1937–)
(80 years old)
September 24, 1997 June 26, 2006 8 years, 275 days 2 Communist Party of Vietnam a smiling man with black hair, wearing glasses, and dressed in a suit with a red tie
6 Nguyễn Minh Triết
(1942–)
(75 years old)
June 27, 2006 July 25, 2011 5 years, 28 days 4 Communist Party of Vietnam a smiling man with black hair, dressed in a suit with a yellow tie
7 Trương Tấn Sang
(1949–)
(68 years old)
July 25, 2011 April 2, 2016 4 years, 252 days 1 Communist Party of Vietnam a smiling man with black hair, dressed in a suit with a purple tie
8 Trần Đại Quang
(1956–)
(61 years old)
April 2, 2016 Incumbent 1 year, 232 days 2 Communist Party of Vietnam a smiling man with black hair, dressed in a suit with an orange tie

See also

Notes

1.^ These numbers are official. The "—" denotes acting head of state. The first column shows how many presidents there have been in Vietnamese history, while the second show how many presidents there was in that state.
2.^ The Central Committee when it convenes for its first session after being elected by a National Party Congress elects the Politburo.[2] According to David Koh, in interviews with several high-standing Vietnamese officials, the Politburo ranking is based upon the number of approval votes by the Central Committee. Lê Hồng Anh, the Minister of Public Security, was ranked 2nd in the 10th Politburo because he received the second-highest number of approval votes. Another example being Tô Huy Rứa of the 10th Politburo, he was ranked lowest because he received the lowest approval vote of the 10th Central Committee when he standing for election for a seat in the Politburo. This system was implemented at the 1st plenum of the 10th Central Committee.[3] The Politburo ranking functioned as an official order of precedence before the 10th Party Congress, and some believe it still does.[2]
3.^ Died in office.
4.^ Trường Chinh was ranked 1st in the Politburo hierarchy when Lê Duẩn, the General Secretary of the Central Committee, died on 10 July 1986.

References

  1. ^ "Party Congress announces CPVCC Politburo members". Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Van & Cooper 1983, p. 69.
  3. ^ Koh 2008, p. 666.

Bibliography

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