List of presidents of Syria

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politics and government of
Syria

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This article lists the presidents of Syria since 1920.

Presidents

Meaning
Acting president.
National Bloc
National Party
Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Military
Arab Liberation Movement
National Union
People's Party
Syrian Regional Branch
(Ba'ath Party / Syrian Ba'ath Party)

State of Syria, part of the French Mandate (1922–1930)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Time in office Duration Political party Note(s)
1 Subhi barkat.jpg Subhi Barakat
(1889–1939)
29[1] June 1922 20[2] December 1925 3 years, 173 days Independent
No image.svg François Pierre-Alype
(1853–1932)
9 February 1926 28 April 1926 78 days Independent
2 Sy nami.png Ahmad Nami
(1879–1960)
28 April 1926 15 February 1928 1 year, 291 days Independent
Taj al-Din al-Hasani.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
15 February 1928 14 May 1930 2 years, 89 days Independent

Syrian Republic, part of the French Mandate (1930–1945)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Time in office Duration Political party Note(s)
Taj al-Din al-Hasani.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
14 May 1930 19 November 1931 1 year, 187 days Independent
No image.svg Léon Solomiac
(1873–1960)
19 November 1931 11 June 1932 205 days Independent
3 Muhammad Ali al-Abid.jpg Muhammad Ali al-Abed
(1867–1939)
11 June 1932 21 December 1936 4 years, 192 days Independent
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
21 December 1936 7 July 1939 2 years, 198 days National Bloc
5 Bahij al-Khatib.jpg Bahij al-Khatib
(1895–1981)
10 July 1939 4 April 1941 1 year, 268 days Independent
Khalid al-Azm.jpg Khalid al-Azm
(1903–1965)
4 April 1941 16 September 1941 165 days Independent
6 Taj al-Din al-Hasani.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
16 September 1941 17 January 1943 1 year, 122 days Independent Hasani died in office.[3]
Jamil al-Ulshi.jpg Jamil al-Ulshi
(1883–1951)
17 January 1943 25 March 1943 67 days Independent
7 Ata al-Ayyubi.jpg Ata al-Ayyubi
(1877–1951)
25 March 1943 17 August 1943 145 days Independent
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
17 August 1943 24 October 1945 2 years, 67 days National Bloc

Syrian Republic (1945–1958)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Time in office Duration Political party Note(s)
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
24 October 1945 29 March 1949 3 years, 157 days National Bloc /
National Party
Quwatli was ousted from power on 29 March 1949 by Husni al-Za'im, his Chief of Staff.[4]
9 Husni al-Zaiim.jpg Husni al-Za'im
(1897–1949)
1949 30 March 1949 14 August 1949 137 days Syrian Social Nationalist Party Za'im was overthrown by a military coup in 1949 led by Adib Shishakli, he was later executed on the orders of the new government.[5]
10 Sami al-Hinnawi.jpg Sami al-Hinnawi
(1898–1950)
14 August 1949 15 August 1949 1 day Military
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
15 August 1949 2 December 1951 2 years, 108 days National Party
Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
2 December 1951 3 December 1951 1 day Syrian Social Nationalist Party
11 Fawzi Selu.jpg Fawzi Selu
(1905–1972)
3 December 1951 11 July 1953 1 year, 221 days Military
12 Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
1953 11 July 1953 25 February 1954 229 days Arab Liberation Movement Shishakli resigned from office because of threats of a coup in 1954.[6] He fled the country, claiming that he did not want the country to fall into a civil war.[6]
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
25 February 1954 28 February 1954 3 days Independent
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
28 February 1954 6 September 1955 1 year, 191 days National Party
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
6 September 1955 22 February 1958 2 years, 168 days National Party

United Arab Republic (1958–1961)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Time in office Duration Political party Note(s)
13 Nasser portrait2.jpg Gamal Abdel Nasser
(1918–1970)
1958 22 February 1958 29 September 1961 3 years, 220 days National Union

Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Time in office Duration Political party Note(s)
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
29 September 1961 20 November 1961 52 days Independent Kuzbari took office following the 1961 coup d'état, which dissolved the United Arab Republic.
Sy izzat al-nuss.png Izzat al-Nuss
(1912–1976)[7]
20 November 1961 14 December 1961 24 days Military
14 Nazim al-Kudsi.jpg Nazim al-Kudsi
(1906–1998)
14 December 1961 8 March 1963 1 year, 82 days People's Party The 1963 coup d'état, an event known as the 8th of March Revolution, toppled Nazim al-Kudsi and brought the National Council for the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) to government, although real power lay with the Ba'athist Military Committee, which organized the coup.[8]
15 Luai al-Atassi.jpg Lu'ay al-Atassi
(1926–2003)
9 March 1963 27 July 1963 140 days Independent Lu'ay al-Atassi was appointed president by the NCRC because he posed no threat to the Military Committee's power.[9] He resigned after high-ranking non-Ba'athist officers were purged.[10]
16 Amin al-Hafez 1965.jpg Amin al-Hafiz
(1921–2009)
27 July 1963 23 February 1966 2 years, 209 days Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Amin al-Hafiz was overthrown by the Military Committee because of his support for Michel Aflaq and the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.[11]
17 Nureddin Atassi.jpg Nureddin al-Atassi
(1929–1992)
25 February 1966 18 November 1970 4 years, 267 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Nureddin al-Atassi was overthrown when a falling out occurred between Salah Jadid, the real ruler of Syria from 1966 to 1970, and Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense.[12] Assad initiated a coup in 1970, known as the Corrective Movement.[13]
Ahmad al-Khatib, the interim head of state who ruled Syria for four months from November 1970 to March 1971.png Ahmad al-Khatib
(1933–1982)
18 November 1970 22 February 1971 96 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
18 Hafez al-Assad official portrait.jpg Hafez al-Assad
(1930–2000)
1971
1978
1985
1991
1999
22 February 1971 10 June 2000 29 years, 202 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Assad died in office.[14]
Abdul Halim Khaddam in 1974.jpg Abdul Halim Khaddam
(1932–)
10 June 2000 17 July 2000 37 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
19 Bashar al-Assad (cropped).jpg Bashar al-Assad
(1965–)
2000
2007
2014
17 July 2000 Incumbent 19 years, 64 days Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)

Timeline

Bashar al-Assad Abdul Halim Khaddam Hafez al-Assad Ahmad al-Khatib Nureddin al-Atassi Amin al-Hafiz Lu'ay al-Atassi Nazim al-Kudsi Izzat al-Nuss Gamal Abdel Nasser Maamun al-Kuzbari Fawzi Selu Adib Shishakli Sami al-Hinnawi Husni al-Za'im Shukri al-Quwatli Ata al-Ayyubi Jamil al-Ulshi Khalid al-Azm Bahij al-Khatib Hashim al-Atassi Muhammad Ali al-Abid Léon Solomiac Taj al-Din al-Hasani Ahmad Nami François Pierre-Alype Subhi Barakat

See also

References

General
  1. ^ [1]; [2].
  2. ^ Arrêté No. 35 of 30 December 1925.
  3. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 345.
  4. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 311.
  5. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 610.
  6. ^ a b Moubayed 2006, p. 339.
  7. ^ "Who's who in the Arab World". 1974.
  8. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 133.
  9. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 175.
  10. ^ Rabinovich 1972, p. 72.
  11. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 99–101.
  12. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 142–144.
  13. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 162–163.
  14. ^ Moubayed 2006, pp. 154–155.
Bibliography
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