List of New Zealand governments

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of New Zealand ministries)
Coat of Arms used by the Government.

The Government of New Zealand exercises executive power in New Zealand. This article lists ministries of New Zealand, in the sense of successive governments. There are three distinctly different periods: firstly the period without responsible government, then from 1856 to 1890 the period of responsible government, and the third period started with the formation of political parties in 1891.

Guide to list

This article lists the successive governments of New Zealand since 1856. The first government that formed along political lines did not appear until 1891, when John Ballance formed the Liberal Party and the Liberal Government.[1] By convention, a government is named for the largest party that leads it.[2][3]

The term 'ministry', as used in this article, refers collectively to all the ministers who direct the government.[4] It is described by the Oxford Dictionary as "a period of government under one prime minister".[5] At the same time, a period of government under a particular party might be led by a succession of prime ministers and comprise multiple ministries. The ministry includes all government ministers, inside and outside of cabinet alike (up to the introduction of MMP in 1996, most ministers were in the cabinet). Elections do not cause dissolution of the ministry unless they result in the government's defeat.

List of ministries

Period without responsible Government (1854–1856)

The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and was the second enactment to grant the colony of New Zealand self-government. The first elections for a New Zealand House of Representatives were held during 1853, and this lower house met for the first time in 1854 in Auckland. In practice, the country was initially governed by the Governor, George Grey, with the advice of the Civil Secretary and some officials that were appointed back in 1840/41, namely Andrew Sinclair (Colonial Secretary), William Swainson (Attorney-General), and Alexander Shepherd (Colonial Treasurer).[6]

In the first session of the 1st New Zealand Parliament, three elected member took office under the leadership of James FitzGerald, to be later joined by two members of the Legislative Council. Whilst they were the first official Executive Government under the Constitution, the practical administration remained with the Government officials. The second Ministry led by Thomas Forsaith, which briefly formed during the second session of the 1st Parliament, also had no real power.[6]

Cabinet Government (1856–1890)

Responsible government commenced with the third ministry, led by Henry Sewell during the term of the 2nd New Zealand Parliament:[6]

  • Sewell Ministry, 1856: 18 April 1856 to 20 May 1856
  • Fox Ministry, 1856: 20 May 1856 to 2 June 1856
  • Stafford Ministry, 1856–61: 2 June 1856 to 12 July 1861
  • Fox Ministry, 1861–62: 12 July 1861 to 6 August 1862
  • Domett Ministry, 1862–63: 6 August 1862 to 30 October 1863
  • Whitaker-Fox Ministry, 1863–64: 30 October 1863 to 24 November 1864
  • Weld Ministry, 1864–65: 24 November 1864 to 16 October 1865
  • Stafford Ministry, 1865–69: 16 October 1865 to 28 June 1869
Note that Wilson says: "Ministry was defeated on 15 August 1866 and resigned, but carried on in a caretaker capacity. However 3 Ministers resigned and were replaced. Though this was regarded as a new ministry, it was in fact a reconstruction, and is so regarded here."[7]
  • Fox Ministry, 1869–72: 28 June 1869 to 10 September 1872
  • Stafford Ministry, 1872: 10 September 1872 to 11 October 1872
  • Waterhouse Ministry, 1872–73: 11 October 1872 to 3 March 1873
  • Fox Ministry, 1873: 3 March 1873 to 8 April 1873
  • Vogel Ministry, 1873–75: 8 April 1873 to 6 July 1875
  • Pollen Ministry, 1875–76: 6 July 1875 to 15 February 1876
  • Vogel Ministry, 1876: 15 February 1876 to 1 September 1876
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1876: 1 September 1876 to 13 September 1876 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1876–77 (Reconstituted): 13 September 1876 to 13 October 1877 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Grey Ministry, 1877–79: 13 October 1877 to 8 October 1879
  • Hall Ministry, 1879–82: 8 October 1879 to 21 April 1882 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Whitaker Ministry, 1882–83: 21 April 1882 to 25 September 1883 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1883–84: 25 September 1883 to 16 August 1884 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Stout-Vogel Ministry, 1884: 16 August 1884 to 28 August 1884
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1884: 28 August 1884 to 3 September 1884 (Continuous Ministry)
  • Stout-Vogel Ministry, 1884–87: 3 September 1884 to 8 October 1887
  • Atkinson Ministry, 1887–91: 8 October 1887 to 24 January 1891 (known as the Scarecrow Ministry)
Note that the Continuous Ministry is a term for the government of New Zealand from 1876 to 1890 (or 1887), except for 1877–79 and 1884–87. Sir Harry Atkinson was Premier, also Sir John Hall and Sir Frederick Whitaker. The Scarecrow Ministry of 1889–90 is sometimes included in the term.

Liberal Government of New Zealand (1891–1912)

  • Ballance Ministry, 1891–93: 24 January 1891 to 1 May 1893
  • Seddon Ministry, 1893–1906: 1 May 1893 to 21 June 1906
  • Hall-Jones Ministry, 1906: 21 June 1906 to 6 August 1906
  • Ward Ministry, 1906–1912: 6 August 1906 to 28 March 1912
  • MacKenzie Ministry, 1912: 28 March 1912 to 10 July 1912

Reform Government of New Zealand (1912–28)

  • Massey Ministry, 1912–1915: 10 July 1912 to 12 August 1915
  • National Ministry, 1915–1919: 12 August 1915 to 3 September 1919 (?)
  • Massey Ministry, 1919–1925: 4 September 1919 to 14 May 1925
  • Bell Ministry, 1925: 14 May 1925 to 30 May 1925
  • Coates Ministry, 1925–1928: 30 May 1925 to 10 December 1928

United Government of New Zealand (1928–31)

  • Ward Ministry, 1928–1930: 10 December 1928 to 28 May 1930
  • Forbes Ministry, 1930–1931: 28 May 1930 to 22 September 1931

United–Reform coalition Government of New Zealand (1931–35)

  • Forbes (Coalition) Ministry, 1931–1935: 22 September 1931 to 6 December 1935

First Labour Government of New Zealand (1935–49)

  • Savage Ministry, 1935–1940: 6 December 1935 to 1 April 1940
  • Fraser Ministry, 1940–1949: 1 April 1940 to 13 December 1949
  • "War Cabinet": 16 July 1940 to 21 August 1945
  • "War Administration": 30 June 1942 to 2 October 1945
Note: The War Cabinet was responsible for all decisions related to war matters. The War Administration was charged with the responsibility for all matters connected with the war and with New Zealand's war effort. The War Cabinet acted as its executive body. Both included opposition members.
Note: Wood has three Fraser Ministries: 1 April 1940 to 29 October 1943; 29 October 1943 to 19 December 1946; 19 December 1946 to 13 December 1949.

First National Government of New Zealand (1949–57)

  • Holland (First) Ministry: 1949–1954: 13 December 1949 to 26 November 1954
  • Holland (Second) Ministry: 1954–1957: 26 November 1954 to 20 September 1957
  • Holyoake (First) Ministry: 1957: 20 September 1957 to 12 December 1957

Second Labour Government of New Zealand (1957–60)

  • Nash Ministry: 1957–1960: 12 December 1957 to 12 December 1960

Second National Government of New Zealand (1960–72)

  • Holyoake (Second) Ministry: 1960–1972: 12 December 1960 to 7 February 1972
  • Marshall Ministry: 1972: 7 February 1972 to 8 December 1972

Third Labour Government of New Zealand (1972–75)

  • Kirk Ministry: 1972–1974: 8 December 1972 to 10 September 1974
  • Rowling Ministry, 1974–1975: 6 September 1974 to 12 December 1975
Note: while Rowling was sworn in on 6 September, his ministers were not sworn in until 10 September

Third National Government of New Zealand (1975–84)

  • Muldoon Ministry, 1975–1984: 12 December 1975 to 26 July 1984

Note: Wood has three Muldoon Ministries: 12 December 1975 to 13 December 1978; 13 December 1978 to 11 December 1981; 11 December 1981 to 26 July 1984

Fourth Labour Government of New Zealand (1984–90)

  • Lange Ministry, 1984–1989: from 26 July 1984 to 8 August 1989
  • Palmer/Moore Ministry, 1989–1990: from 8 August 1989 to 2 November 1990

Note: Geoffrey Palmer succeeded David Lange as Prime Minister on 8 August 1989; his ministers were appointed on 14 August 1989. Palmer was succeeded by Mike Moore on 4 September 1990. Moore made no separate ministerial appointments from those already appointed by Palmer.

Fourth National Government of New Zealand (1990–99)

  • Bolger Ministry, 1990–1997: from 2 November 1990 to 8 December 1997
  • Shipley Ministry, 1997–1999: from 8 December 1997 to 10 December 1999

Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand (1999–2008)

  • Clark Ministry, 1999–2008: from 10 December 1999 to 19 November 2008.[8]

Fifth National Government of New Zealand (2008–2017)

  • Key Ministry, 2008–2016: 19 November 2008 – 12 December 2016
  • English Ministry, 2016–2017: from 12 December 2016 – 26 October 2017

Sixth Labour Government of New Zealand (2017–present)

  • Ardern Ministry, 2017–present: 26 October 2017 – present

Footnotes

  1. ^ McLintock, Alexander Hare (22 April 2009) [Originally published in 1966]. "Liberal Party". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 3 November 2017. 
  2. ^ Boston, Jonathan; Holland, Martin (1990). The Fourth Labour Government: Politics and Policy in New Zealand. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195582130. 
  3. ^ Garfield, Norton Fausto (2012). Fifth National Government of New Zealand. Anim Publishing. ISBN 9786138498315. 
  4. ^ Fraser, Malcolm (1 January 1913). "The New Zealand Parliamentary Record: Being a Record of the Constitution, Successive Governors, Parliaments, and Ministries, Etc., and Containing an Alphabetical Roll of Members of Both Houses of Parliament Until September 1913, and of Members of Provincial Councils". Government Printer. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  5. ^ "Definition for ministry – Oxford Dictionaries Online (US English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 27.
  7. ^ Wilson 1985.
  8. ^ Evening Post (Wellington) 8 December page 1 & 10 December page 1

References

  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. pp. 59–98. OCLC 154283103. 
  • Wood, G. A. (1996) [First ed. published 1987]. Ministers and Members in the New Zealand Parliament (2nd ed.). Dunedin: University of Otago Press. pp. 1–84. ISBN 1-877133-00-0. 

See also

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_New_Zealand_governments&oldid=808630661"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_New_Zealand_ministries
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "List of New Zealand governments"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA