List of Strigopoidea

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Of the nine species in the New Zealand parrot superfamily Strigopoidea, the Norfolk kaka[1][2] and Chatham kaka[3] became extinct in recent history. The last known individual of the Norfolk kaka died in its cage in London sometime after 1851,[4] and only between seven[5] and 20[6] skins survive. The Chatham kaka became extinct in pre-European times, after Polynesians settled the island, between 1550 and 1700, and is only known from subfossil bones.[3] Of the surviving species, the kākāpō is critically endangered,[7][8] with only 154[9] living individuals. The mainland kākā is listed as endangered,[10][11] and the kea is listed as vulnerable.[12][13] The Nestoridae genus Nelepsittacus consists of four extinct species.

Species list

Nestoridae

There are two surviving species and at least one well documented extinct species of the family Nestoridae. Very little is known about the Chatham kaka, and it may have been con-specific with another kaka species, or a separate species belonging to the genus.

Nestorini
Common name
(binomial name)
status
Image Description Range and habitat
Kea

(Nestor notabilis)
Vulnerable[12]

Kea (Nestor notabilis) -on ground-8.jpg
48 cm (19 in) long. Mostly olive-green with scarlet underwings and rump. Dark-edged feathers. Dark brown beak, iris, legs, and feet. Male has longer bill.[13] New Zealand: South Island

High-level forests and subalpine scrublands 850–1400 m AMSL.[14]
South Island kaka

(Nestor meridionalis meridionalis)
Endangered[10]

Kaka -Stewart Island-1c.jpg
Similar to the North Island kaka, but slightly smaller, brighter colours, the crown is almost white, and the bill is longer and more arched in males.[11] New Zealand: South Island

Unbroken tracts of Nothofagus and Podocarpus forests 450–850 m AMSL in summer and 0–550 m in winter.[14]
North Island kaka

(Nestor meridionalis septentrionalis)
Endangered[10]

Kaka-Parrots.jpg
About 45 cm (18 in) long. Mainly olive-brown with dark feather edges. Crimson underwings, rump, and collar. The cheeks are golden/brown. The crown is greyish.[11] New Zealand: North Island

Unbroken tracts of Nothofagus and Podocarpus forests between 450 and 850 m AMSL in summer and 0–550 m in winter.[14]
Norfolk kaka

(Nestor productus)
Extinct by 1851 approx.[1]

John-Gould-001.jpg
About 38 cm long. Mostly olive-brown upperparts, (reddish-)orange cheeks and throat, straw-coloured breast, thighs, rump and lower abdomen dark orange.[15] Formerly endemic on Norfolk Island and Phillip Island of Australia[2]

Rocks and trees[15]
Chatham kaka

(Nestor sp.)
Extinct by 1550–1700[3]

Appearance unknown, but bones indicate reduced flight capability. Only known from subfossil bones.[3] Formerly endemic on Chatham Island of New Zealand

Forests[3]

Strigopidae

The kākāpō is the only member of the family Strigopidae.

Strigopini
Common name
(binomial name)
status
Image Description Range and habitat
Kākāpō

(Strigops habroptila)
Critically endangered[7]

Strigops habroptilus 1-1c.jpg
Large rotund parrots 58–64 cm (23–25 in) long; males are larger than females and weigh 2–4 kg (4.5–9 lb) at maturity. Mostly green with brown and yellow mottled barring, the underparts being greenish-yellow. Its face is pale and owl-like.[8] New Zealand: Maud, Chalky, Codfish and Anchor Islands
 
Climax Nothofagus (beech) and Podocarpus (conifer) forests, regenerating subalpine scrub, snow tussock Danthonia grassland 10–1400 m AMSL.[14]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2008). "Nestor productus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 December 2008.  Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.
  2. ^ a b "Norfolk Kaka - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Millener, P. R. (1999). "The history of the Chatham Islands’ bird fauna of the last 7000 years – a chronicle of change and extinction. Proceedings of the 4th International meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution (Washington, D.C., June 1996).". Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. 89: 85–109. 
  4. ^ Greenway, James Cowan (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World (2nd ed.). New York: Dover Publications. 
  5. ^ "Nestor productus - Norfolk Kaka specimen(s) in the ZMA". Nlbif.eti.uva.nl. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  6. ^ "Naturalis - Extinct bird: Nestor productus (Norfolk Kaka)". Nlbif.eti.uva.nl. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  7. ^ a b BirdLife International (2008). "Strigops habroptila". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 December 2008.  Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered,
  8. ^ a b "Kakapo - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. 2008. 
  9. ^ Plumb, Simon (27 November 2016). "Critically endangered kakapo on the increase". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 2016-12-22. 
  10. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2008). "Nestor meridionalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 December 2008.  Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.
  11. ^ a b c "Kaka - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. 2008. 
  12. ^ a b BirdLife International (2008). "Nestor notabilis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 24 December 2008.  Database entry includes a range map and justification for why this species is endangered.
  13. ^ a b "Kea - BirdLife Species Factsheet". BirdLife International. 2008. 
  14. ^ a b c d Juniper, Tony; Mike Parr (1998). Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300074536. 
  15. ^ a b Forshaw, Joseph M.; Cooper, William T. (1981) [1973, 1978]. Parrots of the World (corrected second ed.). David & Charles, Newton Abbot, London. ISBN 0-7153-7698-5. 

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