List of National Parks of Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Parks in Canada's provinces and territories

This is a list of National Parks of Canada. Canadian National Parks preserve both spectacular and representative areas of the country, located in every one of the nation's 13 provinces and territories. The goal of the national park service is to create a system of protected areas which represent all the distinct natural regions of the country.[1] Parks Canada – the governing and administration body for the system – has developed a plan identifying 39 different regions it aims to represent. In 2005, Parks Canada reported that the system was more than 60% complete. Canada's parks are managed primarily to protect the ecological integrity of the park, and secondarily to allow the public to explore, learn about and enjoy Canada's natural spaces.[1] Feasibility studies are currently underway for establishing further national parks in several areas.[2]

As of 2017, there are 39 National Parks and eight National Park Reserves (Kluane is the name for two areas–a national park and an adjacent proposed national park (a National Park Reserve)). National Park Reserves are areas intended to become national parks pending settlement of native land claims. Until then, they are managed under the National Parks Act as quasi-parks, but are included here in the main list.[3] This page also includes the country's three National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCAs), a single NMCA Reserve, the lone National Landmark, and proposed parks. National parks currently cover an area of 303,571 km2, or about 3.0% of the total land area of Canada. Rounding out the national park system is a collection of National Historic Sites, listed separately.

National Parks and National Park Reserves

National Park Reserves are indicated by "(Reserve)" after the park name.

Name Photo Province or territory Year established as National Park[4] Area (2017)[4] Attendance (2016-17)[5] Description
Aulavik  Northwest Territories
73°42′N 119°55′W / 73.700°N 119.917°W / 73.700; -119.917 (Aulavik National Park)
1992 12,200 km2 (4,710 sq mi) 8 Located on the northern part of Banks Island, the completely treeless polar desert of Aulavik is home to the world's largest concentration of muskoxen, as well as the endangered Peary caribou.[6]
Auyuittuq Pangnirtung Fiord S 2 2001-07-15.jpg  Nunavut
67°53′N 65°01′W / 67.883°N 65.017°W / 67.883; -65.017 (Auyuittuq National Park)
2001 19,089 km2 (7,370 sq mi) 200 One of Canada's largest parks and located almost entirely within the Arctic Circle, Auyuittuq on Baffin Island preserves a rugged arctic wilderness featuring some of the highest peaks of the Canadian Shield.[7]
Banff Moraine Lake 17092005.jpg  Alberta
51°30′N 116°0′W / 51.500°N 116.000°W / 51.500; -116.000 (Banff National Park)
1885 6,641 km2 (2,564 sq mi) 4,059,503
Bruce Peninsula CyprusLake - Bruce Peninsula.jpg  Ontario
45°14′N 81°37′W / 45.233°N 81.617°W / 45.233; -81.617 (Bruce Peninsula National Park)
1987 125 km2 (48 sq mi) 412,623
Cape Breton Highlands NS CapeBretonHighlands1 tango7174.jpg  Nova Scotia
46°43′N 60°40′W / 46.717°N 60.667°W / 46.717; -60.667 (Cape Breton Highlands National Park)
1936 948 km2 (366 sq mi) 302,827
Elk Island Bison Elk Island.jpg  Alberta
53°37′N 112°52′W / 53.617°N 112.867°W / 53.617; -112.867 (Elk Island National Park)
1913 194 km2 (75 sq mi) 360,678
Forillon Forillon National Park of Canada 1.jpg  Quebec
48°54′N 64°21′W / 48.900°N 64.350°W / 48.900; -64.350 (Forillon National Park)
1970 240 km2 (93 sq mi) 155,027
Fundy Fundy NP New Brunswick 1.jpg  New Brunswick
45°36′N 64°57′W / 45.600°N 64.950°W / 45.600; -64.950 (Fundy National Park)
1948 206 km2 (80 sq mi) 327,500
Georgian Bay Islands BeausoleilIslandCedarSprings2004.jpg  Ontario
44°53′N 79°52′W / 44.883°N 79.867°W / 44.883; -79.867 (Georgian Bay Islands National Park)
1930 14 km2 (5 sq mi) 42,511
Glacier Glacier np canada.JPG  British Columbia
51°18′N 117°31′W / 51.300°N 117.517°W / 51.300; -117.517 (Glacier National Park)
1886 1,349 km2 (521 sq mi) 795,749[a]
Grasslands Saskatchewan - Grasslands National Park 02.JPG  Saskatchewan
49°12′N 107°43′W / 49.200°N 107.717°W / 49.200; -107.717 (Grasslands National Park)
1981 730 km2 (282 sq mi) 13,452
Gros Morne NLW GrosMorne4 tango7174.jpg  Newfoundland and Labrador
49°41′N 57°44′W / 49.683°N 57.733°W / 49.683; -57.733 (Gros Morne National Park)
1973 1,805 km2 (697 sq mi) 244,292
Gulf Islands
(Reserve)
Gulfislfromair.jpg  British Columbia
48°51′N 123°27′W / 48.850°N 123.450°W / 48.850; -123.450 (Gulf Islands National Park Reserve)
2003 37 km2 (14 sq mi)
Gwaii Haanas[b]
(Reserve)
Haida Heritage Centre.jpg  British Columbia
52°23′N 131°28′W / 52.383°N 131.467°W / 52.383; -131.467 (Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve)
1988 1,474 km2 (569 sq mi) 2,819
Ivvavik[c] Canada--yukon--ivvavik-np--spe 3021.jpg  Yukon
69°31′N 139°31′W / 69.517°N 139.517°W / 69.517; -139.517 (Ivvavik National Park)
1984 9,750 km2 (3,764 sq mi) 137
Jasper Fryatt Valley top.jpg  Alberta
52°48′N 117°54′W / 52.800°N 117.900°W / 52.800; -117.900 (Jasper National Park)
1907 11,228 km2 (4,335 sq mi) 2,345,130
Kejimkujik Kejimkujik NP Nova Scotia 3.jpg  Nova Scotia
44°24′N 65°13′W / 44.400°N 65.217°W / 44.400; -65.217 (Kejimkujik National Park)
1967 404 km2 (156 sq mi) 36,090
Kluane[d]
(two units: a Park and a Reserve)
Donjek Valley.jpg  Yukon
60°37′N 138°20′W / 60.617°N 138.333°W / 60.617; -138.333 (Kluane National Park and Reserve)
1972 (Reserve)
29 May 1993 (Park)
21,980 km2 (8,487 sq mi) 27,606
Kootenay Kootenay National Park.jpg  British Columbia
50°53′N 116°03′W / 50.883°N 116.050°W / 50.883; -116.050 (Kootenay National Park)
1920 1,406 km2 (543 sq mi) 521,286
Kouchibouguac Kouchibouguac.JPG  New Brunswick
46°51′N 64°58′W / 46.850°N 64.967°W / 46.850; -64.967 (Kouchibouguac National Park)
1969 239 km2 (92 sq mi) 169,262
La Mauricie Ile aux pins.jpg  Quebec
46°48′N 72°58′W / 46.800°N 72.967°W / 46.800; -72.967 (La Mauricie National Park)
1970 536 km2 (207 sq mi) 217,252
Mingan Archipelago
(Reserve)
Monolithes de L'Archipel de Mingan.jpg  Quebec
50°13′N 63°10′W / 50.217°N 63.167°W / 50.217; -63.167 (Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve)
1984 151 km2 (58 sq mi) 34,307
Mount Revelstoke Revelstoke from Mount Revelstoke.jpg  British Columbia
51°05′N 118°04′W / 51.083°N 118.067°W / 51.083; -118.067 (Mount Revelstoke National Park)
1914 262 km2 (101 sq mi) 795,749[a]
Nááts'ihch'oh
(Reserve)
Howard's Pass Yukon Territory 1.jpg  Northwest Territories
62°22′N 127°58′W / 62.367°N 127.967°W / 62.367; -127.967 (Nááts'ihch'oh National Park Reserve)
2014 4,850 km2 (1,873 sq mi)
Nahanni
(Reserve)
Nahanni - VirginiaFalls.jpg  Northwest Territories
61°33′N 125°35′W / 61.550°N 125.583°W / 61.550; -125.583 (Nahanni National Park Reserve)
1972 30,000 km2 (11,583 sq mi)[e] 1,082
Pacific Rim
(Reserve)
Longbeach prnp.jpg  British Columbia
48°38′N 124°46′W / 48.633°N 124.767°W / 48.633; -124.767 (Pacific Rim National Park Reserve)
1970 510 km2 (197 sq mi) 1,056,801
Point Pelee Point Pelee looking south.jpg  Ontario
41°58′N 82°31′W / 41.967°N 82.517°W / 41.967; -82.517 (Point Pelee National Park)
1918 15 km2 (6 sq mi) 333,285
Prince Albert Prince Albert National Park.jpg  Saskatchewan
53°58′N 106°22′W / 53.967°N 106.367°W / 53.967; -106.367 (Prince Albert National Park)
1927 3,875 km2 (1,496 sq mi) 249,310
Prince Edward Island Peicoast.jpg  Prince Edward Island
46°25′N 63°05′W / 46.417°N 63.083°W / 46.417; -63.083 (Prince Edward Island National Park)
1937 27 km2 (10 sq mi) 530,247
Pukaskwa HorseshoeBayPukaskwaPark23.jpg  Ontario
48°15′N 85°53′W / 48.250°N 85.883°W / 48.250; -85.883 (Pukaskwa National Park)
1971 1,878 km2 (725 sq mi) 9,593
Qausuittuq Peary caribou - looking west towards Evan's Bay.jpg  Nunavut
76°00′N 100°00′W / 76.000°N 100.000°W / 76.000; -100.000 (Qausuittuq National Park)
2015 11,008 km2 (4,250 sq mi)
Quttinirpaaq[f] Tanquary Fiord 16 1997-08-05.jpg  Nunavut
82°13′N 72°13′W / 82.217°N 72.217°W / 82.217; -72.217 (Quttinirpaaq National Park)
1988 37,775 km2 (14,585 sq mi) 21
Riding Mountain[g] Bison herd - Lake Audy - Riding Mountain National Park.JPG  Manitoba
50°52′N 100°02′W / 50.867°N 100.033°W / 50.867; -100.033 (Riding Mountain National Park)
1929 2,968 km2 (1,146 sq mi) 355,523
Rouge Little Rouge River Lookout.jpg  Ontario
43°56′N 79°14′W / 43.933°N 79.233°W / 43.933; -79.233 (Rouge National Urban Park)
2015 79.1 km2 (31 sq mi)
Sable Island
(Reserve)
SableHorses.jpg  Nova Scotia
43°57′N 59°55′W / 43.950°N 59.917°W / 43.950; -59.917 (Sable Island National Park Reserve)
2013 30 km2 (12 sq mi)
Sirmilik Sirmilik Glacier 2 1997-08-06.jpg  Nunavut
72°59′N 81°8′W / 72.983°N 81.133°W / 72.983; -81.133 (Sirmilik National Park)
2001 22,200 km2 (8,571 sq mi) 84
Terra Nova NLC TerraNova3 tango7174.jpg  Newfoundland and Labrador
48°32′N 53°56′W / 48.533°N 53.933°W / 48.533; -53.933 (Terra Nova National Park)
1957 399 km2 (154 sq mi) 39,732
Thousand Islands Thousand Islands 2.JPG  Ontario
44°21′N 75°57′W / 44.350°N 75.950°W / 44.350; -75.950 (Thousand Islands National Park)
1904 24 km2 (9 sq mi) 90,961
Torngat Mountains Nachvak Fjord Labrador 2008.JPG  Newfoundland and Labrador
59°26′N 63°52′W / 59.433°N 63.867°W / 59.433; -63.867 (Torngat Mountains National Park)
2005 9,700 km2 (3,745 sq mi)
Tuktut Nogait Hornaday River.jpg  Northwest Territories
68°49′N 121°45′W / 68.817°N 121.750°W / 68.817; -121.750 (Tuktut Nogait National Park)
1998 18,181 km2 (7,020 sq mi) 2
Ukkusiksalik Eisbär 1996-07-23.jpg  Nunavut
65°21′N 87°18′W / 65.350°N 87.300°W / 65.350; -87.300 (Ukkusiksalik National Park)
2003 20,880 km2 (8,062 sq mi)
Vuntut Vontut National Park.jpg  Yukon
68°22′N 139°51′W / 68.367°N 139.850°W / 68.367; -139.850 (Vuntut National Park)
1993 4,345 km2 (1,678 sq mi)
Wapusk Bärenmutter & Junges 3 2004-11-17.jpg  Manitoba
57°46′N 93°22′W / 57.767°N 93.367°W / 57.767; -93.367 (Wapusk National Park)
1996 11,475 km2 (4,431 sq mi) 106
Waterton Lakes[h] Upper Waterton Lake.JPG  Alberta
49°03′N 113°55′W / 49.050°N 113.917°W / 49.050; -113.917 (Waterton Lakes National Park)
1895 505 km2 (195 sq mi) 536,865
Wood Buffalo Wood-Buffalo-NP Gros Beak Lake 2 98-07-02.jpg  Alberta
 Northwest Territories
59°23′N 112°59′W / 59.383°N 112.983°W / 59.383; -112.983 (Wood Buffalo National Park)
1922 44,972 km2 (17,364 sq mi) 3,340
Yoho YohoNP-Takakkaw IMG 1372-800x533byBMK.jpg  British Columbia
51°24′N 116°29′W / 51.400°N 116.483°W / 51.400; -116.483 (Yoho National Park)
1886 1,313 km2 (507 sq mi) 688,157

Proposed National Park Reserves

All National Park Reserves listed above are, by definition, proposed national parks, to be added to the park system upon settlement of indigenous land claims. In the interim, they are administered under the National Parks Act. In addition, the places in the table below are proposed National Park Reserves.

Name Location Proposed Area
Akami-Uapishku-KakKasuak-Mealy Mountains  Newfoundland and Labrador
53°24′N 59°22′W / 53.400°N 59.367°W / 53.400; -59.367 (Akami-Uapishk-KakKasuak-Mealy Mountains National Park)
2015 10,700 km2 (4,131 sq mi)[4]
Thaidene Nene[13]  Northwest Territories
62°30′N 111°00′W / 62.500°N 111.000°W / 62.500; -111.000 (Thaidene Nene National Park Reserve)
2001 Approx. 14,000 km2 (5,405 sq mi)[14]

Abolished National Parks

Name Location Established Abolished
Brereton Lake[15]  Manitoba 1922 1930
Buffalo National Park[16]  Alberta 1909 1947
Menissawok National Park[17]  Saskatchewan 1922 30 May 1930
Nemiskam National Park[16]  Alberta 1914 1947
Vidal's Point Park[18]  Saskatchewan 31 October 1921 30 May 1930
Wawaskesy National Park[19]  Alberta 1922 1938

National Marine Conservation Areas

National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCAs) are a relatively new invention in the park system. Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area, created in 2015, is the only unit that uses this designation in its name. Fathom Five National Marine Park was created in 1987, prior to the NMCA concept, and subsequently classified as an NMCA without changing its legal name. The case of Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine Park is similar, while Gwaii Haanas is an NMCA Reserve, with the intention of becoming an NMCA.

These areas have or will have a different mandate than their terrestrial counterparts. They are designed for sustainable use, although they usually also contain areas designed to protect ecological integrity.[20] The government has announced plans to add five marine parks to the system as part of the Marine Conservation Areas Act. The first to be announced was Lake Superior in 2007; it was officially established in 2015. Other areas under negotiation are the southern Strait of Georgia and Gwaii Haanas in British Columbia, and there are discussions to study the feasibility of an area on the southern coast of Newfoundland.[21]

Name Photo Location Area Established
Fathom Five Flowerpot Island Big Flowerpot.JPG Ontario 114 km2 (44 sq mi) 1987
Gwaii Haanas (Reserve) British Columbia 1,500 km2 (579 sq mi)[22] 2010
Lake Superior Silver Islet ON.JPG Ontario 10,880 km2 (4,201 sq mi) 2007
Saguenay-St. Lawrence Fjord Saguenay.JPG Quebec 1,245 km2 (481 sq mi)[23] 1998

Proposed National Marine Conservation Areas

As a National Marine Conservation Area Reserve, Gwaii Haanas, listed above, is, by definition, a proposed NMCA, to be added to the park system upon settlement of Native land/water claims. In the interim, it is administered under park rules. In addition, the places in the table below are proposed NMCAs or NMCA Reserves.

Name Location Area
Lancaster Sound Nunavut 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi)[24]
Magdalen Islands Quebec 16,500 km2 (6,371 sq mi)[25]
Southern Strait of Georgia (Reserve) British Columbia 1,400 km2 (541 sq mi)[26]

National Landmark

In addition to national parks, a National Landmarks program was established in 1978 but has not yet been expanded beyond a single property. Landmarks were intended to protect specific natural features considered "outstanding, exceptional, unique, or rare to this country. These natural features would typically be isolated entities and of scientific interest."[27]

Name Photo Location Area Established
Pingo Pingos near Tuk.jpg Northwest Territories 16 km2 (6 sq mi) 1984

See also

Provincial parks are administered and funded by the provincial governments, however some provincial parks are categorized as national parks (Category II) under the IUCN's Protected Area Management Categories.

Gatineau Park in Quebec is another park under the jurisdiction of the federal government. However, it is managed by the National Capital Commission, not Parks Canada, and is not considered part of the national parks system.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Due to their close proximity, visits for Glacier and Mount Revelstoke National Parks are counted together.
  2. ^ South Moresby National Park Reserve was created 12 July 1988, with the signing of the South Moresby Agreement; renamed Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site on 28 February 1996. Includes SGaang Gwaii (Anthony Island) World Heritage Site.[8]
  3. ^ Established as Northern Yukon National Park in 1984, renamed Ivvavik National Park in 1992.[9]
  4. ^ Kluane National Park Reserve was set aside in 1976, following the Kluane Game Reserve of the early 1940s. Subsequently, an eastern portion of the Reserve became Kluane National Park in 1993.
  5. ^ In 2007, the government announced that 29,000 km2 (11,197 sq mi) of land would be added to Nahanni, making it 33,766 km2 (13,037 sq mi). However, these changes have not been fully implemented as of 2017.[10]
  6. ^ Ellesmere Island National Park Reserve was established in 1988, renamed Quttinirpaaq in 1999 and became a national park in 2000.[11]
  7. ^ Riding Mountain National Park was designated a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1986.[12]
  8. ^ Waterton Lakes National Park is part of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, a World Heritage Site which includes the adjoining Glacier National Park in Montana, United States.

References

  1. ^ a b "National Parks of Canada - Introduction". Parks Canada. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  2. ^ "Creating new national parks". Parks Canada. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  3. ^ "Indigenous fact sheet". Parks Canada. 23 June 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c Guide to the National Parks of Canada. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. 2017. ISBN 978-1-4262-1756-2. 
  5. ^ "Parks Canada Attendance 2016-17". Parks Canada. 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017. 
  6. ^ "Aulavik National Park - Natural Environment". Parks Canada. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  7. ^ "Auyuittuq National Park - About". Parks Canada. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2017. 
  8. ^ "Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  9. ^ "Ivvavik National Park". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  10. ^ "Tories' expansion of Nahanni park praised". CTV Television Network. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  11. ^ "Quttinirpaaq National Park". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  12. ^ "Biosphere Reserve Information - Canada - Riding Mountain". UNESCO. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  13. ^ "Ottawa, Dene agree to create vast national park". CBC News. 14 October 2006. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  14. ^ "Nature Canada Applauds Federal Government's Renewed Commitment to National Park System". Nature Canada. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  15. ^ Hart, E.J. "J.B. Harkin: Father of Canada's National Parks", The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, AB, 2010, p. 340.
  16. ^ a b Federation of Alberta Naturalists, Fish and Wildlife Historical Society (2005). Fish, Fur & Feathers: Fish and Wildlife Conservation in Alberta 1905-2005. Nature books of Alberta. p. 100. ISBN 0-9696134-7-4. 
  17. ^ National Parks Act, 30 May 1930. Retrieved on 15 December 2017.
  18. ^ National Parks Administration (1885 to 1973), Chapter 4 in A History of Canada's National Parks Volume II, by W.F. Lothian, Parks Canada, 1976-1987
  19. ^ "Project Update: Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands". University of Alberta. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  20. ^ "National Marine Conservation Area System". Parks Canada. 20 July 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  21. ^ Ditchburn, Jennifer (24 October 2007). "PM expected to unveil marine conservation area". Toronto Star. Retrieved 7 April 2008. 
  22. ^ "Minister visits, celebrates marine park's creation". Haida Gwaii Observer. 14 June 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  23. ^ "Registre des aires protégées du Québec" (PDF). Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs du Québec. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  24. ^ "Proposed Lancaster Sound National Marine Conservation Area". Parks Canada. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  25. ^ "Study on the Creation of a Marine Protected Area in Îles-de-la-Madeleine". Government of Quebec. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  26. ^ "Feasibility Study for the Proposed Southern Strait of Georgia National Marine Conservation Area Reserve". Parks Canada. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 
  27. ^ "Pingo Canadian Landmark - Park Management". Parks Canada. 15 June 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017. 

External links

  • National Parks of Canada
  • National Marine Conservation Areas of Canada
  • World Heritage Sites in Canada
  • Park Search Canadian Parks Locator
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_National_Parks_of_Canada&oldid=815561162"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_National_Parks_of_Canada
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "List of National Parks of Canada"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA