List of Narcissus horticultural divisions

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Narcissus cultivars have a wide range of colours, sizes and proportions of corona to perianth
Range of Narcissus cultivars

The Narcissus horticultural divisions are system of classifying the cultivated varieties of the genus Narcissus (/nɑːrˈsɪsəs/), which are predominantly spring perennial plants in the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family. Various common names including daffodil, narcissus, and jonquil are used to describe all or some members of the genus.

The list of Narcissus horticultural divisions provided by the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) is the standard method used to classify and describe cultivated varieties (cultivars) of Narcissus. It is widely used since the RHS is the international authority for the registration of such cultivars.[1][2] For horticultural purposes, all Narcissus cultivars are split into 13 divisions, as described by Kington (1998),[3] for the RHS,[4] based partly upon flower form (shape and length of corona – the "trumpet" or "cup"), particularly the ratio of corona to length of perianth segments (tepals or "petals"), the number of flowers per stem, flowering period and partly upon the genetic background. Division 11 (Split-corona) with its two subdivisions was the most recent group to be described (1969).[5] Division 13, which includes all the wild rather than cultivated daffodils, is the exception to this scheme.[6] This classification is a useful tool for planning planting. Most commercially available narcissi come from Divisions 1 (Trumpet), 2 (Large-cupped) and 8 (Tazetta).[6]

Growers register new daffodil cultivars by name and colour with the RHS,[1] whose International Daffodil Register is regularly updated with supplements available online[1] and is searchable.[7][8] The most recent supplement (2014) is the sixth; the fifth was published in 2012.[9] More than 27,000 names were registered as of 2008,[9] and the number has continued to grow. However, because of synonymy, the actual number is probably closer to 18,000; only about 500 are in commercial production (470 in 2009–2010).[10]

Registered daffodils are given a division number and colour code[11] such as 5W-W ('Thalia').[12] In horticultural usage it is not uncommon to also find another unofficial division of 'Miniatures', which, although drawn from the other 13 divisions, have their miniature size in common.[2][13][14] These are sometimes referred to by nurseries as 'Division 14'. Over 140 narcissus cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Colour code

Geranium Narcissus is coded as 8WO because it is classified in Division 8, has a W for White perianth and an O for Orange corona
Narcissus 'Geranium' 8W-O[15]

Daffodils may be self-coloured—i.e., both perianth and corona identical in colour and shade—or the colours between the perianth and corona may differ widely. Some perianths and some coronas may also contain more than one colour or shade. Prevalent colours are all shades and tones of yellow, white, orange, pink, red and green. Pinks vary from apricot to rose in shades from pale to deep, and some more recent cultivars have hints of lavender or lilac. Reds vary from orange-red to salmon red to near scarlet. Pink, red, orange and green tones are mainly confined to the corona. However, breeders are currently working against the genus' natural pigmentation and genetic barriers to create cultivars in which pink, rose, red, orange and green tones suffuse or "bleed" from the more highly coloured coronas onto the perianth segments of white or yellow. There is an increasing number of commercially available varieties which display this enhanced colouration.

The colour classification lists the perianth colour and then the corona colour.[11][16] In the case of multiple colours, the perianth colours are assigned from the outer edge of the perianth segments inward to their juncture with the base of the corona, while the corona colours are assigned from the base of the corona outward to the rim. Thus, 'Accent', a Large Cup (Division 2) Daffodil possessing a white perianth and a pink corona, is officially classified as 2W-P, 'Geranium', Tazetta (Division 8) with a white perianth and orange corona is 8W-O and 'Actaea', Poeticus (Division 9), with white corona and multicoloured corona is 9W-GYR.[7]

RHS colour classification[11]
Code Colour
W White or Whitish
G Green
Y Yellow
P Pink
O Orange
R Red

Definitions of divisions

RHS horticultural divisions of daffodils
Number[6] Name[6] Definition[6] Cultivar Example[8]
Code
Year
[notes 1]
1 Trumpet Daffodil cultivars Solitary flower with corona as long as, or longer than the tepals Narcissus (Little Gem cultivar), Capitol Hill, Denver, Colorado.jpg
'Little Gem'
1Y–Y
1959
2 Large-cupped Daffodil cultivars Solitary flower with corona more than one-third, but less than equal to the length of the tepals Narcissus 'Fortune'.JPG
'Fortune'
2Y–O
1923
3 Small-cupped Daffodil cultivars Solitary flower with corona not more than one-third the length of the tepals Narcissus Barrett Browning.jpg
'Barrett Browning'
3WWY–O
1945
4 Double Daffodil cultivars One or more flowers with doubling of the corona or tepals or both Narcissus double cv.03.jpg
'Butter and Eggs'
4Y–O
1777
5 Triandrus Daffodil cultivars Two or more flowers with characteristics of N. triandrus, flowers pendent and tepals reflexed Narcissus Thalia 02.jpg
'Thalia'
5W–W
1916
6 Cyclamineus Daffodil cultivars Solitary flower with characteristics of N. cyclamineus, flowers acutely angled to stem, very short pedicel, tepals reflexed Narcissus February Gold closeup.jpg
'February Gold'
6Y–Y
1923
7 Jonquilla and Apodanthus Daffodil cultivars One to five, but rarely up to eight flowers with characteristics of sections Jonquilla or Apodanthi, flowers acutely angled to stem, corona cup or funnel shaped or flared, and usually wider than long, tepals spreading or reflexed, usually fragrant Jonquilla daffodil - narcissus var stratosphere 2.jpg
'Stratosphere'
7Y–O
1968
8 Tazetta Daffodil cultivars Three to twenty flowers, with characteristics of section Tazetta, flowers with tepals spreading, usually fragrant, stem stout Scilly Valentine.jpg
'Scilly Valentine'
8Y–O
2000
9 Poeticus Daffodil cultivars Usually solitary flower, with characteristics of N. poeticus, flowers with corona very short to disc shaped, usually green and or yellow centre and red rim (sometimes a single colour), tepals white, usually fragrant Narcissus 'Actaea'.jpg
'Actaea'
9W–YYR
1927
10 Bulbocodium Daffodil cultivars Usually solitary flower, with characteristics of section Bulbocodium, flowers with tepals insignificant relative to corona, anthers dorsiflexed, filament and style usually curved Narcissus bulbocodium 'Golden Bells'.jpg
'Golden Bells'
10Y–Y
1984
11 Split-corona Daffodil cultivars Corona split, usually for more than half its length
(a) Collar Daffodils Corona two whorls of three, opposite tepals Narcissus 'Mondragon'.JPG
'Mondragon'
11aY–O
1973
(b) Papillon Daffodils Corona usually single whorl of six, alternate to tepals [Jodi]
'Jodi'
11bW–P/W
2002
12 Other Daffodil cultivars Cultivars not fitting any of the above definitions Narcissus Tête-à-Tête closeup.jpg
'Tête-à-Tête'
12Y–Y
1949
13 Daffodils distinguished solely by botanical name Wild (species) daffodils and hybrids without cultivar names Narcissus medioluteus5.jpg
Narcissus × medioluteus
1768

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Year of registration or first flowering

References

  1. ^ a b c "Daffodil cultivar registration". Royal Horticultural Society. 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  2. ^ a b ADS 2015, Daffodil Divisions & Cultivars .
  3. ^ Kington, Sally (1998). The International Daffodil Register and Classified List 1998. London: Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 978-1-874431-69-5. 
  4. ^ Brickell, Christopher, ed. (2008). RHS A–Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 1136. ISBN 978-0-415-27344-2. 
  5. ^ Kamenetsky 2012, Narcissi p. 105.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Horticultural Classification" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Mathew, B (2002). Classification of the genus Narcissus. pp. 30–52. ISBN 9780203219355. Retrieved 2 October 2014.  In Hanks (2002)
  8. ^ a b "Search The International Daffodil Register & Classified List". Royal Horticultural Society. 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Kington, Sally (2014). The Daffodil Register And Classified List (2008). 6th supplement. United Kingdom: Royal Horticultural Society. ISBN 978-1-907057-50-2. Retrieved 25 October 2014. 
  10. ^ Kamenetsky 2012, Narcissi p. 106.
  11. ^ a b c "Introduction to The International Daffodil Register and Classified List 2008" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  12. ^ "Thalia". Search The International Daffodil Register & Classified List. Royal Horticultural Society. 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 
  13. ^ Steinbergs, A. (2008). "Miniature Daffodils". The Plant Expert. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Miniature Narcissus". Pacific Bulb Society. 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2015. 
  15. ^ "Geranium". Search The International Daffodil Register & Classified List. Royal Horticultural Society. 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  16. ^ ADS 2015, Classification definitions .

Bibliography

  • "The American Daffodil Society: The United States Center for Daffodil Information". The American Daffodil Society. 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015. 
  • Hanks, Gordon R (2002). Narcissus and Daffodil: The Genus Narcissus. London: Taylor and Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-27344-2. Retrieved 2 October 2014. 
  • Rina Kamenetsky, Hiroshi Okubo, ed. (2012). Ornamental Geophytes: From Basic Science to Sustainable Production. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-4924-8. Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
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