List of governors-general of India

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The Regulating Act of 1773 created the office with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William, or Governor-General of Bengal to be appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company (EIC). The Court of Directors assigned a Council of Four (based in India) to assist the Governor General, and decision of council was binding on the Governor General during 1773-1784.

The Saint Helena Act 1833 (or Government of India Act 1833) re-designated the office with the title of Governor-General of India.

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the company rule was brought to an end, and the British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the British Crown. The Government of India Act 1858 created the office of Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India, which was advised by a new Council of India with 15 members (based in London). The existing Council of Four was formally renamed as the Council of Governor General of India or Executive Council of India. The Council of India was later abolished by Government of India Act 1935.

Following the adoption of the Government of India Act of 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation 'Viceroy', although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'Viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in Warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the Sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vested in the Governor-General-in-Council.[1]

From the year 1858 onwards, the appointments of Governor-General of India were made by the British Crown upon the advice of Secretary of State for India. The office of Governor-General continued to exist as a ceremonial post in each of the new dominions until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956 Respectively.

List of Governors-General

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notable events Appointer
Governors General of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), 1773–1833
Warren Hastings greyscale.jpg Warren Hastings
(1732-1818)
20 October
1773
[nb 1]
1 February
1785
East India
Company

Coat of arms of the East India Company.svg
(1773–1858)
Captain John Macpherson (1726 - 1792) by anonymous (circa 1772-1792).jpg John Macpherson
(acting)
(1745–1821)
1 February
1785
12 September
1786
Lord Cornwallis.jpg Charles Cornwallis
The Marquess Cornwallis
[nb 2]
(1738–1805)
12 September
1786
28 October
1793
JohnShore.jpg John Shore
(1751–1834)
28 October
1793
18 March
1798
Alured Clarke.jpg Alured Clarke
(acting)
(1744–1832)
18 March
1798
18 May
1798
Richard Wellesley 2.JPG Richard Wellesley, Earl of Mornington [nb 3]
(1760–1842)
18 May
1798
30 July
1805
Lord Cornwallis.jpg The Marquess Cornwallis
(1738–1805)
30 July
1805
5 October
1805
Sir George Barlow, 1st Bt from NPG crop.jpg Sir George Barlow, Bt
(acting)
(1762–1847)
10 October
1805
31 July
1807
Gilbert Eliot, 1st Earl of Minto by James Atkinson.jpg The Lord Minto
(1751–1814)
31 July
1807
4 October
1813
Francis, 1st Marquess of Hastings (Earl of Moira).jpg Francis Rawdon-Hastings, The Earl of Moira [nb 4]
(1754–1826)
4 October
1813
9 January
1823
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg John Adam
(acting)
(1779–1825)
9 January
1823
1 August
1823
Sir Thomas Lawrence - Lord Amherst - Google Art Project.jpg The Lord Amherst[nb 5]
(1773–1857)
1 August
1823
13 March
1828
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg William Butterworth Bayley
(acting)
(1782–1860)
13 March
1828
4 July
1828
Governors-General of India, 1833–1858
Bentinck william.png Lord William Bentinck
(1774–1839)
4 July
1828
20 March
1835
East India
Company

Coat of arms of the East India Company.svg
(1773–1858)
Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, 1st Baron Metcalfe by George Chinnery.jpg Charles Metcalfe, Bt
(acting)
(1785–1846)
20 March
1835
4 March
1836
  • Repealed 1823 Licensing Regulations
  • Known as Liberator of India Press
George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland.png The Lord Auckland[nb 6]
(1784–1849)
4 March
1836
28 February
1842
1stEarlOfEllenborough.jpg The Lord Ellenborough
(1790–1871)
28 February
1842
June
1844
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg William Wilberforce Bird
(acting)
(1784–1857)
June
1844
23 July
1844
Henryhardinge.jpg Henry Hardinge[nb 7]
(1785–1856)
23 July
1844
12 January
1848
Dalhousie.jpg The Earl of Dalhousie[nb 8]
(1812–1860)
12 January
1848
28 February
1856
Lord Viscount Canning.jpg The Viscount Canning[nb 9]
(1812–1862)
28 February
1856
31 October
1858
Governors-General and Viceroys of India, 1858–1947
Lord Viscount Canning.jpg The Viscount Canning[nb 10]
(1812–1862)
01 November
1858[4]
21 March
1862
Victoria
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1837–1901)
Elgin.png The Earl of Elgin
(1811–1863)
21 March
1862
20 November
1863
Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala - Project Gutenberg eText 16528.jpg Robert Napier
(acting)
(1810–1890)
21 November
1863
2 December
1863
William Denison 2.jpg William Denison
(acting)
(1804–1871)
2 December
1863
12 January
1864
SirJohnLawrence 16246.jpg Sir John Lawrence, Bt
(1811–1879)
12 January
1864
12 January
1869
6th Earl of Mayo.jpg The Earl of Mayo
(1822–1872)
12 January
1869
8 February
1872
John and Richard Strachey.jpg Sir John Strachey
(acting)
(1823–1907)
9 February
1872
23 February
1872
FrancisNapier10thLordNapier.jpg The Lord Napier
(acting)
(1819–1898)
24 February
1872
3 May
1872
1stEarlOfNorthbrooke.jpg The Lord Northbrook
(1826–1904)
3 May
1872
12 April
1876
Robert Bulwer-Lytton by Nadar.jpg The Lord Lytton
(1831–1891)
12 April
1876
8 June
1880
George Robinson 1st Marquess of Ripon.jpg The Marquess of Ripon (Pro-Indian Viceroy of India)
(1827–1909)
8 June
1880
13 December
1884
  • First Factory Act (1881)
  • Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act (1882)
  • Ilbert Bill
  • Government resolution on local self-government (1882)
  • Appointment of Education Commission under Sir William Hunter
Young Lord Dufferin.jpg The Earl of Dufferin
(1826–1902)
13 December
1884
10 December
1888
Marquess of Lansdowne crop.jpg The Marquess of Lansdowne
(1845–1927)
10 December
1888
11 October
1894
9thEarlOfElgin.jpg The Earl of Elgin (1849–1917) (He said, "India is the pivot of our Empire.... If the Empire loses any other part of its Dominion we can survive, but if we lose India, the sun of our Empire will have set."
11 October
1894
6 January
1899
George Curzon2.jpg The Lord Curzon of Kedleston[nb 11]
(1859–1925)
6 January
1899
18 November
1905
Fourth Earl of Minto.jpg The Earl of Minto
(1845–1914)
18 November
1905
23 November
1910
Edward VII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1901–1910)
Charles Hardinge01 crop.jpg The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst
(1858–1944)
23 November
1910
4 April
1916
George V
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1910–1936)
1stViscountChelmsford.jpg The Lord Chelmsford
(1868–1933)
4 April
1916
2 April
1921
Rufus Isaacs.jpg The Earl of Reading
(1860–1935)
2 April
1921
3 April
1926
1st Earl of Halifax 1947.jpg The Lord Irwin
(1881–1959)
3 April
1926
18 April
1931
Freeman Freeman-Thomas by Henry Walter Barnett.jpg The Earl of Willingdon
(1866–1941)
18 April
1931
18 April
1936
The Marquess of Linlithgow
(1887–1952)
18 April
1936
1 October
1943
Edward VIII
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936)
Archibald Wavell2.jpg The Viscount Wavell
(1883–1950)
1 October
1943
21 February
1947
George VI
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936–1952)
Mountbatten.jpg The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma
(1900–1979)
21 February
1947
15 August
1947
Governors-General of the Dominion of India, 1947–1950
Mountbatten.jpg The Viscount Mountbatten of Burma[nb 12]
(1900–1979)
15 August
1947
21 June
1948
George VI
Coat of arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
(1936–1952)
C Rajagopalachari 1944.jpg C. Rajagopalachari
(1878–1972)
21 June
1948
26 January
1950
Notes
  1. ^ Originally joined on 28 April 1772
  2. ^ Earl Cornwallis from 1762; created Marquess Cornwallis in 1792.
  3. ^ Created Marquess Wellesley in 1799.
  4. ^ Created Marquess of Hastings in 1816
  5. ^ Created Earl Amherst in 1826.
  6. ^ Created Earl of Auckland in 1839.
  7. ^ Created Viscount Hardinge in 1846.
  8. ^ Created Marquess of Dalhousie in 1849.
  9. ^ Created Earl Canning in 1859.
  10. ^ Created Earl Canning in 1859.
  11. ^ The Lord Ampthill was acting Governor-General in 1904
  12. ^ Created Earl Mountbatten of Burma on 28 October 1947.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, Clarendon Press, Oxford, New Edition 1909, vol 4, p. 16.
  2. ^ Clarke, John James (1 January 1997). Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415133753.
  3. ^ Link text
  4. ^ https://www.gktoday.in/gk/queen-victorias-proclamation-november-1-1858/
  5. ^ "What was the Arms Act 1878? - Quora". www.quora.com. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
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