List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

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The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor[1] is an annual publication issued by the United States Government’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs at the U.S. Department of Labor.[2][3][4][5][6][7] It has been published within the December 2014 Department of Labor report issued in its sixth updated edition.[8][9][10] The TVPRA has been reauthorized by Congress in 2008, 2011 and 2013. A Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act has passed House in January 2015.[11][12]

The list has 136 goods that ILAB "has reason to believe are produced by forced labor or child labor"[13] in the 74 countries mentioned. According to the report, agriculture, forestry and fishing are the sectors where child labor and forced labor are most common. Manufacturing, mining, quarrying and pornography complete the list.

History

Founded in 1947, the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) has published numerous reports on the subject of labor, child labor, forced labor and forced child labor around the world.[14][15][16] Since 2009,[17] the Bureau has been issuing an updated List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor yearly. The report listed 122 goods from 58 countries in its first edition in 2009. In 2014, it listed 136 goods from 74 countries.

The TVPRA List indicates the goods and countries where ILAB has recorded a significant incidence of child labor and forced labor without specifying the individual companies or businesses involved.[18] Exhaustive research has been conducted in order to provide a comprehensive list based on publicly available sources.[19][20]

In 2009, the Bureau's research reported more goods produced by child labor than by forced labor. Agricultural crops represented the largest category of goods. In fact, the List had 60 agricultural goods, 38 manufactured goods and 23 mined goods. Child labor and forced labor were mostly adopted in the production of cotton[21][22][23] in the agricultural sector, the making of bricks in manufacturing, and gold mining in the mining industries. In 2014, agriculture, forestry and fishing[24] represented the largest category of goods in the list and 126 goods were reported to be globally produced by child labor in comparison with 55 goods produced by forced labor. Instances of such working conditions were observed in relatively the same sectors.

In 2014, the List identified India as the country with the most goods produced by both child labor and forced labor with up to 25 goods listed. India is followed by Brazil (16 goods), Bangladesh (15 goods), Burma (14 goods), the Philippines (13 goods) and China (12 goods).

The TVPRA List aims at raising awareness about child labor and forced labor at the national and the international level[25][26] and reinforces the primordial purpose of governments and societies to effectively eliminate forced labor.[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ "List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  2. ^ Notice of Publication of 2014 Update to the Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor; Federal Register, The Daily Journal of the United States Government
  3. ^ 11 New Products Added to List of Goods Produced by Child labor, Forced labor, DOL blog
  4. ^ DOL Releases Sixth List of Goods Produced by Child or Forced Labor
  5. ^ US Labor Department announces updated lists of goods produced by child labor, forced labor
  6. ^ John Michael Spinelli (2 December 2014). "DOL updates list of goods produced by child and forced labor". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  7. ^ U.S. Updates Lists of Goods Produced by Child and Forced Labor, Embassy of the UK; December 3rd, 2015.
  8. ^ The TVPRA Act of 2005 on the U.S. Department of State website
  9. ^ "Summary of S. 1301 (112th): Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2011 - GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  10. ^ "H.R.898 - 113th Congress (2013-2014): Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2013". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  11. ^ "H.R.181 - 114th Congress (2015-2016): Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  12. ^ "11 Human-Trafficking Bills Passed by U.S. House Tuesday". Reason.com. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  13. ^ Introduction to the 2014 DOL report, page 1.
  14. ^ "KCSG Television - Report on worst forms of child labor released by US Labor Secretary Perez". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  15. ^ "Latin American Herald Tribune - U.S. Reports on Latin American & Global Countries with Worst Child Labor". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  16. ^ Pat Bradley. "Labor Agency Issues Child Labor List". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  17. ^ "Child, forced labor behind many products: study". Reuters. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  18. ^ The 2014 DOL report, Procedural Guidelines for the Development and Maintenance of the List of Goods From Countries Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, Federal Register / Vol. 72, No. 247 / Thursday, December 27, 2007 / Notices - 73375
  19. ^ Research Methodoly, the 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor report, pp. 18-22.
  20. ^ A comprehensive bibliography of the studies mentioned, listed by country.
  21. ^ "Cotton Tops List of Industries Most Likely to Abuse Child, Forced Labor - Ecouterre". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  22. ^ Brett Mathews. "Cotton production tops child labour list - Social Compliance & CSR News - Ecotextile News". Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  23. ^ "Your Soft Cotton T-Shirt Might Have Come Courtesy of Child Slave Labor". TakePart. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  24. ^ Ratner Blake D., Åsgård Björn, Allison Edward H. (2014). "Fishing for justice: Human rights, development, and fisheries sector reform". Global Environmental Change. 27: 120–130. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.05.006.
  25. ^ "In Honor of National Human Trafficking Day". Love is an Orientation. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  26. ^ Is child labour a thing of the past? by Lucy Siegle, a Guardian article commenting on the DOL's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
  27. ^ 1 ILO, Protocol to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, Provisional Record, Geneva, 2014; available from the 2014 International Labour Conference Provisional Record (9A), ILO, Recommendation on Supplementary Measures for the Effective Suppression of Forced Labour, Provisional Record, Geneva, 2014; available from the 2014 International Labour Conference Provisional Record (9B)

External links

  • List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
  • U.S. Department of Labor
  • U.S. Department of State
  • International Labor Organization
  • Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB)
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