List of French forts in North America

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The Citadelle of Quebec is a National Historic Site of Canada,[1] and also forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.[1] The fortress is located within the "Historic District of Old Québec", which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.[2]

This is a list of all forts in New France built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States. They range from large European-type citadels like at Quebec City to tiny fur-trade posts.[3]

Canada

The French forts in Canada were located west from Alberta to the Atlantic Ocean and as far north as James Bay. Built between the 1640s and the 1750s, a few were captured from rival British fur trading companies like Hudson's Bay Company. The forts were located on waterways to provide transport of fur back east to Montreal or Quebec City. A few have survived or been re-built, but most are ruins or simply disappeared after abandonment.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location Province Image
Fort Anne 1636 Annapolis Royal  Nova Scotia FortAnne ViewOfBasin 2009.jpg
Fort Bas de la Rivière 1750 Fort Alexander  Manitoba Fort Bas de la Rivière.jpg
Fort Boishébert 1749 Grand Bay  New Brunswick Nerepis Fort Plaque.jpg
Fort Beauséjour 1751 Aulac FortBeausejour1750McCordMuseum.jpg
Fort Bourbon (West) 1741 Grand Rapids  Manitoba
Fort Bourbon (North) 1697 York Factory HS34 1.jpg
Fort Charlesbourg Royal 1541-1543 Cap-Rouge  Quebec Charlesbourg-Royal.JPG
Fort Chambly 1665 Chambly Fort Chambly 2.jpg
Citadelle of Quebec 1693 Quebec City Citadelle Quebec.jpg
Citadelle of Montreal 1690-1821 Montreal Musee Stewart 08.jpg
Fort Dauphin 1741 Winnipegosis  Manitoba
Fort de la Corne 1753 Fort à la Corne Provincial Forest  Saskatchewan Fort de La Corne.jpg
Fort de la Montagne 1685 Montreal  Quebec Fort de la Montagne2.JPG
Fort Dumoine 1730 Pontiac Regional County Municipality Fort Dumoine.jpg
Fort du Moulin 1749 Trois-Rivières
Fort du Sault Saint-Louis 1725 Kahnawake
Fort Frontenac 1673 Kingston  Ontario Fort Frontenac.JPG
Fort Gaspareaux 1751 Port Elgin  New Brunswick FortGaspareaux2006.jpg
Fort Kaministiquia 1717 Thunder Bay  Ontario Fort Kaministiquia.jpg
Fort Lachine 1669-1695 Lachine  Quebec Fort Lachine.jpg
Fort Laprairie 1687 Laprairie Fort Laprairie.png
Fort La Reine 1738 Portage la Prairie  Manitoba Fort La Reine1.jpg
Fort Le Jonquiere 1751 Saskatchewan River Forks (near Prince Albert)  Saskatchewan
Fortress of Louisbourg 1719 Louisbourg  Nova Scotia Louisbourg.jpg
Fort Maurepas 1733 Selkirk  Manitoba
Fort Menagoueche 1751 Saint John  New Brunswick Fort MenagouecheNationalArchievesofCanada NMC 18801.jpg
Fort Paskoya 1741 The Pas (on Cedar Lake)  Manitoba Carte de La Vérendrye.JPG
Fort Plaisance 1662 Placentia  Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles 1670 Pointe-aux-Trembles  Quebec Fort de Pointe-aux-Trembles.jpg
Fort Richelieu 1641 near Sorel-Tracy Fort Richelieu 1695.jpg
Fort Rouge 1738 Winnipeg  Manitoba
Fort Rouillé / Fort Toronto 1750 Toronto  Ontario Fort Rouille Monument - CNE Grounds, Toronto (September 1 2005).jpg
Fort Royal (Newfoundland) 1687 Placentia  Newfoundland and Labrador Whats left of the ruins.JPG
Fort Sainte Anne (Hudson Bay) 1670 (1686) Fort Albany  Ontario Fort Albany, Ontario, 1886.jpg
Fort Sainte Anne 1629-1641 Englishtown  Nova Scotia
Fort Saint-François 1660 Trois-Rivières  Quebec Ndc 20060507 08.jpg
Fort Saint Jacques 1686-1693 and 1697-1713 Waskaganish, Quebec (Fort Rupert)
Fort Saint-Jean 1746 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu Fort Saint-Jean on Richelieu River 1750s.png
Fort Saint Louis 1690-1713 Placentia  Newfoundland and Labrador Whats left of the ruins.JPG
Fort St. Louis 1620-1834 Quebec  Quebec Chateau Saint-Louis.jpg
Fort St. Louis 1623-1930 Cape Sable Island  Nova Scotia Baccaro Lighthouse (2).jpg
Fort St. Louis 1670s (1686) Moose Factory  Ontario Moose Factory 1.jpg
Fort St. Pierre 1731 Fort Frances (near mouth of the Rainy River meets with Rainy Lake) Fort St Pierre.jpg
Fort Sainte Thérèse 1665 Carignan  Quebec Fort Sainte-Thérèse.JPG
Fort Senneville 1671 Montreal Fort Senneville 1895.jpg
Fort Témiscamingue 1679 Ville Marie Fort Temiscamingue 1.jpg
Fort Ville-Marie 1642-1688 Montreal Fort Montreal 1645.jpg
Port-la-Joye 1720 Charlottetown  Prince Edward Island Fort Amherst photograph.jpg

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Name Date constructed ca. Location Communes of France Image
Pointe aux Cannon Battery[6] 1690 Saint Pierre Island Saint-Pierre Cannons that Defended the Harbour Against The English.JPG

United States

The French forts built in what is now the United States, were part of a series of forts built from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi delta; as far west as the Dakotas, and as far east as Maine.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location State Image
Fort des Alibamons 1717 Wetumpka  Alabama Fort Toulouse.jpg
Fort Assumption 1739 Memphis  Tennessee Fort De Lassomption Memphis TN LoC map.jpg
Fort Beauharnois 1727 Goodhue County  Minnesota Fort Beauharnois.JPG
Fort de Buade 1683 St. Ignace  Michigan 2009-0618-StIgnace-MuseumMission.jpg
Fort Carillon 1754-57 Ticonderoga  New York Fort Carillon 1.jpg
Fort Caroline 1564 Jacksonville  Florida Fort Caroline moat FOCA1566.jpg
Fort de Cavagnal 1744 Missouri River between Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth  Kansas Fort de Cavagnial.jpg
Fort Charles 1562 Beaufort  South Carolina Fort Charles.jpg
Fort de Chartres 1720 Randolph County  Illinois Fort de Chartres 02Aug2007-32.jpg
Fort Condé 1723 Mobile  Alabama Mobile-Alabama-Fort-Conde-fortress-replica-art.jpg
Fort Conti 1679 Youngstown  New York
Fort Crèvecoeur 1680 Creve Coeur  Illinois Fort Pimiteoui.jpg
Fort Denonville 1687 Youngstown  New York Fort Denonville.JPG
Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit 1701 Detroit  Michigan Siege of Fort Detroit.jpg
Fort Duquesne 1754 Pittsburgh  Pennsylvania Fortduquesne.jpg
Fort Kaskaskia 1759 Kaskaskia  Illinois FortKaskaskiaView.jpg
Fort de La Présentation 1671 Ogdensburg  New York Fort de La Présentation.jpg
Fort Le Boeuf 1753 Waterford  Pennsylvania Fort Le Boeuf.jpg
Fort Lévis 1759 Ogdensburg  New York Fort Lévis.jpg
Fort Louis de la Louisiane 1702 Le Moyne  Alabama Fort Louis de la Mobile.jpg
Fort Machault 1754 Franklin  Pennsylvania
Fort Massac 1757 Massac County  Illinois Fort Massac IL 2.JPG
Fort Maurepas 1699 Ocean Springs  Mississippi Fort Maurepas.jpg
Fort Miami (Indiana) 1715 Fort Wayne  Indiana
Fort Miami (Michigan) 1679 St. Joseph  Michigan Fort Miamis.jpg
Fort Michilimackinac 1715 Mackinaw City Fort Michilimackinac.jpg
Fort des Natchitoches 1714 Natchitoches  Louisiana Fort St. Jean Baptiste State Historic Site1.jpg
Fort Niagara 1678 Youngstown  New York French castle at Fort Niagara 2.JPG
Fort Orleans 1723 Brunswick  Missouri Fort Orléans.JPG
Fort Ouiatenon 1717 West Lafayette  Indiana
Fort Pentagouet 1638 Castine  Maine Fort de Pentagouet en 1670.jpg
Fort Pimiteoui 1691 Peoria  Illinois Fort Pimiteoui.jpg
Fort Presque Isle 1753 Erie  Pennsylvania Fort Presqu'île.jpg
Fort Prudhomme 1682 Memphis  Tennessee Western New France, 1688.jpg
Fort Rosalie 1716 Natchez  Mississippi
Fort Ste. Anne 1666 Isle La Motte  Vermont Denkmal Samuel de Champlain.jpg
Fort St. Charles 1732 Lake of the Woods County  Minnesota
Fort St. Frédéric 1729-1757 Crown Point  New York Fort Saint-Frédéric 1.jpg
Fort St. Joseph 1691 Niles  Michigan
Fort Saint Louis 1685 Inez  Texas Fort Saint Louis by Alonso DeLeon.JPG
Fort St. Louis-Le Rocher 1682 North Utica  Illinois Starved Rock Illinois on Illinois River.jpg
Fort Sandoské 1745 Sandusky Bay  Ohio Fort Sanduské.JPG
Fort de Tombecbé 1735-37 Epes  Alabama
Fort Toulouse 1717 Wetumpka Fort Toulouse.jpg
Fort Vincennes 1731-32 Vincennes  Indiana Fort Vincennes.jpg

See also

Canada related
United States related

References

  1. ^ a b Québec Citadel. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  3. ^ Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535-1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7. 
  4. ^ a b Rene Chartrand (2013). The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0318-4. 
  5. ^ a b René Chartrand (2010). The Forts of New France: The Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast, 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-504-3. 
  6. ^ "Landmarks and monuments Saint-Pierre and Miquelon". Retrieved 2010-07-08. 
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