List of English Heritage properties in Somerset

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List of English Heritage properties in Somerset is located in Somerset
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English Heritage properties in Somerset

English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that looks after the National Heritage Collection.[1] English Heritage is steward of over 400 significant historical and archaeological sites. It has direct ownership over some historic sites and also liaises with private owners of sites that are managed under guardianship arrangements. In Somerset there are twelve sites,[2] ranging from Neolithic sites such as Stanton Drew stone circles and Stoney Littleton Long Barrow through medieval castles and religious sites such as Farleigh Hungerford Castle and Cleeve Abbey to the most recent, Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument, which was erected in 1720.[3]

Somerset consists of a non-metropolitan county, administered by Somerset County Council, which is divided into five districts, and two unitary authorities. The districts of Somerset are West Somerset, South Somerset, Taunton Deane, Mendip and Sedgemoor. North Somerset and Bath and North East Somerset historically came under Somerset County Council. In 1974 they became part of county of Avon, and in 1996 they became administratively independent when Avon was broken up into unitary authorities.[4]

Many of the buildings included in the list are listed buildings or scheduled monuments. Listed status refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance; Grade I structures are those considered to be "buildings of exceptional interest".[5] Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. A scheduled monument is a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change. Scheduled monuments are specified in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, which defines a monument as:

Any building, structure or work above or below the surface of the land, any cave or excavation; any site comprising the remains of any such building, structure or work or any cave or excavation; and any site comprising or comprising the remains of any vehicle, vessel or aircraft or other movable structure or part thereof...

— (Section 61 (7)).[6]

Properties

List of English Heritage properties in Somerset
Site Name Constructed Scheduling Number Listed building grade Location or parish Image Description
Cleeve Abbey c. 1198 1014824[7] I[8] Washford
51°09′20″N 3°21′51″W / 51.1556°N 3.3642°W / 51.1556; -3.3642 (Cleeve Abbey)
CleeveAbbeyDormitoryC.jpg Cleeve Abbey is a medieval monastery founded in the late twelfth century as a house for monks of the austere Cistercian order.[9] In 1536 Cleeve was closed by Henry VIII in the course of the Dissolution of the Monasteries and the abbey was converted into a country house. Subsequently, the status of the site declined and the abbey was used as farm buildings until the latter half of the nineteenth century when steps were taken to conserve the remains. Cleeve Abbey is one of the best-preserved medieval Cistercian monastic sites in Britain.[10] While the church is no longer standing, the ancillary buildings are still roofed and habitable and contain many features of particular interest including the 'angel' roof in the refectory and the wall paintings in the painted chamber.[11]
Dunster Butter Cross 15th century II*[12] Dunster
51°11′06″N 3°26′57″W / 51.1851°N 3.4491°W / 51.1851; -3.4491 (Farleigh Hungerford Castle)
Dunster Butter Cross - geograph.org.uk - 1702292.jpg The Butter Cross in Dunster once stood in the High Street and was moved to its current location on the edge of the village possibly in 1825, though a drawing by J. M. W. Turner made in 1811 suggests it was in its present position by then.[13] The site was levelled in 1776.[14] The base and shaft, which probably date from the 15th century, remain, but the head of the cross has been lost.[15] There is an inscription on the northern face which says "WC, 1871, WS" recording a restoration.[16]
Farleigh Hungerford Castle c. 1380 1015871[17] I[18] Farleigh Hungerford
51°19′04″N 2°17′14″W / 51.3177°N 2.2872°W / 51.3177; -2.2872 (Farleigh Hungerford Castle)
Farleigh Hungerford East Gate.jpg Farleigh Hungerford Castle, sometimes called Farleigh Castle or Farley Castle, is a medieval castle. The inner court was constructed between 1377 and 1383 by Sir Thomas Hungerford. The castle was built to a quadrangular design, on the site of an existing manor house overlooking the River Frome. At the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, the castle was held by Sir Edward Hungerford. Edward declared his support for Parliament.[19] Farleigh Hungerford was seized by Cavalier forces in 1643, but recaptured by Parliament without a fight near the end of the conflict in 1645. As a result, it escaped slighting following the war. The last member of the Hungerford family to hold the castle, Sir Edward Hungerford, inherited it in 1657, but sold it in 1686.[20] By the 18th century the castle fell into disrepair; in 1730 it was bought by the Houlton family, when much of it was broken up for salvage. Antiquarian and tourist interest in the now ruined castle increased through the 18th and 19th centuries. The castle chapel was repaired in 1779 and became a museum of curiosities, complete with the murals rediscovered on its walls in 1844 and a number of rare lead anthropomorphic coffins from the mid-17th century. In 1915 Farleigh Hungerford Castle was sold to the Office of Works and a restoration programme began.[21]
Gallox Bridge, Dunster 15th century 1014410[22] I[23] Dunster
51°10′44″N 3°26′45″W / 51.1790°N 3.4458°W / 51.1790; -3.4458 (Gallox Bridge, Dunster)
Gallox Bridge.jpg The Gallox Bridge in Dunster dates from the 15th century. In the 14th century the river crossing was known as Doddebrigge.[24] The name Gallox is believed to be derived from gallows as the village gallows were nearby.[25] It is a narrow stone packhorse bridge, on the southern outskirts of Dunster, with two arches over the River Avill. It has a roadway width of 1.2 metres (3.9 ft), a total width of 1.9 metres (6.2 ft) and is 13.5 metres (44.3 ft) long.[26]
Muchelney Abbey 12th century 1006230[27] I[28] Muchelney
51°01′00″N 2°49′13″W / 51.0167°N 2.8203°W / 51.0167; -2.8203 (Muchelney Abbey)
Muchelney Abbey.JPG Muchelney Abbey in the village of Muchelney comprises the remains and foundations of a medieval Benedictine abbey, the site of an earlier Anglo-Saxon abbey, and an early Tudor house dating from the 16th century, formerly the lodgings of the resident Abbot.[29] Of the main building only some foundation walls remain. The south cloister walk and the north wall of a refectory are other surviving features. The only intact structure is the Abbot's House with well-preserved architectural features including external stonework and inside a great chamber with ornate fireplace, carved settle and stained glass, and a timber roof. An unusual attraction is the nearby thatched two-storey monks' lavatory, unique in Britain.[30] In 1538 the Abbey with all land and possessions was surrendered by the monks to Henry VIII in the course of the Dissolution of the Monasteries.[31] The whole property and advowson was then granted to Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, later 1st Duke of Somerset. On his execution in 1552 it reverted to the crown.[32]
Nunney Castle 1373 1014716[33] Nunney
51°12′37″N 2°22′43″W / 51.2103°N 2.3786°W / 51.2103; -2.3786 (Nunney Castle)
Nunney Castle (2) - geograph.org.uk - 694664.jpg Nunney Castle is a medieval castle at Nunney. Built in the late 14th century by Sir John Delamare on the profits of his involvement in the Hundred Years' War, the moated castle's architectural style, possibly influenced by the design of French castles, has provoked considerable academic debate.[34] Remodelled during the late 16th century, Nunney Castle was damaged during the English Civil War and is now ruined.[35] English Heritage maintain the site as a tourist attraction. The architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner has described Nunney as "aesthetically the most impressive castle in Somerset."[36]
Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument 1720 1015110[37] II*[3] Lansdown, Bath
51°25′53″N 2°23′58″W / 51.4314°N 2.3994°W / 51.4314; -2.3994 (Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument)
Sir Bevil Grenville monument.JPG Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument is a monument erected in 1720 on Lansdowne Hill, 4 miles (6.4 km) north-west of the city of Bath, to commemorate the heroism of the Civil War Royalist commander Sir Bevil Grenville (1596–1643) of Stowe, Kilkhampton in Cornwall and Bideford in Devon, who on 5 July 1643 fell mortally wounded at the Battle of Lansdowne, leading his regiment of Cornish pikemen.[38]
Stanton Drew stone circles Neolithic 1007911[39] Stanton Drew
51°22′04″N 2°34′31″W / 51.3678°N 2.5753°W / 51.3678; -2.5753 (Stanton Drew stone circles)
Stanton Drew stone circle 23.JPG The Stanton Drew stone circles are made up of three circles of standing stones and associated outliers. The largest stone circle is the Great Circle, 113 metres (371 ft) in diameter and the second largest stone circle in Britain (after Avebury); it is considered to be one of the largest Neolithic monuments to have been built.[40] The Great Circle was surrounded by a ditch and is accompanied by smaller stone circles to the north east and south west. There is also a group of three stones, known as The Cove, in the garden of the local pub.[41] Some of the stones are still vertical, but the majority are now recumbent and some are no longer present. The stone circles have been studied since John Aubrey's visit in 1664 with some excavations of the site in the 18th century.[42] In the late 20th and early 21st centuries geophysical surveys have confirmed the size of the stone circles and identified additional pits and postholes.[43] The date of construction is not known but is thought to be between 3000 and 2000 BCE which pales it in the Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age.[44] The Cove has been shown to be around one thousand years older than the stone circles.[45] A variety of myths and legends about the stone circles have been recorded, including one about dancers at a celebration who have been turned to stone.[46][47][48][49]
Stoney Littleton Long Barrow Neolithic 1007910[50] Wellow, Somerset
51°18′48″N 2°22′53″W / 51.3133°N 2.3813°W / 51.3133; -2.3813 (Stoney Littleton Long Barrow)
Stoneylittletonlongbarrowentrance.JPG The Stoney Littleton Long Barrow (also known as Bath Tumulus and the Wellow Tumulus) is a Neolithic chambered tomb with multiple burial chambers, located near the village of Wellow, Somerset.[51] It is an example of a Severn-Cotswold tomb.[52] The barrow is about 30 metres (98 ft) in length and 15 metres (49 ft) wide at the south-east end; it stands nearly 3 metres (10 ft) high.[50] Internally it consists of a 12.8 metres (42 ft) long gallery with three pairs of side chambers and an end chamber. There is a fossil ammonite decorating the left-hand doorjamb. The site was excavated by John Skinner in 1816–17 who gained the entry through a hole originally made about 1760. The excavation revealed the bones (some burned) of several individuals.[53] The site was restored in 1858 by Mr T. R. Joliffe, the Lord of the Hundred and an information board has now been provided by English Heritage.
The Abbot's Fish House, Meare c. 1330 1008018[54] I[55] Meare
51°10′18″N 2°46′34″W / 51.1718°N 2.776°W / 51.1718; -2.776 (The Abbot's Fish House, Meare)
Abbot's Fish House, Meare.JPG The Abbot's Fish House, was built between 1322 and 1335 when Adam of Sodbury was the abbot of Glastonbury Abbey. The upper floor was the abode of the chief fisherman and the ground floor was used for storing nets and the salting and preparing fish.[56][57] The fish were caught in Meare Pool which was drained after the dissolution of the monasteries and the fish house fell into disrepair. It suffered a fire in the 19th century which destroyed the roof and gutted the interior. It was re roofed by the Ministry of Works and is now in the care of English Heritage.[57] It is the only surviving monastic fishery building in England.[58]
The Tribunal, Glastonbury 15th century I[59] Glastonbury
51°08′46″N 2°42′35″W / 51.1462°N 2.7098°W / 51.1462; -2.7098 (The Tribunal, Glastonbury)
Glastonbury Tribunal 2.jpg The Tribunal in Glastonbury was built in the 15th century as a medieval merchant's house. The house owes its name to the fact that it was formerly mistakenly identified with the Abbey's tribunals, where secular justice was administered. In the 16th century a new facade was added to the original building.[60] The Tribunal now houses the Glastonbury Lake Village Museum containing Iron Age artefacts and works of art from the Glastonbury Lake Village which were preserved in almost perfect condition in the peat after the village was abandoned. The museum is run by the Glastonbury Antiquarian Society.[61] The building also houses the tourist information centre.[62]
Yarn Market, Dunster c. 1590 I[63] Dunster
51°11′04″N 3°26′39″W / 51.1845°N 3.4442°W / 51.1845; -3.4442 (Dunster Yarn Market)
Dunster Market-2.jpg The Yarn Market is an octagonal structure which has a central stone pier which supports a heavy timber framework carrying a slate roof with central wooden lantern surmounted by a weather vane.[64] Around 1600 George Luttrell of the Luttrell family constructed the market to shelter traders and their wares from the rain.[65][66] One of the roof beams has a hole in it, a result of cannon fire in the Civil War, when Dunster Castle was a besieged Royalist stronghold.[67] Following the damage, it was restored in 1647 to its present condition. It is in the guardianship of English Heritage but is managed by the National Trust.[68]

See also

References

  1. ^ "New Era for English Heritage". English Heritage. English Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  2. ^ "Find a property: Somerset". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 21 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Historic England. "Monument to Sir Bevil Grenville at NGR ST 7219 7034 (1214434)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  4. ^ "The Avon (Structural Change) Order 1995". HMSO. Archived from the original on 30 January 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2007. 
  5. ^ "What is a listed building?". Manchester City Council. Archived from the original on 4 January 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2007. 
  6. ^ Text of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from legislation.gov.uk
  7. ^ Historic England. "Cleeve Abbey (1014824)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  8. ^ Historic England. "Cleeve Abbey (1057579)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  9. ^ William Page (editor) (1911). "House of Cistercian monks: The abbey of Cleeve". A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 2. Institute of Historical Research. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  10. ^ "Cleeve Abbey, Washford". Somerset Historic Environment Record. Somerset County Council. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2014. 
  11. ^ Norton, Christopher; Park, David (1986). Cistercian art and architecture in the British Isles (PDF). Cambridge University Press. pp. xxiv–xxv. ISBN 978-0-521-25475-5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2014. 
  12. ^ Historic England. "Butter Cross (1345602)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Dunster: The Butter Cross, St George's Church, the Castle and Conygar Tower". TATE. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  14. ^ "The Butter Cross at Dunster". Taunton Courier, and Western Advertiser. British Newspaper Archive. 26 September 1942. Retrieved 7 July 2014. (Subscription required (help)). 
  15. ^ "History and Research: Dunster Butter Cross". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  16. ^ "Butter Cross at Dunster — ancient monument". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 
  17. ^ Historic England. "Farleigh Hungerford Castle (1015871)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  18. ^ Historic England. "Farleigh Hungerford Castle (1058117)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  19. ^ Knightly, Charles (2006). Farleigh Hungerford Castle. English Heritage. pp. 27–43. ISBN 1-85074-997-3. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. 
  20. ^ Knightly, Charles (2006). Farleigh Hungerford Castle. English Heritage. p. 28. ISBN 1-85074-997-3. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. 
  21. ^ Miles, T.J.; Saunders, A.D. (1975). "The Chantry House at Farleigh Hungerford Castle". Medieval Archaeology. 19: 165–194. 
  22. ^ Historic England. "Gallox Bridge (1014410)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  23. ^ Historic England. "Gallox Bridge (1296207)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  24. ^ "Dunster Gallox Bridge, history and research". English Heritage. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  25. ^ "Gallox Bridge". The Crown Estate. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  26. ^ "Gallox Bridge". Pastscape. English Heritage. Retrieved 6 October 2017. 
  27. ^ Historic England. "Muchelney Abbey (1006230)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  28. ^ Historic England. "Muchelney Abbey (1236790)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  29. ^ "The Abbot's House, Muchelney Abbey". Images of England. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2007. 
  30. ^ Historic England. "Monks' Reredorter, Muchelney Abbey (1056573)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  31. ^ "Muchelney Abbey". Properties. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014. 
  32. ^ R. W. Dunning (editor), A. P. Baggs, R. J. E. Bush, Margaret Tomlinson (1974). "Parishes: Muchelney". A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 3. Institute of Historical Research. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014. 
  33. ^ Historic England. "Nunney Castle (1014716)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  34. ^ Emery, Anthony (2006). Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, 1300–1500: Southern England. Cambridge University Press. p. 604. ISBN 978-0-521-58132-5. 
  35. ^ Rigold, Stuart (1975). Nunney Castle: Somerset. HMSO. p. 6. ISBN 0-11-670005-X. 
  36. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus. (1958) North Somerset and Bristol. Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. London: Penguin Books. OCLC 459446734. page 238
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  38. ^ "Sir Bevil Grenville's Monument". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2009. 
  39. ^ Historic England. "Two stone circles and two stone avenues at Stanton Drew, east of Court Farm (1007911)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  40. ^ McIntosh, Jane (2009). Handbook of Life in Prehistoric Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-19-538476-5. 
  41. ^ Historic England. "Stone cove at Stanton Drew 25 m south west of St Mary's Church (1007916)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  42. ^ "History and research: Stanton Drew circles and cove". Portico. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  43. ^ "Stanton Drew Stone Circles". English Heritage Archeometry. Archived from the original on 20 August 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2006. 
  44. ^ Oswin, John; Richards, John; Sermon, Richard. "Stanton Drew 2010 Geophysical survey and other archaeological investigations" (PDF). Bath and North East Somerset Council. p. 63. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  45. ^ Oswin, John; Richards, John; Sermon, Richard. "Geophysical Survey at Stanton Drew, July 2009" (PDF). Bath and Camerton Archaeological Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  46. ^ "Stanton Drew Stone Circles". Stone Pages. Archived from the original on 9 July 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2006. 
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  48. ^ "Stanton Drew Stone Circle". Mysterious Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  49. ^ "Stanton Drew Circles and Cove:History and Research". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  50. ^ a b Historic England. "Stoney Littleton long barrow (1007910)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  51. ^ Scott, Shane (1995). The Hidden Places of Somerset. Travel Publishing Ltd. p. 16. ISBN 1-902007-01-8. 
  52. ^ Dunn, Richard (2004). Nempnett Thrubwell:Barrows, Names and Manors. Nempnett Books. pp. 33–62. ISBN 0-9548614-0-X. 
  53. ^ "Stoney Littleton". Stones of England. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008. 
  54. ^ Historic England. "The Abbot's Fish House and fishponds (1008018)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  55. ^ Historic England. "The Abbot's Fish House (1345067)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  56. ^ "The Abbot's Fish House". Images of England. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2006. 
  57. ^ a b Warren, Derrick (2005). Curious Somerset. Sutton Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-7509-4057-3. 
  58. ^ "Meare Fish House". English Heritage website. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  59. ^ Historic England. "The Tribunal (1345457)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  60. ^ "History and research Glastonbury Tribunal". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
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  62. ^ "Glastonbury Tourist Information Centre". Glastonbury Tourist Information Centre. Retrieved 22 May 2009. 
  63. ^ Historic England. "Yarn Market (1173428)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 3 April 2015. 
  64. ^ "Yarn Market". Images of England. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2007. 
  65. ^ "Yarn Market - History and Research". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  66. ^ Gathercole, Clare. "Dunster" (PDF). The Somerset Urban Archaeological Survey. Somerset County Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
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  68. ^ "Yarn Market, High Street (West side), Dunster". Somerset Historic Environment Record. Somerset County Council. Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2009. 
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