List of Christian Nobel laureates

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65% of Nobel prize winners have been Christians.[1] Here is a non exhaustive list of some of the prize winners who publicly identified themselves as Christians.

Physics

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1904 John William Strutt.jpg Lord Rayleigh United Kingdom Anglican[2][need quotation to verify][3][need quotation to verify] "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[4]
1906 J.J Thomson.jpg Joseph John Thomson United Kingdom Anglican[5] "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[6]
1909 Guglielmo Marconi.jpg Guglielmo Marconi Italy Roman Catholic[7] "for his contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[8]
1914 Max von Laue 1914.jpg Max von Laue Germany Christian[9][10][11] "for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[12] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1917 Charles Glover Barkla.jpg Charles Glover Barkla United Kingdom Methodist[13][14][15] "for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[16] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg Robert Andrews Millikan United States Christian[17][18][19][20] He dealt with this in his Terry Lectures at Yale in 1926–7, published as Evolution in Science and Religion.[21] "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[22]
1927 Arthur Compton.jpg Arthur Holly Compton United States Presbyterian[23][24] "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[25]
1932 Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg Werner Heisenberg Germany Lutheran[26][27] "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[28]
1936 Hess.jpg Victor Francis Hess Austria Christian[29] He wrote on the topic of science and religion in his article "My Faith".[30] "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[31]
1951 Ernest Walton.jpg Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton Ireland Methodist[32] "for his pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[33]
1964 Charles Townes Nobel.jpg Charles Hard Townes United States Protestant (United Church of Christ)[34] "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[35]
1974 Nobel prize medal grey.png Antony Hewish United Kingdom Christian[36] "for his pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[37]
1997 William D. Phillips.jpg William Daniel Phillips United States Protestant (United Methodist Church)[38] "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[39]
2007 Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg Peter Grünberg Germany Roman Catholic[40][41] "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[42]

Chemistry

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1918 Fritz Haber.png Fritz Haber Germany Converts to Protestantism from Judaism[43] "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[44]
1996 Richard Smalley.jpg Richard E. Smalley United States Christian[45] "for the discovery of fullerenes"[46]
2007 Prof Ertl-Portrait.jpg Gerhard Ertl Germany Christian[47] "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[48]

Physiology or Medicine

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1906 Cajal-Restored.jpg Santiago Ramón y Cajal Spain Roman Catholic[49] "in recognition of his work on the structure of the nervous system"
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher nobel.jpg Emil Theodor Kocher Switzerland Protestant (Moravian Church)[50] "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[51]
1912 Alexis Carrel 02.jpg Alexis Carrel France Roman Catholic[52] "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[53]
1930 Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg Karl Landsteiner Austria converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism in 1890[54] "for his discovery of human blood groups"[55]
1947 Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz United States Roman Catholic[56]
1963 Eccles lab.jpg Sir John Carew Eccles Australia Roman Catholic[57] "for his discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[58]
1978 Werner Arber 2008.jpg Werner Arber Switzerland Protestant[59] "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[60]
1998 Ferid Murad.jpg Ferid Murad United States Christian[61]
2012 John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG Sir John B. Gurdon United Kingdom Protestant (Anglican)[62] "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[63]

Literature

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902 T-mommsen-2.jpg Theodor Mommsen Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany Protestant[64] "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome"[65]
1903 Björnstjerne Björnson, 1901.jpg Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Union Jack of Sweden and Norway (1844-1905).svg Norway Protestant[66] "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"[67]
1904 Frédéric Mistral by Paul Saïn.jpg Frédéric Mistral Flag of France.svg France Roman Catholic[68] "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"[69]
José Echegaray y Eizaguirre.jpg José Echegaray Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg Spain Roman Catholic[70] "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"[69]
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 02.jpg Henryk Sienkiewicz Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg Poland Roman Catholic[71] "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"[72]
1909 Selma Lagerlöf.jpg Selma Lagerlöf  Sweden Christian[73] "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"[74]
1910 Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel 042.jpg Paul von Heyse Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany Protestant of Jewish descent[75] "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[76]
1916 Johan Krouthén - Porträtt av Verner von Heidenstam.jpg Verner von Heidenstam  Sweden Christian[77] "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"[78]
1923 William Butler Yeats by George Charles Beresford.jpg William Butler Yeats Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland Anglica[79] "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"[80]
1924 Władysław Reymont.jpg Władysław Reymont Flag of Poland (1928–1980).svg Poland Roman Catholic[81] "for his great national epic, The Peasants"[82]
1926 Grazia Deledda 1926.jpg Grazia Deledda Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Italy Roman Catholic[83] "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"[84]
1928 Sigrid Undset 1928.jpg Sigrid Undset  Norway
(Born in  Denmark)
Roman Catholic[85] "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"[86]
1929 Thomas Mann 1937.jpg Thomas Mann Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany Protestant (Lutheran)[87][88] "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"[89]
1933 Ivan Bunin 1933.jpg Ivan Bunin Flag of France.svg France (Born in Flag of Russia.svg Russia) Eastern Orthodox[90] "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"[91]
1938 Pearl Buck (Nobel).jpg Pearl S. Buck  United States Protestant (Southern Presbyterian)[92] "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"[93]
1945 Gabriela Mistral-01 cropped.jpg Gabriela Mistral Flag of Chile.svg Chile Roman Catholic[94] "for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"[95]
1946 Hermann Hesse 1946.jpg Hermann Hesse   Switzerland
(Born in Flag of the German Empire.svg Germany)
Christian[96][97] "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"[98]
1947 André Gide.jpg André Gide Flag of France.svg France Protestant[99] "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"[100]
1948 T.S. Eliot, 1923.JPG T. S. Eliot  United Kingdom
(Born in the  United States)
Anglican[101][102] "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"[103]
1949 Carl Van Vechten - William Faulkner.jpg William Faulkner  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[104] "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"[105]
1952 François Mauriac (1932).jpg François Mauriac Flag of France.svg France Roman Catholic[106] "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"[107]
1953 Churchill portrait NYP 45063.jpg Sir Winston Churchill  United Kingdom Anglican[108] "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"[109]
1954 ErnestHemingway.jpg Ernest Hemingway  United States Converts to Roman Catholicism[110] "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"[111]
1955 Halldór Kiljan Laxness 1955.jpg Halldór Laxness  Iceland Converts to Roman Catholicism[112] "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"[113]
1956 JRJimenez.JPG Juan Ramón Jiménez  Puerto Rico (Born in Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg Spain) Roman Catholic[114] "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"[115]
1958 Boris Pasternak in youth.jpg Boris Pasternak  Soviet Union Converts to Eastern Orthodoxy from Judaism[116] "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[117]
1961 S. Kragujevic, Ivo Andric, 1961.jpg Ivo Andrić  Yugoslavia
(Born in  Austria-Hungary)
Roman Catholic[118][119] "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"[120]
1962 JohnSteinbeck crop.JPG John Steinbeck  United States Episcopalian[121] "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"[122]
1963 Giorgos Seferis 1963.jpg Giorgos Seferis State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg Greece
(Born in the  Ottoman Empire)
Greek Orthodox[123] "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"[124]
1967 MiguelAngelAsturias.JPG Miguel Ángel Asturias  Guatemala Roman Catholic[125] "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"[126]
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1974crop.jpg Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn  Soviet Union Eastern Orthodox[127] "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"[128]
1972 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F062164-0004, Bonn, Heinrich Böll.jpg Heinrich Böll Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany (West) Roman Catholic[129] "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"[130]
1979 Odysseas Elytis 1974.jpg Odysseas Elytis  Greece Greek Orthodox[131] "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"[132]
1980 Czesław Miłosz 2011 Lithuania stamp.jpg Czesław Miłosz  United States (Born in Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg Poland) Roman Catholic[133] "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[134]
1982 Gabriel Garcia Marquez.jpg Gabriel García Márquez  Colombia Roman Catholic[135] "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"[136]
1989 Camilo José Cela Madrid 1996.jpg Camilo José Cela  Spain Roman Catholic[137] "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"[138]
1990 Paz0.jpg Octavio Paz  Mexico Roman Catholic[139] "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"[140]
1992 Derek Walcott.jpg Derek Walcott  Saint Lucia Protestant (Methodist )[141] "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"[142]
1993 Toni Morrison 2008-2.jpg Toni Morrison  United States Roman Catholic[143] "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"[144]
1999 Günter Grass, 2004.jpg Günter Grass  Germany Roman Catholic[145][146] "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"[147]
2009 Herta Müller 1.jpg Herta Müller  Germany
(Born in Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg Romania)
Roman Catholic[148] "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"[149]
2011 Transtroemer.jpg Tomas Tranströmer  Sweden Christian[150] "because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"[151]
2016 Bob Dylan - Azkena Rock Festival 2010 2.jpg Bob Dylan  United States Born again Christian[152][153][154] "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"[155]

Peace

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902 Ducommun.jpg Élie Ducommun   Switzerland Protestant[citation needed] "[for his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[156]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg Charles Albert Gobat Protestant[citation needed] "[for his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"
1903 Cremer.jpg William Randal Cremer Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Methodist[157] "[for his role as the] 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[158]
1905 Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg Bertha von Suttner  Austria-Hungary Roman Catholic[159] for authoring Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[160][161]
1906 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg Theodore Roosevelt  United States Protestant (Dutch Reformed Church)[162] "[f]or his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[160][163]
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Italy Roman Catholic[citation needed] "[for his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[160][164]
Louis Renault jurist.gif Louis Renault Flag of France.svg France Roman Catholic[citation needed] "[for his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"
1909 Beernaert.gif Auguste Beernaert  Belgium Roman Catholic[165] "[for being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[160][166]
PaulBalluet.gif Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant Flag of France.svg France Protestant (Calvinist)[167] "[for] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[160][166]
1912 Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg Elihu Root[A]  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[168] "[f]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[160][169]
1919 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg Woodrow Wilson  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[170] "[f]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[160][171]
1921 Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg Hjalmar Branting  Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[172] "[f]or his work in the League of Nations"[160][173]
Christian Lous Lange.jpg Christian Lange  Norway Lutheran (Church of Norway)[174] "[for his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[160][173]
1925 Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg Austen Chamberlain[A]  United Kingdom Unitarian[175] for work on the Locarno Treaties[160][176]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg Charles G. Dawes[A]  United States Protestant (Congregationalist)[citation needed] "[f]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[160][176]
1926 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg Gustav Stresemann Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany Protestant[177] for work on the Locarno Treaties[160][178]
1927 Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpg Ferdinand Buisson Flag of France.svg France Protestant[179] "[for] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[160][180]
1930 Nathan Söderblom nobel.jpg Nathan Söderblom  Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[181] "[f]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[160][182]
1931 Jane Addams profile.jpg Jane Addams  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[183] "[f]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[160][184]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpg Nicholas Murray Butler Protestant (Episcopalian)[185] "[for his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[160][184]
1934 1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg Arthur Henderson  United Kingdom Protestant (Methodist)[186] "[f]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[160][187][188]
1935 Carl von Ossietzky.jpg Carl von Ossietzky[B] Flag of the German Reich (1935–1945).svg Germany Protestant (Lutheran)[189] "[for his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"[160][190]
1945 Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg Cordell Hull  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[191] "[for] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[192]
1946 EmilyGreeneBalch.jpg Emily Greene Balch  United States Quaker[193] "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[194]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg John Raleigh Mott Protestant (Methodist)[195] "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[194]
1947 Quaker star-T.svg Friends Service Council  United Kingdom Quaker[196] "compassion for others and the desire to help them"[197]
American Friends Service Committee  United States Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)[198]
1949 John Boyd Orr nobel.jpg The Lord Boyd-Orr  United Kingdom Protestant (Free Church of Scotland)[199] "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agricultural Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[200]
1950 Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg Ralph Bunche  United States Protestant (Baptist)[201] "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[202]
1952 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpg Albert Schweitzer Flag of France.svg France Christian[203] "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[204]
1953 General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG George Catlett Marshall  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[205] "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan'"[206]
1957 Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg Lester Bowles Pearson  Canada Protestant (United Church of Canada)[207] "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[208] "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[160]
1958 Georges Pire 1958.jpg Dominique Pire  Belgium Roman Catholic[209] "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[210]
1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpg Philip Noel-Baker  United Kingdom Quaker[211] "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[212]
1960 Albert Lutuli nobel.jpg Albert Lutuli Flag of South Africa (1928–1994).svg South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
Protestant (Methodist)[213] "President of the African National Congress,"[214] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[160]
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld.jpg Dag Hammarskjöld[C]  Sweden Protestant (Lutheran)[215] "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[216] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[160]
1964 Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg Martin Luther King, Jr.  United States Protestant (Baptist; Progressive National Baptist Convention)[citation needed] Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence."[217]
1970 Norman Borlaug (cropped).jpg Norman E. Borlaug  United States Protestant (Lutheran)[218] "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[219] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[160]
1971 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg Willy Brandt Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Germany (West) Protestant (Lutheran)[220] "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[221]
1974 Seán MacBride 1984.jpg Seán MacBride  Ireland
(Born in Flag of France.svg France)
Roman Catholic[222] "President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[223] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[160]
1976 Betty Williams.jpg Betty Williams  United Kingdom Roman Catholic[citation needed] "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[224]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpg Mairead Corrigan Roman Catholic[225]
1979 MotherTeresa 090.jpg Mother Teresa  Albania (Born in Ottoman Kosovo) Roman Catholic[226] "Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[227]
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg Adolfo Pérez Esquivel  Argentina Roman Catholic[228] "Human rights leader;"[229] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[160]
1982 Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg Alfonso García Robles  Mexico Roman Catholic[citation needed] "[for] his magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[230][231]
1983 Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpg Lech Wałęsa Flag of Poland.svg Poland Roman Catholic[232] "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[233]
1984 Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg Desmond Tutu  South Africa Protestant (Anglican))[234] "Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"[235]
1987 OscarArias.jpg Óscar Arias  Costa Rica Roman Catholic[citation needed] "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[236]
1993 Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg Nelson Mandela  South Africa Protestant (Methodist)[237] "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[238]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg Frederik Willem de Klerk Protestant (Reformed)[239]
1996 Carlosbelo.jpg Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo  East Timor Roman Catholic[240] "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[241]
EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpg José Ramos-Horta Roman Catholic[242]
1998 John Hume 2008.jpg John Hume  United Kingdom Roman Catholic[243] "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[244]
David Trimble.jpg David Trimble Protestant (Presbyterian)[245][246]
2000 Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png Kim Dae-jung  South Korea Roman Catholic[247] "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[248]
2001 Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry Wad Kofi Annan  Ghana Protestant[249] "for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[250]
2002 Jimmy Carter.jpg Jimmy Carter  United States Protestant (Baptist)[251] "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[252]
2004 Wangari Maathai in Nairobi.jpg Wangari Muta Maathai  Kenya Roman Catholic[253] "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[254]
2007 Al Gore.jpg Al Gore  United States Protestant (Baptist)[255] "for his efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[256]
2008 Martti Ahtisaari.jpg Martti Ahtisaari  Finland Protestant (Lutheran)[257] "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[258]
2009 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg Barack Obama  United States Protestant[259] "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[260]
2011 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg Ellen Johnson Sirleaf  Liberia Protestant (Methodist)[261] "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[262]
Leymah-gbowee-at-emu-press-conference.jpg Leymah Gbowee Protestant (Lutheran)[263]
2016 Juan Manuel Santos and Lula (cropped).jpg Juan Manuel Santos  Colombia Roman Catholic[264][265] "his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220 000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people"[266]

Economics

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1975 TjallingKoopmans1967.jpg Tjalling Koopmans  Netherlands
 United States
Protestant[267] "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[268]
1979 Theodore Schultz  United States Protestant[269] "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries."[270]
W. Arthur Lewis  Saint Lucia
 United Kingdom
Roman Catholic[271]
1982 George Stigler  United States Christian[272] "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"[273]
1986 James Buchanan by Atlas network.jpg James M. Buchanan  United States Protestant[274] "for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"[275]
1988 ALLAIS PN Maurice-24x30-2001b.jpg Maurice Allais  France Roman Catholic[276] "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"[277]
1989 Trygve Haavelmo.jpg Trygve Haavelmo  Norway Protestant[278] "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"[279]
1996 William Vickrey  Canada
 United States
Quaker [280] "for his fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"[281]
2003 Robert F. Engle.jpg Robert F. Engle  United States Quaker[282] "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"[283]
Clive Granger by Olaf Storbeck.jpg Clive Granger  United Kingdom Christian[284] "for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"[283]
2009 Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-30.jpg Elinor Ostrom  United States Protestant[285] "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"[286]
2010 Christopher Pissarides.jpg Christopher A. Pissarides  Cyprus Eastern Orthodox[287] "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[288]
2013 Eugene Fama at Nobel Prize, 2013.jpg Eugene F. Fama  United States Roman Catholic[289] "for their empirical analysis of asset prices."
Robert Shiller - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg Robert J. Shiller Protestant (Methodist)[290]

See also

References

  1. ^ "100 Years of Nobel Prize", Shalev 2003, p. 59
  2. ^ Peter J. Bowler (2014). "Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain", University of Chicago Press. p. 35
  3. ^ Sir William Gavin (1967). "Ninety Years of Family Farming: The Story of Lord Rayleigh's and Strutt & Parker Farms". Hutchinson, p. 37
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  5. ^ Essay on Thomson life and religious views
  6. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  7. ^ Marconi, Maria Christina, Marconi My Beloved[1]. 2001. p. 19-24.
  8. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  9. ^ Max von Laue: Biographical The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914. Nobel Foundation.
  10. ^ Ewald, P. P. (1960). "Max von Laue 1879–1960". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6: 134–156. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1960.0028. 
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Further reading

  • Shalev, Baruch Aba (2003). 100 Years of Nobel Prizes. New Delhi : Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 81-269-0278-7. OCLC 588491891. 
  • Zhang, Weijia; Fuller, Robert (May 1998). "Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990: Simple statistics for physics teachers". Physics Education. 33 (3): 196–203. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/33/3/023. 
  • Zuckerman, Harriet (1977). Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-3376-9. OCLC 588491891. 

External links

  • Official website
  • Nobel Prizes by Universities and Institutes
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