List of rulers of China

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Qin Shi Huang – the first emperor of China

The list of rulers of China includes rulers of China with various titles. From the Zhou dynasty to the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: ; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin: huángdì). The title of emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive. Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names – for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing – but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of ancient Chinese emperorsChinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝)

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (皇, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one", denoting demigod status) and five (帝, generally translated "emperor", but denoting much more reverential status than the modern term "emperor"), their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì (皇帝, emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself.

These figures are all legendary, not historical.

"Sovereign" or "Emperor" Name by which most commonly known Regnal name Other names Reign (according to tradition)
Sovereign1,4,5 (Empress3) Nüwa Nǚwā 女媧 (180,000 Years)
Sovereign (Emperor3) Youchao Yǒucháo 有巢 (110,000 Years)
(Sovereign4) Emperor3 Suiren Suìrén 燧人 (456,000 Years)
Sovereign1,4,5 (Emperor2,3) Fuxi Fúxī 伏羲 2852–2737 BC
Sovereign1 (Emperor2,3) Yan Emperor and/or Shennong Yándi 炎帝 Shennong 神農 2737–2699 BC
(Sovereign5) Emperor1,2 Yellow Emperor Huangdi 黃帝 Gongsun Xuanyuan 公孫軒轅 2699–2588 BC
Emperor2 Shaohao Shǎohào 少昊 Jintian Shi 金天氏 2587–2491 BC
Emperor1,2 Zhuanxu Zhuānxū 顓頊 Gaoyang 高陽 2490–2413 BC
Emperor1 Emperor Ku Dikù 帝嚳 Gaoxin Shi 高辛氏 2412–2343 BC
Emperor1 Emperor Zhi Dizhì 帝摯 Qingyang Shi 青陽氏 2343–2333 BC
Emperor1 Emperor Yao Diyáo or Tang Yao 帝堯 / 唐堯 Yi Qi Taotang Fangxun 伊祁陶唐放勳 2333–2234 BC
Emperor1 Emperor Shun Dishùn 帝舜 Yao Youyu Chonghua 姚有虞重華 2233–2184 BC
1 — According to the Records of the Grand Historian.
2 — According to the Chu Ci.
3 — According to the Book of Rites.
4 — According to the Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳) and Baihu tongyi (白虎通義).
5 — According to the Diwang shiji (帝王世紀)

Xia dynasty (夏朝) (c. 2070BC – c. 1600BC)

Xia.jpg

Chinese convention: use "Xia" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Regnal name1 Other names Reign (according to tradition)
Yu the Great  ? ? ?
Qi of Xia  ? ? ?
Tai Kang Kāng Tài Kāng 太康 ?
Zhong Kang Kāng Zhòng Kāng 仲康 ?
Xiang of Xia Xiāng  ? ? ?
No king About 40 years
Shao Kang Kāng Shào Kāng 少康 ?
Zhu of Xia Zhù  ? ? ?
Huai of Xia Huái  ? ? ?
Mang of Xia Máng  ? ? ?
Xie of Xia Xiè  ? ? ?
Bu Jiang Jiàng  ? ? ?
Jiong of Xia Jiōng  ? ? ?
Jin of Xia Jǐn Yìn Jiǎ 胤甲 ?
Kong Jia  ? ? Kǒng Jiǎ 孔甲 ?
Gao of Xia Gāo  ? ? ?
Fa of Xia Hou Jin 后敬 ?
Jie of Xia Jié Lǚ Guǐ 履癸 ?

Shang dynasty (商朝) (c. 1600BC – c. 1046BC)

Shang.jpg

Chinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign (according to tradition)1 Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號) Capital city
Tang of Shang Zi Lü 子湯 1600–1300 BC Tiān Yǐ 天乙 Tài Zu 太祖
Bu Bing Zi Shèng 子勝 Wài Bǐng 外丙
Zhong Ren Zi Yōng 子庸 Zhòng Rén 仲壬
Tai Jia Zi Zhì 子至 Tài Jiǎ 太甲 Tài Zōng 太宗
Wo Ding Zi Xuàn 子絢 Wò Dīng 沃丁
Tai Geng Zi Biàn 子辯 Tài Gēng 太庚
Xiao Jia Zi Gāo 子高 Xiǎo Jiǎ 小甲
Yong Ji Zi Zhòu 子伷 Yōng Jǐ 雍己
Tai Wu Zi Mì 子密 Tài Wù 太戊
Zhong Ding Zi Zhuāng 子莊 Zhòng Dīng 仲丁 Áo
Wai Ren Zi Fā 子發 Wài Rén 外壬
He Dan Jia Zi Zhěng 子整 Jiān Jiǎ 戔甲 Xiàng
Zu Yi Zi Téng 子滕 Zǔ Yǐ 祖乙 Zhōng Zōng 中宗
Zu Xin Zi Dàn 子旦 Zǔ Xīn 祖辛
Wo Jia Zi Yú 子踰 Wò Jiǎ 沃甲
Zu Ding Zi Xīn 子新 Zǔ Dīng 祖丁
Nan Geng Zi Gēng 子更 Nán Gēng 南庚 Yǎn
Yang Jia of Shang Zi Hé 子和 Yáng Jiǎ 陽甲
Pan Geng Zi Xún 子旬 1300–1251 BC Pán Gēng2 盤庚 Yīn
Xiao Xin Zi Sòng 子頌 Xiǎo Xīn 小辛
Xiao Yi of Shang Zi Liǎn 子斂 Xiǎo Yǐ 小乙
Wu Ding Zi Zhāo 子昭 1250–1192 BC Wǔ Dīng 武丁 Gāo Zōng 高宗
Zu Geng of Shang Zi Yuè 子躍 1191–1148 BC Zǔ Gēng 祖庚
Zu Jia Zi Zài 子載 Zǔ Jiǎ 祖甲
Lin Xin Zi Xiān 子先 Lǐn Xīn 廩辛
Geng Ding Zi Xiāo 子囂 Kāng Dīng 康丁
Wu Yi of Shang Zi Qú 子瞿 1147–1113 BC Wǔ Yǐ 武乙
Wen Ding Zi Tuō 子托 1112–1102 BC Wén Dīng3 文丁
Di Yi Zi Xiàn 子羡 1101–1076 BC Dì Yǐ 帝乙
King Zhou of Shang Zi Shòu 子受 1075–1046 BC Di Xin 帝辛
1 — The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 — The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (殷) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.
3 — Also known as Tai Ding (太丁).

Zhou dynasty (周朝) (c.1046BC – 256BC)

Zhou2.jpg

Chinese convention: use "Zhou" + posthumous name

Name most commonly known by Personal name Reign1 Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Western Zhou dynasty (c. 1046–771 BC)
King Wu of Zhou Jī Fā 姬發 1046–1043 BC1 Wǔ Wáng 武王
King Cheng of Zhou Jī Sòng 姬誦 1042–1021 BC1 Chéng Wáng 成王
King Kang of Zhou Jī Zhāo 姬釗 1020–996 BC1 Kāng Wáng 康王
King Zhao of Zhou Jī Xiá 姬瑕 995–977 BC1 Zhāo Wáng 昭王
King Mu of Zhou Jī Mǎn 姬滿 976–922 BC1 Mù Wáng 穆王
King Gong of Zhou Jī Yīhù 姬繄扈 922–900 BC1 Gōng Wáng 共王
King Yi of Zhou (Jian) Jī Jiān 姬囏 899–892 BC1 Yì Wáng 懿王
King Xiao of Zhou Jī Bìfāng 姬辟方 891–886 BC1 Xiào Wáng 孝王
King Yi of Zhou (Xie) Jī Xiè 姬燮 885–878 BC1 Yí Wáng 夷王
King Li of Zhou Jī Hú 姬胡 877–841 BC1 Lì Wáng 厲王
Gonghe 共和 (regency)
King Xuan of Zhou Jī Jìng 姬靜 827–782 BC Xuān Wáng 宣王
King You of Zhou Jī Gōngshēng 姬宮湦 781–771 BC Yōu Wáng 幽王
Eastern Zhou dynasty (770–256 BC)
Spring and Autumn period (770–476 BC)
King Ping of Zhou Jī Yijiu 姬宜臼 770–720 BC Ping Wang 平王
King Huan of Zhou Jī Lin 姬林 719–697 BC Huan Wang 桓王
King Zhuang of Zhou Jī Tuo 姬佗 696–682 BC Zhuang Wang 莊王
King Xi of Zhou Jī Huqi 姬胡齊 681–677 BC Xi Wang 釐王
King Hui of Zhou Jī Lang 姬閬 676–652 BC Hui Wang 惠王
King Xiang of Zhou Jī Zheng 姬鄭 651–619 BC Xiang Wang 襄王
King Qing of Zhou Jī Renchen 姬壬臣 618–613 BC Qing Wang 頃王
King Kuang of Zhou Jī Ban 姬班 612–607 BC Kuang Wang 匡王
King Ding of Zhou Jī Yu 姬瑜 606–586 BC Ding Wang 定王
King Jian of Zhou Jī Yi 姬夷 585–572 BC Jian Wang 簡王
King Ling of Zhou Jī Xiexin 姬泄心 571–545 BC Ling Wang 靈王
King Jing of Zhou (Gui) Jī Gui 姬貴 544–521 BC Jing Wang 景王
King Dao of Zhou Jī Meng 姬猛 520 BC Dao Wang 悼王
King Jing of Zhou (Gai) Jī Gai 姬丐 519–476 BC Jing Wang 敬王
Warring States period (475–221 BC)
King Yuan of Zhou Jī Ren 姬仁 475–469 BC Yuan Wang 元王
King Zhending of Zhou Jī Jie 姬介 468–442 BC Zhending Wang 貞定王
King Ai of Zhou Jī Quji 姬去疾 441 BC Ai Wang 哀王
King Si of Zhou Jī Shu 姬叔 441 BC Si Wang 思王
King Kao of Zhou Jī Wei 姬嵬 440–426 BC Kao Wang 考王
King Weilie of Zhou Jī Wu 姬午 425–402 BC Weilie Wang 威烈王
King An of Zhou Jī Jiao 姬驕 401–376 BC An Wang 安王
King Lie of Zhou Jī Xi 姬喜 375–369 BC Lie Wang 烈王
King Xian of Zhou Jī Bian 姬扁 368–321 BC Xian Wang 顯王
King Shenjing of Zhou Jī Ding 姬定 320–315 BC Shenjing Wang 慎靚王
King Nan of Zhou Jī Yan 姬延 314–256 BC Nan Wang 赧王
1 — The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

Qin dynasty (秦朝) (221BC – 206BC)

Qin.jpg

Chinese convention: use regnal name

Note: the establishment of the Qin dynasty is usually considered to be the beginning of imperial china, with Qin Shi Huang regarded the first Emperor of China

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Regnal name Reign
Qin Shi Huang Ying Zhao Zhèng 嬴趙政 Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇 2211–210 BC
Qin Er Shi Ying Zhao Húhài 嬴趙胡亥 Qin Er Shi 秦二世 209–207 BC
Ziying2 Ying Zhao Ziyīng 嬴趙子嬰 Qin San Shi 秦三世 207 BC
1Qin Shi Huang became king of the State of Qin in 246 BC, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BC.
2 — Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (秦王子嬰).

Han dynasty (漢朝) (206BC – 220AD)

Chinese convention: use "Han" + posthumous name (apart from Emperor Gaozu, who is known as "Han Gaozu")

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號)
Western Han dynasty (206 BC – 9 AD)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang 劉邦 206–195 BC Gao Huangdi 高皇帝 Taizu, Gaozu 太祖 / 高祖
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying 劉盈 195–188 BC Huidi 惠帝
Emperor Quianshao of Han Liu Gong 劉恭 188–184 BC
Emperor Houshao of Han Liu Hong 劉弘 184–180 BC
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng 劉恆 179–157 BC Hòuyuán 後元 163–156 BC Wendi 文帝 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi 劉啟 156–141 BC Zhōngyuán 中元 149–143 BC Jingdi 景帝
Hòuyuán 後元 143–141 BC
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che 劉徹 140–87 BC Jiànyuán 建元 140–135 BC Wudi 武帝 Shizong 世宗
Yuánguāng 元光 134–129 BC
Yuánshuò 元朔 128–123 BC
Yuánshòu 元狩 122–117 BC
Yuándǐng 元鼎 116–111 BC
Yuánfēng 元封 110–105 BC
Tàichū 太初 104–101 BC
Tiānhàn 天漢 100–97 BC
Tàishǐ 太始 96–93 BC
Zhēnghé 征和 92–89 BC
Hòuyuán 後元 88–87 BC
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 86–74 BC Shǐyuán 始元 86–80 BC Zhaodi 昭帝 Zhōngzōng 中宗
Yuánfèng 元鳳 80–75 BC
Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC
Marquis of Haihun Liu He 劉賀 74 BC Marquis of Haihun 海昏侯
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Xun 劉詢 73–49 BC Běnshǐ 本始 73–70 BC Xuandi 宣帝 Zhōngzhōng 中宗
Dìjié 地節 69–66 BC
Yuánkāng 元康 65–61 BC
Shénjué 神爵 61–58 BC
Wǔfèng 五鳳 57–54 BC
Gānlù 甘露 53–50 BC
Huánglóng 黃龍 49 BC
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi 劉奭 48–33 BC Chūyuán 初元 48–44 BC Yuandi (Primal Emperor) 元帝
Yǒngguāng 永光 43–39 BC
Jiànzhāo 建昭 38–34 BC
Jìngníng 竟寧 33 BC
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao 劉驁 32–7 BC Jiànshǐ 建始 32–28 BC Chengdi 成帝
Hépíng 河平 28–25 BC
Yángshuò 陽朔 24–21 BC
Hóngjiā 鴻嘉 20–17 BC
Yǒngshǐ 永始 16–13 BC
Yuányán 元延 12–9 BC
Suīhé 綏和 8–7 BC
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin 劉欣 6–1 BC Jiànpíng 建平 6–3 BC Aidi 哀帝
Yuánshòu 元壽 2–1 BC
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan 劉衎 1 BC – 5 AD Yuánshǐ 元始 1 BC – 5 AD Pingdi 平帝
Ruzi Ying1 Liu Ying 劉嬰 6–8 Jùshè 居攝 6 – Oct. 8 Ruzi Ying 孺子嬰
Chūshǐ 初始 Nov. 8 – Dec. 8
Xin dynasty (AD 9–23)
Wang Mang Wang Mang 王莽 9–23 Shǐjiànguó 始建國 9–13
Tiānfēng 天鳳 14–19
Dìhuáng 地皇 20–23
Han dynasty continued
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan 劉玄 23–25 Gēngshǐ 更始 23–25 Prince Wushun of Huaiyang 淮阳武順王
Eastern Han dynasty (25–220)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu 劉秀 25–57 Jiànwǔ 建武 25–56 Guangwudi 光武帝 Shizu 世祖
Jiànwǔzhōngyuán 建武中元 56–57
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang 劉莊 58–75 Yǒngpíng 永平 58–75 Mingdi 明帝 Xíanzōng 顯宗
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da 劉炟 76–88 Jiànchū 建初 76–84 Zhangdi 章帝 Suzong 肅宗
Yuánhé 元和 84–87
Zhānghé 章和 87–88
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao 劉肇 89–105 Yǒngyuán 永元 89–105 Hedi 和帝 Muzong 穆宗
Yuánxīng 元興 105
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long 劉隆 106 Yánpíng 延平 9 months in 106 Shangdi 殤帝
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu 劉祜 106–125 Yǒngchū 永初 107–113 Andi 安帝 Gongzong 恭宗
Yuánchū 元初 114–120
Yǒngníng 永寧 120–121
Jiànguāng 建光 121–122
Yánguāng 延光 122–125
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi 劉懿 125 Shaodi 少帝
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao 劉保 125–144 Yǒngjiàn 永建 126–132 Shundi 順帝 Jingzong 敬宗
Yángjiā 陽嘉 132–135
Yǒnghé 永和 136–141
Hàn'ān 漢安 142–144
Jiànkāng 建康 144
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing 劉炳 144–145 Yōngxī 永嘉 145 Chongdi 沖帝
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan 劉纘 145–146 Běnchū 本初 146 Zhidi 質帝
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi 劉志 146–168 Jiànhé 建和 147–149 Huandi 桓帝 Weizong 威宗
Hépíng 和平 150
Yuánjiā 元嘉 151–153
Yǒngxīng 永興 153–154
Yǒngshòu 永壽 155–158
Yánxī 延熹 158–167
Yǒngkāng 永康 167
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong 劉宏 168–189 Jiànníng 建寧 168–172 Lingdi 靈帝
Xīpíng 熹平 172–178
Guānghé 光和 178–184
Zhōngpíng 中平 184–189
Prince of Hongnong Liu Bian 劉辯 189 Guīngxī 光熹 189 Shaodi 少帝
Zhàoníng 昭寧 189
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie 劉協 189–220 Yǒnghàn 永漢 189 Xiandi 獻帝
Chūpíng 初平 190–193
Xīngpíng 興平 194–195
Jiàn'ān 建安 196–220
Yánkāng 延康 220
1 — Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD.

Three Kingdoms Period (三国时代) (220 – 280)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Courtesy name Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Wei (魏) or Cao Wei (曹魏) (220–265)
Cao Pi Cáo Pī 曹丕 Zihuan 子桓 220–226 Huángchū 黃初 220–226 Wendi 文帝
Cao Rui Cáo Ruì 曹叡 Yuanzhong 元仲 226–239 Tàihé 太和 227–233 Mingdi 明帝
Qīnglóng 青龍 233–237
Jǐngchū 景初 237–239
Cao Fang Cáo Fāng 曹芳 Lanqing 蘭卿 239–254 Zhèngshǐ 正始 240–249 "Duke Li of Shaoling" 邵陵厲公
Jiāpíng 嘉平 249–254
Cao Mao Cáo Máo 曹髦 Yanshi 彥士 254–260 Zhèngyuán 正元 254–256
Gānlù 甘露 256–260
Cao Huan Cáo Huàn 曹奐 Jingming 景明 260–265 Jǐngyuán 景元 260–264 Yuandi 元帝
Xiánxī 咸熙 264–265
Shu (蜀) or Shu Han (蜀漢) (221–263)
Liu Bei Liú Bèi 劉備 Xuande 玄德 221–223 Zhāngwǔ 章武 221–223 Zhaoliedi 昭烈帝
Liu Shan Liú Shàn 劉禪 Gongsi 公嗣 223–263 Jiànxīng 建興 223–237 Xiaohuaidi 後主
Yánxī 延熙 238–257
Jǐngyào 景耀 258–263
Yánxīng 炎興 263
Wu (吳) or Dong (Eastern) Wu (東吳) (222–280)
Sun Quan Sūn Quán 孫權 Zhongmou 仲謀 222–252 Huángwǔ 黃武 222–229 Wu Dadi (Great Emperor of Wu) 吳大帝
Huánglóng 黃龍 229–231
Jiāhé 嘉禾 232–238
Chìwū 赤烏 238–251
Tàiyuán 太元 251–252
Shénfèng 神鳳 252
Sun Liang Sūn Liàng 孫亮 Ziming 子明 252–258 Jiànxīng 建興 252–253
Wǔfèng 五鳳 254–256
Tàipíng 太平 256–258
Sun Xiu Sūn Xiū 孫休 Zilie 子烈 258–264 Yǒngān 永安 258–264 Jingdi 景帝
Sun Hao Sūn Hào 孫皓 Yuanzong 元宗 264–280 Yuánxīng 元興 264–265
Gānlù 甘露 265–266
Bǎodǐng 寶鼎 266–269
Jiànhéng 建衡 269–271
Fènghuáng 鳳凰 272–274
Tiāncè 天冊 275–276
Tiānxǐ 天璽 276
Tiānjì 天紀 277–280

Jin dynasty (晉朝) (265–420)

Jin.jpg

Chinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name

Name most commonly known by Personal Names Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號)
and their corresponding range of years
Posthumous Names
(Shi Hao 諡號)
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號)
Western Jin dynasty (265–317)
Emperor Wu of Jin Sīmǎ Yán 司馬炎 265–290 Tàishǐ 泰始 265–274 Wudi 武帝 Shizu 世祖
Xiánníng 咸寧 275–280
Tàikāng 太康 280–289
Tàixī 太熙 290
Emperor Hui of Jin Sīmǎ Zhōng 司馬衷 290–306 Yǒngxī 永熙 290 Huidi 惠帝
Yǒngpīng 永平 291
Yuánkāng 元康 291–299
Yǒngkāng 永康 300–301
Yǒngníng 永寧 301–302
Tàiān 太安 302–303
Yǒngān 永安 304
Jiànwǔ 建武 304
Yǒngān 永安 304
Yǒngxīng 永興 304–306
Guāngxī 光熙 306
Emperor Huai of Jin Sīmǎ Chì 司馬熾 307–313 Yǒngjiā 永嘉 307–313 Huaidi 懷帝
Emperor Min of Jin Sīmǎ Yè 司馬鄴 313–317 Jiànxīng 建興 313–317 Mindi 愍帝
Eastern Jin dynasty (317–420)
Emperor Yuan of Jin Sīmǎ Ruì 司馬睿 317–322 Jiànwǔ 建武 317–318 Yuandi 元帝 Zhōngzōng 中宗
Dàxīng 大興 318–321
Yǒngchāng 永昌 321–322
Emperor Míng of Jin Sīmǎ Shào 司馬紹 322–325 Yǒngchāng 永昌 322–323 Mingdi 明帝 Suzu 肅祖
Tàiníng 太寧 323–325
Emperor Cheng of Jin Sīmǎ Yǎn 司馬衍 325–342 Tàiníng 太寧 325 Chengdi 成帝 Xianzong 顯宗
Xiánhé 咸和 326–334
Xiánkāng 咸康 335–342
Emperor Kang of Jin Sīmǎ Yuè 司馬岳 342–344 Jiànyuán 建元 343–344 Kangdi 康帝
Emperor Mu of Jin Sima Dān 司馬聃 345–361 Yǒnghé 永和 345–356 Mudi 穆帝 Xianzong 顯宗
Shēngpíng 升平 357–361
Emperor Ai of Jin Sīmǎ Pī 司馬丕 361–365 Lónghé 隆和 362–363 Aidi 哀帝
Xīngníng 興寧 363–365
Emperor Fei of Jin Sīmǎ Yì 司馬奕 365–371 Tàihé 太和 365–371 Feidi 廢帝
Emperor Jianwen of Jin Sīmǎ Yù 司馬昱 371–372 Xiánān 咸安 371–372 Jianwendi 簡文帝 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin Sīmǎ Yào 司馬曜 372–396 Níngkāng 寧康 373–375 Xiaowudi 孝武帝 Lièzōng 烈宗
Tàiyuán 太元 376–396
Emperor An of Jin Sīmǎ Dézōng 司馬德宗 396–418 Lóngān 隆安 397–401 Andi 安帝
Yuánxīng 元興 402–404
Yìxī 義熙 405–418
Emperor Gong of Jin Sīmǎ Déwén 司馬德文 419–420 Yuánxī 元熙 419–420 Gongdi 恭帝

Sixteen Kingdoms (十六国) (304 – 439)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Sovereigns in the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms
Personal Name Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號)
Han Zhao 漢趙 304–329 (addressed separately in traditional texts as Han (漢) and Qian (Former) Zhao (前趙))
Han (漢) (304–318)
Liu Yuan 劉淵 304–310 Jiànxīng 建興 304–307 Guangwendi 光文帝 Gao Zu 高祖
Yǒngfèng 永鳳 308
Héruì 河瑞 309
Guāngxīng 光興 310
Liu He 劉和 7 days in 310 Prince Liang 梁王
Liu Cong 劉聰 310–318 Zhaowudi 昭武帝 Lie Zong 烈宗
Jiāpíng 嘉平 311–315
Jiànyuán 建元 316
Línjiā 麟嘉 317–318
Liu Can 劉粲 a month and some days in 318 Hànchāng (until renaming as Former Zhao) 漢昌 318 Yindi 隱帝
Qian (Former) Zhao (前趙) (318–329)
Liu Yao 劉曜 318–329 Guāngchū (until conquest by Later Zhao) 光初 318–329 Prince Hòu 後主
Hou (Later) Zhao (后趙) (329–351)
Shi Le 石勒 319–333 Prince Zhao 趙王 319–327 Mingdi 明帝 Gaozu 高祖
Tàihé 太和 328–329
Jiànpíng 建平 330–332
Yánxī 延熙 333
Shi Hong 石弘 333–334 Yánxī 延熙 333 Prince Haiyang 海陽王
Jiànwǔ 建武 334
Shi Hu 石虎 334–349 Jiànwǔ 建武 335–348 Wudi 武帝 Taizu 太祖
Taìníng 太寧 349
Shi Shi 石世 73 days in 349 Prince Qiao 譙王
Shi Zun 石遵 183 days in 349 Prince Pangcheng 彭城王
Shi Jian 石鑒 103 days within 349–350 Qīnglóng 青龍 (changed mid-year) Prince Yiyang 義陽王
Shi Zhi 石祗 350–351 Yǒngníng 永寧 350–351 (until Ran Min's coup) Prince Xinxing 新興王
Cheng Han (成漢) (303–347) (addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng and Han)
Cheng (303–338)
Li Te 李特 303 Jiànchū

or

Jǐngchū

建初

or

景初

303 Jingdi 景帝 Shízu
or
Shìzu
始祖

or

世祖

Li Liu 李流 several months in 303 Prince Qin Wen 秦文王
Li Xiong 李雄 303–334 Wudi 武帝 Taizong 太宗
Jiànxīng 建興 304–305
Yànpīng 晏平 306–310
Yùhéng 玉衡 311–334
Li Ban 李班 7 months in 334 Aidi 哀帝
Li Qi 李期 334–338 Hànxīng 漢興 337–338 Duke You 幽公
Han (338–347)
Li Shou 李壽 338–343 Hànxīng (漢興) 338–343 (continuation) 漢興 338–343 (continuation) Zhaowendi 昭文帝 Zhongzong 中宗
Li Shi 李勢 343–347 Tàihé 太和 344–345 Marquis Guiyi 歸義侯
Jiāníng 嘉寧 346–347 (until conquest by Jin)
Qian (Former) Yan (前燕) (337–370)
Murong Huang
慕容皝
337–348 Yànwáng (燕王) 337–348 Emperor Wenming
文明帝
Taizu Emperor
太祖
Murong Jun
慕容俊
348–360 Yànwáng (燕王) 348 (continuation)

Yànyuán (燕元) 349–351
Yuánxǐ (元璽) 352–357
Shēngpíng (升平) 357 (as vassal of Jin)
Guāngshòu (光壽) 357–359
Jiànxī (建熙) 360

Emperor Jingzhao
景昭帝
Liezong Emperor
烈宗)
Murong Wei
慕容暐
360–370 Jiànxī (建熙) 360–365 (continuation)

Jiànyuán (建元) 366–370

Prince You
幽帝
Hou (Later) Yan (后燕) (384–407)
Murong Chui
慕容垂
384–396 Yànwáng (燕王) 384–385

Jianxing (建興) 386–396

Emperor Wucheng
武成帝
Shizu Emperor
世祖
Murong Bao
慕容寶
396–398 Yongkang (永康 yǒng kāng) 396–398 Emperor Huimin
惠愍帝
Liezong Emperor
烈宗
Murong Sheng
慕容盛
398–401 Jianping (建平) 398

Changle (長樂) 399–401

Emperor Zhaowu
昭武帝
Zhongzong Emperor
中宗
Murong Xi
慕容熙
401–407 Guangshi (光始) 401–406

Jianshi (建始) 407

Emperor Zhaowen
昭文帝
Nan (Southern) Yan (南燕) (398–410)
Murong De
慕容德
398–405 Yanwang (燕王) 398–400

Jianping (建平) 400–405

Emperor Xianwu
獻武帝
Shi Zong
世宗
Murong Chao
慕容超
405–410 Taishang (太上) 405–410 Last Emperor
後主
Bei (Northern) Yan (北燕) (407–436)
Gao Yun
高雲/慕容雲
407–409 Zhengshi (正始) 407–409 Emperor Huiyi
惠懿帝
Feng Ba
馮跋
409–430 Taiping (太平) 409–430 Emperor Wencheng
文成帝
Taizu
太祖
Feng Hong
馮弘
430–436 Daxing (大興) 430–436 Emperor Zhaocheng
昭成帝
Qian (Former) Liang (前凉) (320–376)
Zhang Mao
張茂
320–324 Jianxing (建興) 320–324 Duke Cheng
成公
Zhang Jun
張駿
324–346 Jianxing (建興) 324–346 Duke Zhongcheng
忠成公
Zhang Chonghua
張重華
346–353 Jianxing (建興) 346–353 Duke Huan
桓公
Zhang Yaoling
張曜靈
3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Jianxing (建興) 353 Duke Ai
哀公
Zhang Zuo
張祚
353–355 Jianxing (建興) 353–354

Heping (和平) 354–355

Prince Wei
威王
Zhang Xuanjing
張玄靚
355–363 Jianxing (建興) 355–361

Shengping (升平) 361–363

Duke Jingdao
敬悼公 or
Duke Chong
沖公
Zhang Tianxi
張天錫
364–376 Shengping (升平) 364–376 Duke Dao
悼公
Hou (Later) Liang (后凉) (386–403)
Lü Guang
呂光
386–399 Taian (太安) 386–389

Linjia (麟嘉 389–396
Longfei (龍飛) 396–399

King Yiwu
懿武王
Taizu
太祖
Lü Shao
呂紹
399 Longfei (龍飛) 399 King Yin
隱王
Lü Zuan
呂纂
399–401 Xianning (咸寧) 399–401 King Ling
靈王
Lü Long
呂隆
401–403 Shending (神鼎) 401–403 Duke Shangshu
尚書公 or
Duke Jiankang
建康公
Nan (Southern) Liang (南凉) (397–414)
Tufa Wugu
禿髮烏孤
397–399 Taichu (太初) 397–399 King Wu
武王
Lie Zu
烈祖
Tufa Lilugu
禿髮利鹿孤
399–402 Jianhe (建和) 399–402 King Kang
康王
Tufa Rutan
禿髮傉檀
402–414 Hongchang (弘昌) 402–404

Jiaping (嘉平) 409–414

King Jǐng
景王 or
King Jìng
敬王
Bei (Northern) Liang (北凉) (397–439) (as Kings of Gaochang (442–460))
Duan Ye
段業
397–401 Shenxi (神璽) 397–399

Tianxi (天璽) 399–401

Did not exist
Juqu Mengxun
沮渠蒙遜
401–433 Yongan (永安) 401–412

Xuanshi (玄始) 412–428
Chengxuan (承玄) 428–430
Yihe (義和) 430–433

King Wuxuan
武宣王
Tai zu
太祖
Juqu Mujian
沮渠牧犍
433–439 Yonghe (永和) 433–439 King Ai
哀王
Juqu Wuhui
沮渠無諱
442–444 Chengping (承平) 442–443

Qianshou (乾壽) 443–444

Did not exist
Juqu Anzhou
沮渠安周
444–460 Chengping (承平) 444–460 Did not exist
Xi (Western) Liang (西凉) (400–421)
Li Gao
李暠
400–417 Gengzi (庚子) 400–405

Jianchu (建初) 406–416

King Wuzhao
武昭王
Tai zu
太祖
Li Xin
李歆
417–420 Jiaxing (嘉興) 417–420 Later King
後主
Li Xun
李恂
420–421 Yongjian (永建) 420–421 Last King
後主
Qian (Former) Qin (前秦) (351–394)
Fu Jian
苻健
351–355 Huangshi (皇始) 351–355 Emperor Jing Ming
景明帝
Gao Zu
高祖
Fu Sheng
苻生
355–357 Shouguang (壽光) 355–357 King Li
厲王
Fu Jian
苻堅
357–385 Yongxing (永興) 357–359

Ganlu (甘露) 359–364
Jianyuan (建元) 365–385

Emperor Xuan Zhao
宣昭帝
Shi Zu
世祖
Fu Pi
苻丕
385–386 Taian (太安) 385–386 Emperor Ai Ping
哀平帝
Fu Deng
苻登
386–394 Taichu (太初) 385–394 Emperor Gao
高帝
Tai Zong
太宗
Fu Chong
苻崇
several months in 394 Yanchu (延初) 394 Last Emperor
後主
Hou (Later) Qin (后秦) (384–417)
Yao Chang
姚萇
384–393 Baique (白雀) 384–386

Jianchu (建初) 386–393

Emperor Wu Zhao
武昭帝
Tai zu
太祖
Yao Xing
姚興
394–416 Huangchu (皇初) 394–399

Hongshi (弘始) 399–416

Emperor Wen Huan
文桓帝
Gao Zu
高祖
Yao Hong
姚泓
416–417 Yonghe (永和) 416–417 Last Emperor
後主
Xi (Western) Qin (西秦) (385–400, 409–431)
Qifu Guoren
乞伏國仁
385–388 Jianyi (建義) 385–388 King Xuanlie
宣烈王
Lie Zu
烈祖
Qifu Gangui
乞伏乾歸
388–400, 409–412 Taichu (太初) 388–400

Gengshi (更始) 409–412

King Wu Yuan
武元王
Gao Zu
高祖
Qifu Chipan
乞伏熾磐
412–428 Yongkang (永康) 412–419

Jianhong (建弘) 420–428

King Wen Zhao
文昭王
Tai Zu
太祖
Qifu Mumo
乞伏暮末
428–431 Yonghong (永弘) 428–431 Last King
後主
Xia (夏) (407–431)
Helian Bobo
赫連勃勃
407–425 Longsheng (龍升) 407–413

Fengxiang (鳳翔) 413–418
Changwu (昌武) 418–419
Zhenxing (真興) 419–425

Emperor Wulie
武烈帝
Shi Zu
世祖
Helian Chang
赫連昌
425–428 Chengguang (承光) 425–428 Prince Qin
秦王
Helian Ding
赫連定
428–431 Shengguang (勝光) 425–428 Prince Pingyuan
平原王

Convention: use personal name

Other sovereignties traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms
Personal Names Reign Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)
Ran Wei 冉魏 350–352 (addressed as Wei in traditional texts)
Ran Min
冉閔
350–352 Wudao Tianwang (Wudao Heavenly King)

武悼天王

Yongxing (永興) 350–352
Xi (Western) Yan 西燕 384–394
Murong Hong
慕容泓
384 Emperor Wei
威帝
Yanxing (燕興) 384
Murong Chong
慕容沖
384–386 Did not exist Yanxing (燕興) 384–385

Gengshi (更始) 385–386

Duan Sui
段隨
386 Did not exist Changping (昌平) 386
Murong Yi
慕容顗
386 Did not exist Jianming (建明) 386
Murong Yao
慕容瑤
386 Did not exist Jianping (建平) 386
Murong Zhong
慕容忠
386 Did not exist Jianwu (建武) 386
Murong Yong
慕容永
386–394 Did not exist Zhongxing (中興) 386–394
Shu 蜀 405–413
Qiao Zong
譙縱
405–413 King Chengdu
成都王
Did not exist
Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe 匈奴支系鐵弗部首領 (mid-3rd century – 391)
Liu Qubei
劉去卑
mid-3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Liu Gaoshengyuan
劉誥升爰
mid-3rd century – late 3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Liu Hu
劉虎
early 4th century (309?) – 341 Did not exist Did not exist
Liu Wuheng
劉務恒
341–356 Did not exist Did not exist
Liu Eloutou
劉閼陋頭
356–358 Did not exist Did not exist
Liu Xiwuqi
劉悉勿祈
358–359 Did not exist Did not exist
Liu Weichen
劉衛辰
359–391 Did not exist Did not exist
Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe 宇文部鮮卑首領 (late-3rd century – 345)
Yuwen Mohuai
宇文莫槐
late 3rd century – 293 Did not exist Did not exist
Yuwen Puhui
宇文普回 or
Yuwen Pubo
宇文普撥
293 – late 3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Yuwen Qiubuqin
宇文丘不勤
late 3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Yuwen Mogui
宇文莫圭
late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?) Did not exist Did not exist
Yuwen Xiduguan
宇文悉獨官
early 3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Yuwen Qidegui
宇文乞得歸
early 3rd century – 333 Did not exist Did not exist
Yuwen Yidougui
宇文逸豆歸
333–345 Did not exist Did not exist
Dukes of Liaoxi 遼西公 303–338
Duan Wuwuchen
段務勿塵
303 – 310 or 311 Did not exist Did not exist
Duan Jilujuan
段疾陸眷
310 or 311 – 318 Did not exist Did not exist
Duan Shefuchen
段涉復辰
318 Did not exist Did not exist
Duan Pidi
段匹磾
318–321 Did not exist Did not exist
Duan Mopei
段末柸
318–325 Did not exist Did not exist
Duan Ya
段牙
325 Did not exist Did not exist
Duan Liao
段遼
326–338 Did not exist Did not exist
Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping (late 2nd century- mid-6th century (555?))
First Phase of Chouchi 前仇池 (late 2nd century – 371)
Yang Teng
楊騰
late 2nd century- early 3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Ju
楊駒
early 3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Qianwan
楊千萬
early 3rd century – mid-3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Feilong
楊飛龍
mid-3rd century – late 3rd century Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Maosou
楊茂搜
late 3rd century – 317 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Nandi
楊難敵
317–334 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Yi
楊毅
334–337 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Chu
楊初
337–355 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Guo
楊國
355–356 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Jun
楊俊
356–360 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Shi
楊世
360–370 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Cuan
楊篡
370–371 Did not exist Did not exist
Second Phase of Chouchi 后仇池 385–473
Yang Ding
楊定
385–394 King Wǔ
武王
Did not exist
Yang Sheng
楊盛
394–425 King Huìwén
惠文王
Did not exist
Yang Xuan
楊玄
425–429 King Xiàozhāo
孝昭王
Did not exist
Yang Baozong
楊保宗
429 and 443 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Nandang
楊難當
429–441 Did not exist Jianyi (建義) 436–440
Yang Baochi
楊保熾
442–443 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Wende
楊文德
443–454 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Yuanhe
楊元和
455–466 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Sengsi
楊僧嗣
466–473 Did not exist Did not exist
Kings of Wuxing 武興王 473–506 and 534–555
Yang Wendu
楊文度
473–477 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Wenhong
楊文弘
477–482 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Houqi
楊後起
482–486 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Jishi
楊集始
482–503 An Wang
安王
Did not exist
Yang Shaoxian
楊紹先
503–506, 534–535 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Zhihui
楊智慧
535–545 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Bixie
楊辟邪
545–553 Did not exist Did not exist
Note: Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person
Kings of Yinping 陰平王 477 – mid-6th century
Yang Guangxiang
楊廣香
477–483? Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Jiong
楊炯
483–495 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Chongzu
楊崇祖
495-before 502 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Mengsun
楊孟孫
before 502–511 Did not exist Did not exist
Yang Ding
楊定
511- ? Did not exist Did not exist
Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 索頭部鮮卑族首領 219–377 (as Kings of Dai 代王 305?–377)
The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.
Note: All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as 王(wáng) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.
Tuoba Liwei
拓拔力微
219–277 King Shényuán
神元王
Did not exist
Note: His temple name was Shi Zu 始祖. He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name
Tuoba Xilu
拓拔悉鹿
277–286 King Zhāng
章王
Did not exist
Tuoba Chuo
拓拔綽
286–293 King Píng
平王
Did not exist
Tuoba Fu
拓拔弗
293–294 King Sī
思王
Did not exist
Tuoba Luguan
拓拔祿官
294–307 King Zhāo
昭王
Did not exist
Tuoba Yituo
拓拔猗㐌
295–305 Emperor Huán
桓帝
Did not exist
Tuoba Yilu
拓拔猗盧
295–316 King Mù
穆王
Did not exist
Tuoba Liugen
拓跋六根
316 Did not exist Did not exist
Tuoba Pugen
拓拔普根
316 Did not exist Did not exist
Tuoba Shisheng
拓跋始生
316 Did not exist Did not exist
Tuoba Yulü
拓拔鬱律
316–321 King Píngwén
平文王
Did not exist
Tuoba Heru
拓拔賀傉
321–325 King Huì
惠王
Did not exist
Tuoba Hena
拓拔紇那
325–329 and 335–337 King Yáng
煬王
Did not exist
Tuoba Yihuai
拓拔翳槐
329–335 and 337–338 King Liè
烈王
Did not exist
Tuoba Shiyijian
拓拔什翼健
338–377 King Zhāochéng
昭成王
Jianguo (建國) 338–377

Northern and Southern Dynasties (南北朝) (420 – 589)

Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
Northern dynasties 北朝
Bei (Northern) Wei dynasty 北魏 386–535
Convention: Bei (Northern) Wei + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Northern Wei in English
The Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 (yuán) during the reign of Xiaowen Di in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well.
Emperor Daowu
道武帝
Tuoba Gui
拓拔珪
386–409 Dengguo (登國) 386–396
Huangshi (皇始) 396–398
Tianxing (天興) 398–404
Tianci (天賜) 404–409
Emperor Mingyuan
明元帝
Tuoba Si
拓拔嗣
409–423 Yongxing (永興) 409–413
Shenrui (神瑞) 414–416
Taichang (泰常) 416–423
Emperor Taiwu
太武帝
Tuoba Tao
拓拔燾
424–452 Shiguang (始光) 424–428
Shenjia (神䴥) 428–431
Yanhe (延和) 432–434
Taiyan (太延) 435–440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君) 440–451
Zhengping (正平) 451–452
Prince Nan'an
南安王
Tuoba Yu
拓拔余
452 Chengping (承平) 452
Emperor Wencheng
文成帝
Tuoba Jun
拓拔濬
452–465 Xingan (興安) 452–454
Xingguang (興光) 454–455
Tai'an (太安) 455–459
Heping (和平) 460–465
Emperor Xianwen
獻文帝
Tuoba Hong
拓拔弘
466–471 Tian'an (天安) 466–467
Huangxing (皇興) 467–471
Emperor Xiaowen
孝文帝
Yuan Hong (Tuoba Hong)
元宏 (拓跋宏)
471–499 Yanxing (延興) 471–476
Chengming (承明) 476
Taihe (太和) 477–499
Emperor Xuanwu
宣武帝
Yuan Ke
元恪
499–515 Jingming (景明) 500–503
Zhengshi (正始) 504–508
Yongping (永平) 508–512
Yanchang (延昌) 512–515
Emperor Xiaoming
孝明帝
Yuan Xu
元詡
516–528 Xiping (熙平) 516–518
Shengui (神龜) 518–520
Zhengguang (正光) 520–525
Xiaochang (孝昌) 525–527
Wutai (武泰) 528
The Young Emperor
幼主
Yuan Zhao
元釗
528 None
Emperor Xiaozhuang
孝莊帝
Yuan Ziyou
元子攸
528–530 Jianyi (建義) 528
Yong'an (永安) 528–530
Prince Changguang
長廣王
Yuan Ye
元曄
530–531 Jianming (建明) 530–531
Emperor Jiemin
節閔帝
Yuan Gong
元恭
531–532 Putai (普泰) 531–532
Prince Anding
安定王
Yuan Lang
元朗
531–532 Zhongxing (中興) 531–532
Emperor Xiaowu
孝武帝 or
Emperor Chu
出帝
Yuan Xiu
元脩
532–535 Taichang (太昌) 532
Yongxing (永興) 532
Yongxi (永熙) 532–535
Dong (Eastern) Wei dynasty 東魏 534–550
Convention: Dong (Eastern) Wei + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Eastern Wei in English
Emperor Xiaojing
孝靜帝
Yuan Shanjian
元善見
534–550 Tianping (天平) 534–537
Yuanxiang (元象) 538–539
Xinghe (興和) 539–542
Wuding (武定) 543–550
Bei (Northern) Qi dynasty 北齊 550–577
Convention: Bei (Northern) Qi + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Northern Qi in English
Emperor Wenxuan
文宣帝
Gao Yang
高洋
550–559 Tianbao (天保) 550–559
Emperor Fei
廢帝
Gao Yin
高殷
559–560 Qianming (乾明) 560
Emperor Xiaozhao
孝昭帝
Gao Yan
高演
560–561 Huangjian (皇建) 560–561
Emperor Wucheng
武成帝
Gao Zhan
高湛
561–565 Taining (太寧) 561–562
Heqing (河清) 562–565
Last Emperor
後主
Gao Wei
高緯
565–577 Tiantong (天統) 565–569
Wuping (武平) 570–576
Longhua (隆化) 576
The Young Emperor
幼主
Gao Heng
高恆
577 Chengguang (承光) 577
Prince Fanyang
范陽王
Gao Shaoyi
高紹義
577–579? Did not exist
Xi (Western) Wei dynasty 西魏 535–556
Convention: Xi (Western) Wei + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Western Wei in English
Emperor Wen
文帝
Yuan Baoju
元寶炬
535–551 Datong (大統) 535–551
Emperor Fei
廢帝
Yuan Qin
元欽
552–554 Did not exist
Emperor Gong
恭帝
Tuoba Kuo
拓拔廓
554–556 Did not exist
Bei (Northern) Zhou dynasty 北周 557–581
Convention: Bei (Northern) Zhou + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Northern Zhou in English
Emperor Xiaomin
孝閔帝
Yuwen Jue
宇文覺
557 Did not exist
Emperor Ming
明帝 or
Emperor Xiaoming
孝明帝
Yuwen Yu
宇文毓
557–560 Wucheng (武成) 559–560
Emperor Wu
武帝
Yuwen Yong
宇文邕
561–578 Baoding (保定) 560–565
Tianhe (天和) 566–572
Jiande (建德) 572–578
Xuanzheng (宣政) 578
Emperor Xuan
宣帝
Yuwen Yun
宇文贇
578–579 Dacheng (大成 dà chéng) 579
Emperor Jing
靜帝
Yuwen Chan
宇文闡
579–581 Daxiang (大象) 579–581
Dading (大定) 581
Southern dynasties 南朝 420–589
Liu Song dynasty
劉宋 (420–479)
Convention: Song + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Liu Song in English. Liu Yu is sometimes referred using personal name.
Emperor Wu
武帝
Liu Yu
劉裕
420–422 Yongchu (永初) 420–422
Emperor Shao
少帝
Liu Yifu
劉義符
423–424 Jingping (景平) 423–424
Emperor Wen
文帝
Liu Yilong
劉義隆
424–453 Yuanjia (元嘉) 424–453
Emperor Xiaowu
孝武帝
Liu Jun
劉駿
454–464 Xiaojian (元嘉) 454–456

Daming (大明) 457–464

Emperor Qian Fei
前廢帝
Liu Ziye
劉子業
465 Yongguang (永光) 465

Jinghe (景和) 465

Emperor Ming
明帝
Liu Yu
劉彧
465–472 Taishi (泰始) 465–471

Taiyu (泰豫) 472

Emperor Hou Fei
後廢帝 orPrince Cangwu
蒼梧王
Liu Yu
劉昱
473–477 Yuanhui (元徽) 473–477
Emperor Shun
順帝
Liu Zhun
劉準
477–479 Shengming (昇明) 477–479
Southern Qi dynasty 南齊 479–502
Convention: Qi + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Southern Qi in English
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi
Gao Di 高帝
Xiao Daocheng


蕭道成

479–482 Jianyuan (建元) 479–482
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi
Wu Di 武帝
Xiao Ze
蕭賾
482–493 Yongming (永明) 483–493
Prince of Yulin
Yulin Wang 鬱林王
Xiao Zhaoye
蕭昭業
493–494 Longchang (隆昌) 494
Prince of Hailing
Hailing Wang 海陵王
Xiao Zhaowen
蕭昭文
494 Yanxing (延興) 494
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi
Ming Di 明帝
Xiao Luan
蕭鸞
494–498 Jianwu (建武) 494–498
Yongtai (永泰) 498
Marquess of Donghun
Donghun Hou 東昏侯
Xiao Baojuan
蕭寶卷
499–501 Yongyuan (永元) 499–501
Emperor He of Southern Qi
He Di 和帝
Xiao Baorong
蕭寶融
501–502 Zhongxing (中興) 501–502
Liang dynasty 梁 (502–557)
Convention: Liang + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Liang in English
Emperor Wu of Liang
Wu Di 武帝
Xiao Yan
蕭衍
502–549 Tianjian (天監) 502–519
Putong (普通) 520–527
Datong (大通) 527–529
Zhongdatong (中大通) 529–534
Datong (大同) 535–546
Zhongdatong (中大同) 546–547
Taiqing (太清) 547–549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang
Jianwen Di 簡文帝
Xiao Gang
蕭綱
549–551 Dabao (大寶) 550–551
Prince of Yuzhang
Yuzhang Wang 豫章王
Xiao Dong
蕭棟
551–552 Tianzheng (天正) 551–552
Emperor Yuan of Liang
Yuan Di 元帝
Xiao Yi
蕭繹
552–555 Chengsheng (承聖) 552–555
Marquess of Zhenyang
Zhenyang Hou 貞陽侯
Xiao Yuanming
蕭淵明
555 Tiancheng (天成) 555
Emperor Jing of Liang
Jing Di 敬帝
Xiao Fangzhi


蕭方智

555–557 Shaotai (紹泰) 555–556
Taiping (太平) 556–557
Chen dynasty 陳 557–589
Convention: Chen + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Chen in English
Emperor Wu of Chen
Wu Di 武帝
Chen Baxian
陳霸先
557–559 Yongding (永定) 557–559
Emperor Wen of Chen
Wen Di 文帝
Chen Qian
陳蒨
559–566 Tianjia (天嘉) 560–566
Tiankang (天康) 566
Emperor Fei of Chen
Fei Di 廢帝
Chen Bozong
陳伯宗
566–568 Guangda (光大) 566–568
Emperor Xuan of Chen
Xuan Di 宣帝
Chen Xu
陳頊
569–582 Taijian (太建) 569–582
Houzhu
後主
Chen Shubao
陳叔寶
583–589 Zhide (至德) 583–586
Zhenming (禎明) 587–589
Nan (Southern) Liang dynasty 南梁 555–587
Personal Names Reign Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號)
Convention: Nan (Southern)/Xi (Western) Liang + posthumous name in Chinese, or posthumous name of Western Liang in English
Note: some historians set Nan Liang as a continuation of the Liang dynasty since it was founded by descendants of the Xiao's, the ruling family of the Liang dynasty.
Xiao Cha
蕭詧
555–562 Emperor Xuan
宣帝
Dading (大定) 555–562 Zhong Zong
中宗
Xiao Kui
蕭巋
562–585 Emperor Xiaoming
孝明帝
Tianbao (天保) 562–585 Shi Zong
世宗
Xiao Cong
蕭琮
585–587 Emperor XIaojing
孝靖帝 or

Duke Ju
莒公

Guangyun (廣運) 562–585 Did not exist

Sui dynasty (隋朝) (581 – 618)

Sui.jpg

Chinese convention: use "Sui" + posthumous name

Personal Names Reign Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) (and the corresponding range of years)
楊堅 Yáng Jiān 581–604 Emperor Wen 文帝(Wén Dì) Kāihuáng 開皇 581–600
Rénshòu 仁壽 601–604
楊廣 Yáng Guǎng 605–617 Emperor Yang 煬帝 (Yáng Dì) Dàyè 大業 605–617
楊侑 Yáng Yòu 617–618 Emperor Gong1 恭帝 Yìníng 義寧 617–618
楊浩 Yáng Hào 618 Prince Qin2
楊侗 Yáng Tóng 618–619 Huangtai Lord3 恭帝 (皇泰主) Huángtài 皇泰 618–619
1 — Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.
2 — Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (許) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.
3 — After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty 唐朝 (608 – 907) and Kingdom of Qi 齊國 (881 – 884)

Gebiet der Tang-Dynastie.jpg

Chinese convention: use "Tang" + temple name (except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong (唐玄宗) is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty (唐明皇))

Personal Name Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年号) and their corresponding range of years Temple Names (Miao Hao 庙号)
Lǐ Yuān

李渊

618–626 Wude (武德) 618–626 Emperor Gaozu (高祖)
Lǐ Shìmín

李世民

627–649 Zhenguan (貞觀) 627–649 Emperor Taizong (太宗)
Lǐ Zhì

李治

650–683 Yonghui (永徽) 650–655

Xianqing (顯慶) 656–661
Longshuo (龍朔) 661–663
Linde (麟德) 664–665
Qianfeng (乾封) 666–668
Zongzhang (總章) 668–670
Xianheng (咸亨) 670–674
Shangyuan (上元) 674–676
Yifeng (儀鳳) 676–679
Tiaolu (調露) 679–680
Yonglong (永隆) 680–681
Kaiyao (開耀) 681–682
Yongchun (永淳) 682–683
Hongdao (弘道) 683

Emperor Gaozong (高宗)
Li Xian

李显 or

Li Zhe

李哲

684, 705–710 Sisheng (嗣聖) 684

Shenlong (神龍) 705–707
Jinglong (景龍) 707–710

Emperor Zhongzong (中宗)
Li Dan

李旦

684–690, 710–712 Wenming (文明) 684–690

Jingyun (景雲) 710–711
Taiji (太極) 712
Yanhe (延和) 712

Emperor Ruizong (睿宗)
Wu Zhou Period (690 - 705)
Wǔ Zhào

武曌

690–705 Tianshou (天授) 690–692

Ruyi (如意) 692
Changshou (長壽) 692–694
Yanzai (延載) 694
Zhengsheng (證聖) 695
Tiancewansui (天冊萬歲) 695–696
Wansuidengfeng (萬歲登封) 696
Wansuitongtian (萬歲通天) 696–697
Shengong (神功) 697
Shengli (聖曆) 698–700
Jiushi (久視) 700
Dazu (大足) 701
Chang'an (長安) 701–705

Wu Zetian (武則天)

(no official temple name)

Continuation of Tang dynasty
Li Chongmao

李重茂

710 Tanglong (唐隆) 710 Emperor Shang (殤帝)1
Li Longji

李隆基

712–756 Xiantian (先天) 712–713

Kaiyuan (開元) 713–741
Tianbao (天寶) 742–756

Emperor Xuanzong (玄宗)
Li Heng

李亨

756–762 Jide (至德) 756–758

Qianyuan (乾元) 758–760
Shangyuan (上元) 760–761

Emperor Suzong (肅宗)
Li Yu

李豫

762–779 Baoying (寶應) 762–763

Guangde (廣德) 763–764
Yongtai (永泰) 765–766
Dali (大曆) 766–779

Emperor Daizong (代宗)
Li Gua

李适

780–805 Jianzhong (建中) 780–783

Xingyuan (興元) 784
Zhenyuan (貞元) 785–805

Emperor Dezong (德宗)
Li Song

李誦

805 Yongzhen (永貞) 805 Emperor Shunzong (順宗)
Li Chun

李純

806–820 Yuanhe (元和) 806–820 Emperor Xianzong (憲宗)
Li Heng

李恆

821–824 Changqing (長慶) 821–824 Emperor Muzong (穆宗)
Li Zhan

李湛

824–826 Baoli (寶曆) 824–826 Emperor Jingzong (敬宗)
Li Ang

李昂

826–840 Baoli (寶曆) 826

Dahe (大和) or Taihe (太和) 827–835
Kaicheng (開成) 836–840

Emperor Wenzong (文宗)
Li Yan

李炎

840–846 Huichang (會昌) 841–846 Emperor Wuzong (武宗)
Li Chen

李忱

846–859 Dachong (大中) 847–859 Emperor Xuanzong (宣宗)
Li Cui

李漼

859–873 Dachong (大中) 859

Xiantong (咸通) 860–873

Emperor Yizong (懿宗)
Li Xuan

李儇

873–888 Xiantong (咸通) 873–874

Qianfu (乾符) 874–879
Guangming (廣明) 880–881
Zhonghe (中和) 881–885
Guangqi (光啟) 885–888
Wende (文德) 888

Emperor Xizong (僖宗)
Coexistence of the Kingdom of Qi 齊國 (881–884) with Tang Dynasty 唐朝
Qi Dynasty Emperor Huang Chao (黃巢帝) Huang Chao (黃巢) 881-884 Wángbà (王霸) 878-880

Jīntǒng (金統) 881-884

End of the Kingdom of Qi 齊國 (881–884) and continuation of Tang Dynasty 唐朝
Li Ye

李曄

888–904 Longji (龍紀) 889

Dashun (大順) 890–891
Jingfu (景福) 892–893
Qianning (乾寧) 894–898
Guanghua (光化) 898–901
Tianfu (天復) 901–904
Tianyou (天佑) 904

Emperor Zhaozong (昭宗)
Li Zhu

李柷

904–907 Tianyou (天佑) 904–907 Emperor Ai (哀帝)1
or Emperor Zhaoxuan
(昭宣帝)1
1 — Shao Di 少帝, Ai Di >哀帝 and Zhaoxuan Di 昭宣帝 are posthumous names, not temple names. A new column for only three commonly used posthumous names was not be created since other Tang emperors are commonly referred using temple names.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十国) (907 – 960)

Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years
the Five Dynasties 五代
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Liang dynasty 后梁 907–923
Taizu

太祖

Emperor Xianwu (獻武) Zhū Wēn (朱溫) 907–912 Kaīpíng (開平) 907–911
Qiánhuà (乾化) 911–912
Zhu Yougui 朱友珪 912–913 Qiánhuà (乾化) 912–913
Fengli 913
Did not exist Final Emperor (末帝) Zhū Zhèn (朱瑱) 913–923 Qiánhuà (乾化) 913–915
Zhēnmíng (貞明) 915–921
Lóngdé (龍德) 921–923
Hou (Later) Tang dynasty 后唐 923–936
Emperor Zhuangzong
莊宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Cúnxù (李存勗) 923–926 Tongguang (同光) 923–926
Emperor Mingzong
明宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Lǐ Sìyuán (李嗣源) or Lǐ Dǎn (李亶) 926–933 Tiancheng (天成) 926–930

Changxing (長興) 930–933

Did not exist Emperor Min
閔帝
Lǐ Cónghòu (李從厚) 933–934 Yingshun (應順) 933–934
Did not exist Final Emperor
末帝
Lǐ Cóngkē (李從珂) 934–936 Qingtai (清泰) 934–936
Hou (Later) Jin dynasty 后晋 936–947
Emperor Gaozu 高祖 Not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jingtang (石敬瑭) 936–942 Tianfu (天福) 936–942
Did not exist Emperor Chu
出帝
Shi Chonggui (石重貴) 942–947 Tianfu (天福) 942–944

Kaiyun (開運) 944–947

Hou (Later) Han dynasty 后汉 947–950
Emperor Gaozu 高祖 Not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Zhiyuan (劉知遠) 947–948 Tianfu (天福) 947

Qianyou (乾祐) 948

Did not exist Emperor Yin (隱帝) Liu Chengyou (劉承祐) 948–950 Qianyou (乾祐) 948–950
Hou (Later) Zhou dynasty 后周 951–960
Emperor Taizu 太祖 Not used when referring to this sovereign Guo Wei (郭威) 951–954 Guangshun (廣順) 951–954

Xiande (顯德) 954

Emperor Shizong 世宗 Not used when referring to this sovereign Chai Rong (柴榮) 954–959 Xiande (顯德) 954–959
Did not exist Emperor Gong (恭帝 Chai Zongxun (柴宗訓) 959–960 Xiande (顯德) 959–960
the Ten Kingdoms 十國
Convention: use personal names, noticed otherwise
Wu Yue Kingdom 吳越 904–978
Emperor Tai Zu

太祖

King Wusu

武肅王

Qian Liu
錢鏐
904–932 Tianbao (天寶) 908–923

Baoda (寶大) 923–925
Baozheng (寶正) 925–932

Emperor Shi Zong

世宗

King Wenmu

文穆王

Qian Yuanguan
錢元瓘
932–941 Did not exist
Cheng Zong

成宗

King Zhongxian

忠獻王

Qian Hongzuo
錢弘佐
941–947 Did not exist
Did not exist King Zhongxun

忠遜王

Qian Hongzong
錢弘倧
947 Did not exist
Did not exist King Zhongyi

忠懿王

Qian Chu (Qian Hongchu)
錢俶 (錢弘俶)
947–978 Did not exist
Min Kingdom 閩 909–945 including Yin Kingdom 殷 943–945
Emperor Taizu

太祖

King Zhongyi

忠懿王

Wang Shenzhi
王審知
909–925 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Wang Yanhan
王延翰
925–926 Did not exist
Emperor Tai Zong

太宗

Emperor Hui

惠帝

Wang Yanjun
王延鈞
926–935 Longqi (龍啟) 933–935

Yonghe (永和) 935

Emperor Kang Zong
康宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jipeng
王繼鵬
935–939 Tongwen (通文) 936–939
Emperor Jing Zong
景宗
Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Yanxi
王延羲
939–944 Yonglong (永隆) 939–944
Did not exist Emperor Tiande
天德帝 (as Emperor of Yin)
Wang Yanzheng
王延政
943–945 Tiande (天德) 943–945
Jingnan 荆南 or Nanping Kingdom 南平 906–963
Did not exist King Wuxin

武信王

Gao Jixing
高季興
909–928 Did not exist
Did not exist King Wenxian

文獻王

Gao Conghui
高從誨
928–948 Did not exist
Did not exist King Zhenyi

貞懿王

Gao Baorong
高寶融
948–960 Did not exist
Did not exist Emperor Shizhong

侍中

Gao Baoxu
高寶勗
960–962 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Gao Jichong
高繼沖
962–963 Did not exist
Chu Kingdom 楚 897–951
Did not exist King Wumu

武穆王

Ma Yin
馬殷
897–930 Did not exist
Did not exist King Hengyang

衡陽王

Ma Xisheng
馬希聲
930–932 Did not exist
Did not exist King Wenzhao

文昭王

Ma Xifan
馬希範
932–947 Did not exist
Did not exist King Fei

廢王

Ma Xiguang
馬希廣
947–950 Did not exist
Did not exist King Gongxiao

恭孝王

Ma Xi'e
馬希萼
950 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Ma Xichong
馬希崇
950–951 Did not exist
Wu Kingdom 吳 904–937
Emperor Taizu

太祖

Emperor Xiaowu

孝武帝

Yang Xingmi
楊行密
904–905 Tianyou (天祐) 904–905
Liezong

烈宗

Emperor Jing

景帝

Yang Wo
楊渥
905–908 Tianyou (天祐) 905–908
Gaozu

高祖

Emperor Xuan

宣帝

Yang Longyan
楊隆演
908–921 Tianyou (天祐) 908–919

Wuyi (武義) 919–921

Did not exist Emperor Rui

睿帝

Yang Pu
楊溥
921–937 Shunyi (順義) 921–927

Qianzhen (乾貞) 927–929
Dahe (大和) 929–935
Tianzuo (天祚) 935–937

Nan (Southern) Tang Kingdom 南唐 937–975
Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred to as Li Houzhu (李後主).
Emperor Xianzhu 先主 or

Emperor Lie Zu 烈祖

Not used when referring to this sovereign Li Bian
李昪
937–943 Shengyuan (昇元) 937–943
Emperor Zhongzhu 中主 or

Emperor Yuanzong 元宗

Not used when referring to this sovereign Li Jing
李璟
943–961 Baoda (保大) 943–958

Jiaotai (交泰) 958
Zhongxing (中興) 958

Emperor Houzhu of Southern Tang 後主 King Wu

武王

Li Yu

李煜

961–975 Did not exist
Nan (Southern) Han Kingdom 南漢 917–971
Gaozu

高祖

Tianhuang Dadi

天皇大帝

Liú Yán 劉巖
or
Liú Yǎn 劉龑
917–925 Qiánhēng (乾亨) 917–925

Báilóng (白龍) 925–928
Dàyǒu (大有) 928–941

Did not exist Emperor Shang

殤帝

Liú Bīn
劉玢
941–943 Guāngtiān (光天) 941–943
Zhongzong

中宗

Not used when referring to this sovereign Liú Shèng
劉晟
943–958 Yìngqián (應乾) 943

Qiánhé (乾和) 943–958

Hou Zhu

後主

Did not exist Liú Chǎng
劉鋹
958–971 Dàbǎo (大寶) 958–971
Bei (Northern) Han Kingdom 北漢 951–979
Emperor Shizu

世祖

Emperor Shenwu

神武帝

Liu Min
劉旻
951–954 Qianyou (乾祐) 951–954
Emperor Ruizong

睿宗

Xiaohe Di

孝和帝

Liu Chengjun
劉承鈞
954–970 Qianyou (乾祐) 954–957

Tianhui (天會) 957–970

Emperor Shaozhu

少主

Did not exist Liu Jien
劉繼恩
970 Did not exist
Did not exist Emperor Yingwu

英武帝

Liu Jiyuan
劉繼元
970–982 Guangyun (廣運) 970–982
Qian (Former) Shu Kingdom 前蜀 907–925
Emperor Gaozu

高祖

Not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jian
王建
907–918 Tianfu (天復) 907

Wucheng (武成) 908–910
Yongping (永平) 911–915
Tongzheng (通正) 916
Tianhan (天漢) 917
Guangtian (光天) 918

Last Emperor

後主

Did not exist Wang Zongyan
王宗衍
918–925 Qiande (乾德) 918–925

Xiankang (咸康) 925

Hou (Later) Shu Kingdom 后蜀 934–965
Emperor Gaozu

高祖

Not used when referring to this sovereign Meng Zhixiang
孟知祥
934 Mingde (明德) 934
Last Emperor

後主

Did not exist Meng Chang
孟昶
938–965 Mingde (明德) 934–938

Guangzheng (廣政) 938–965

Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms

local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period but traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms
Name of Posts Personal Names Period on post
Military Commissioner of Wuping/Hunan (武平/湖南節度使)
Military Commissioner of Wuping

武平節度使

Liu Yan
劉言
950–953
Military Commissioner of Wuping

武平節度使

Wang Kui
王逵 or

Wang Jinkui

王進逵

953–956
Military Commissioner of Hunan

湖南節度使

Zhou Xingfeng
周行逢
956–962
Military Commissioner of Hunan

湖南節度使

Zhou Baoquan
周保權
962–963
Military Commissioner of Quanzhang (泉漳節度使)
Commander-in-Chief of Quanzhang

泉漳都指揮使

Liu Congxiao
留從效
945–962
Regent of Quanzhang

泉漳留守

Liu Shaozi
留紹鎡
962
Military Commissioner of Quanzhang

泉漳節度使

Zhang Hansi
張漢思
962–963
Military Commissioner of Quanzhang

泉漳節度使

Chen Hongjin
陳洪進
963–978

Liao dynasty (辽朝) (907 – 1125)

Birth Names Reign Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號) Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號)
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Yēlǜ Ābǎojī

耶律阿保機

907–926 Not used when referring to this sovereign Shence (神冊) 916–922

Tianzan (天贊) 922–926
Tianxian (天顯) 926

Emperor Taizu太祖
Yēlǜ Déguāng

耶律德光

926–947 Not used when referring to this sovereign Tianxian (天顯) 927–938

Huitong (會同) 938–947
Datong (大同) 947

Emperor Taizong太宗
Yēlǜ Ruǎn

耶律阮

947–951 Not used when referring to this sovereign Tianlu (天祿) 947–951 Emperor Shizong世宗
Yēlǜ Jǐng

耶律璟

951–969 Not used when referring to this sovereign Yingli (應曆) 951–969 Emperor Muzong穆宗
Yēlǜ Xián

耶律賢

969–982 Not used when referring to this sovereign Baoning (保寧) 969–979

Qianheng (乾亨) 979–982

Emperor Jingzong景宗
Yēlǜ Lóngxù

耶律隆緒

982–1031 Not used when referring to this sovereign Qianheng (乾亨) 982

Tonghe (統和) 983–1012
Kaitai (開泰) 1012–1021
Taiping (太平) 1021–1031

Emperor Shengzong聖宗
Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn

耶律宗真

1031–1055 Not used when referring to this sovereign Jingfu (景福) 1031–1032

Chongxi (重熙) 1032–1055

Emperor Xingzong興宗
Yēlǜ Hóngjī

耶律洪基

1055–1101 Not used when referring to this sovereign Qingning (清寧) 1055–1064

Xianyong (咸雍) 1065–1074
Taikang (太康) or Dakang (大康) 1075–1084
Da'an (大安) 1085–1094
Shouchang (壽昌) or Shoulong (壽隆) 1095–1101

Emperor Daozong道宗
Yēlǜ Yánxǐ

耶律延禧

1101–1125 Emperor Tianzuo天祚帝 Qiantong (乾統) 1101–1110

Tianqing (天慶) 1111–1120
Baoda (保大) 1121–1125

Did not exist

(Continued as Western Liao in Central Asia)

Western Liao (大遼) (1124 – 1218)

Sovereigns of Western Liao dynasty
Convention[citation needed] Birth Names Period of Reign Posthumous Names (諡號 shìhào) Era Names (年號 niánhào) and their according range of years Temple Names (廟號 miàohào)
use birth name Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí) 1 1124–1144 Emperor Tianyou Wulie (天祐武烈帝 Tiānyòu Wǔliè Dì) Yanqing (延慶 Yánqìng) 1124 or 1125–1134
Kangguo (康國 Kāngguó) 1134–1144
1. Dezong (德宗 Dézōng)
"Western Liao" + posthumous name Xiao Tabuyan (蕭塔不煙 Xiāo Tǎbùyān) 1144–1150 Empress Gantian (感天皇后 Gǎntiān Huánghòu) (regent) Xianqing (咸清 Xiánqīng) 1144–1150 Not applicable
"Western Liao" + temple name Yelü Yilie (耶律夷列 Yēlǜ Yíliè) 1150–1164 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) or Xuxing (Xùxīng 續興)2 1150–1164 2. Emperor Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng)
"Western Liao" + posthumous name Yelü Pusuwan (耶律普速完 Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán) 1164–1178 Empress Dowager Chengtian (承天太后 Chéngtiān Tàihòu) (regent) Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164–1178 Not applicable
use birth name Yelü Zhilugu (耶律直魯古 Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ) 1178–1211 Mozhu (末主 Mòzhǔ "Last Lord") or Modi (末帝 Mòdì "Last Emperor") Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178–1218 3. Did not exist
use birth name Kuchlug (Ch. 屈出律 Qūchūlǜ) 1211–1218 Did not exist Did not exist
1 "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect.[1]

Song dynasty (宋朝) (960 – 1275)

Chinese convention: use "Song" + temple name or posthumous name (except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 Sòng Dì Bǐng))

Song dynasty 宋 960–1279
Birth Name Reign Posthumous Names (short form)(Shi Hao 諡號) Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號)
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty 北宋 (960- 1127)
Zhao Kuangyin

趙匡胤

960–976 Xiao Di

孝帝

Jianlong (建隆) 960–963

Qiande (乾德) 963–968
Kaibao (開寶) 968–976

Emperor Taizu
太祖
Zhao Kuangyi 趙匡義 or

Zhao Guangyi 趙光義 or

Zhao Jiong 趙炅

976–997 De Di

德帝

Taipingxingguo (太平興國) 976–984

Yongxi (雍熙) 984–987
Duangong (端拱) 988–989
Chunhua (淳化) 990–994
Zhidao (至道) 995–997

Emperor Taizong
太宗
Zhao Heng

趙恆

997–1022 Zhang Di

章帝

Xianping (咸平) 998–1003

Jingde (景德) 1004–1007
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符) 1008–1016
Tianxi (天禧) 1017–1021
Qianxing (乾興) 1022

Emperor Zhenzong
真宗
Zhao Zhen

趙禎

1022–1063 Wen Di

文帝

Tiansheng (天聖) 1023–1032

Mingdao (明道) 1032–1033
Jingyou (景祐) 1034–1038
Baoyuan (寶元) 1038–1040
Kangding (康定) 1040–1041
Qingli (慶曆) 1041–1048
Huangyou (皇祐) 1049–1054
Zhihe (至和) 1054–1056
Jiayou (嘉祐) 1056–1063

Emperor Renzong
仁宗
Zhao Shu

趙曙

1063–1067 Xuan Di

宣帝

Zhiping (治平) 1064–1067 Emperor Yingzong
英宗
Zhao Xu

趙頊

1067–1085 Qin Di

欽帝

Xining (熙寧) 1068–1077

Yuanfeng (元豐) 1078–1085

Emperor Shenzong
神宗
Zhao Xu

趙煦

1085–1100 Zhao Di

昭帝

Yuanyou (元祐) 1086–1094

Shaosheng (紹聖) 1094–1098
Yuanfu (元符) 1098–1100

Emperor Zhezong
哲宗
Zhao Ji

趙佶

1100–1125 Xian Di

顯帝

Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國) 1101

Chongning (崇寧) 1102–1106
Daguan (大觀) 1107–1110
Zhenghe (政和) 1111–1118
Chonghe (重和) 1118–1119
Xuanhe (宣和) 1119–1125

Emperor Huizong
徽宗
Zhao Huan

趙桓

1126–1127 Ren Di

仁帝

Jingkang (靖康) 1125–1127 Emperor Qinzong
欽宗
Nan (Southern) Song dynasty 南宋 (1127–1279)
Zhao Gou

趙構

1127–1162 Xian Di

憲帝

Jianyan (建炎) 1127–1130

Shaoxing (紹興) 1131–1162

Emperor Gaozong
高宗
Zhao Shen

趙昚

1162–1189 Cheng Di

成帝

Longxing (隆興) 1163–1164

Qiandao (乾道) 1165–1173
Chunxi (淳熙) 1174–1189

Emperor Xiaozong
孝宗
Zhao Dun

趙惇

1189–1194 Ci Di

慈帝

Shaoxi (紹熙) 1190–1194 Emperor Guangzong
光宗
Zhao Kuo

趙擴

1194–1224 Gong Di

恭帝

Qingyuan (慶元) 1195–1200

Jiatai (嘉泰) 1201–1204
Kaixi (開禧) 1205–1207
Jiading (嘉定) 1208–1224

Emperor Ningzong
寧宗
Zhao Yun

趙昀

1224–1264 An Di

安帝

Baoqing (寶慶) 1225–1227

Shaoding (紹定) 1228–1233
Duanping (端平) 1234–1236
Jiaxi (嘉熙) 1237–1240
Chunyou (淳祐) 1241–1252
Baoyou (寶祐) 1253–1258
Kaiqing (開慶) 1259
Jingding (景定) 1260–1264

Emperor Lizong
理宗
Zhao Qi

趙禥

1264–1274 Jing Di

景帝

Xianchun (咸淳) 1265–1274 Emperor Duzong
度宗
Zhao Xian

趙顯

1274–1276 Gong Di

恭帝

Deyou (德祐) 1275–1276 Emperor Gongzong
恭宗
Zhao Shi

趙昰

1276–1278 not used when referring to this sovereign Jingyan (景炎) 1276–1278 Emperor Duanzong
端宗
Zhao Bing

趙昺

1278–1279 Di 帝 (The Emperor) or
Prince Wei 衛王
Xiangxing (祥興) 1278–1279 did not exist

Western Xia (西夏) (1038 – 1277)

Chinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name (or use personal name)

Western Xia 1032–1227
Personal Name Reign Posthumous name Era names (and their corresponding range of years) Temple names
Lǐ Yuánhào

李元昊

1032–1048 Wǔlièdì
武烈帝
Xiǎndào (顯道) 1032–1034

Kāiyùn (開運) 1034
Guǎngpíng (廣平) 1035–1036
Dàqìng (大慶) 1036–1038
Tiānshòulǐfǎyánzuò (天授禮法延祚) 1038–1048

Emperor Jǐngzōng
景宗
Lǐ Liàngzuò

李諒祚

1048–1067 Zhāoyīngdì

昭英帝

Yánsìníngguó (延嗣寧國) 1048–1049

Tiānyòuchuíshèng (天祐垂聖) 1050–1052
Fúshèngchéngdào (福聖承道) 1053–1056
Duǒdū (奲都) 1036–1038
Gǒnghuà (拱化) 1063–1067

Emperor Yìzōng
毅宗
Lǐ Bǐngcháng

李秉常

1067–1086 Kāngjìngdì
康靖帝
Qiándào (乾道) 1067–1069

Tiāncìlǐshèngguóqìng (天賜禮盛國慶) 1070–1074
Dà'ān (大安) 1075–1085
Tiān'ānlǐdìng (天安禮定) 1085–1086

Emperor Huìzōng
惠宗
Lǐ Qiánshùn
李乾順
1086–1139 Shèngwéndì
聖文帝
Tiānyízhìpíng (天儀治平) 1086–1089

Tiānyòumín'ān (天祐民安) 1090–1097
Yǒng'ān (永安) 1098–1100
Zhēnguān (貞觀) 1101–1113
Yōngníng (雍寧) 1114–1118
Yuándé (元德) 1119–1127
Zhèngdé (正德) 1127–1134
Dàdé (大德) 1135–1139

Emperor Chóngzōng
崇宗
Lǐ Rénxiào

李仁孝

1139–1193 Shèngzhēndì

聖禎帝

Dàqìng (大慶) 1139–1143

Rénqìng (人慶) 1144–1148
Tiānshèng (天盛) 1149–1170
Qiányòu (乾祐) 1170–1193

Emperor Rénzōng
仁宗
Lǐ Chúnyòu
李純佑
1193–1206 Zhāojiǎnjì

昭簡帝

Tiānqìng (天慶) 1193–1206 Emperor Huánzōng
桓宗
Lǐ Ānquán

李安全

1206–1211 Jǐngwǔdì

景武帝

Qìngtiān (慶天) 1206–1209

Huángjiàn (皇建) 1210–1211

Emperor Xiāngzōng
襄宗
Lǐ Zūnxū

李遵頊

1211–1223 Yīngwéndì

英文帝

Guāngdìng (光定) 1211–1223 Emperor Shénzōng
神宗
Lǐ Déwàng

李德旺

1223–1226 Did not exist Qiándìng (乾定) 1223–1226 Emperor Xiànzōng
獻宗
Lǐ Xiàn

李晛

1226–1227 Did not exist Bǎoyì (寶義) 1226–1227 Emperor Mòzhǔ
末主

Jin dynasty (金朝) (1115 – 1234)

Chinese convention: use "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese

Jin dynasty 1115–1234
Birth Name Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Reign Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple Name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Āgǔdǎ
阿骨打
or
Wányán Mǐn
完顏旻
Shōuguó
收國
1115–1116
 
Tiānfǔ
天輔
1117–1123
1115–1123 (1) Emperor Tàizǔ
太祖
Wúqǐmǎi
吳乞買
or
Wányán Shèng
完顏晟
Tiānhuì
天會
1123–1134
1123–1134 (1) Emperor Tàizōng
太宗
Hélá
合剌
or
Wányán Dǎn
完顏亶
Tiānhuì
天會
1135–1138
 
Tiānjuàn
天眷
1138–1141
 
Huángtǒng
皇統
1141–1149
1135–1149 (1) Emperor Xīzōng
熙宗
迪古乃
Dígǔnǎi
or
Wányán Liàng
完顏亮
Tiāndé
天德
1149–1153
 
Zhènyuán
貞元
1153–1156
 
Zhènglóng
正隆
1156–1161
1149–1161 Prince Yáng of Hǎilíng
海陵煬王
or
Prince of Hǎilíng
海陵王
(2)
Wūlù
烏祿
or
Wányán Yōng
完顏雍
Dàdìng
大定
1161–1189
1161–1189 (1) Emperor Shìzōng
世宗
Mádágě
麻達葛
or
Wányán Jǐng
完顏璟
Míngchāng
明昌
1190–1196
 
Chéng'ān
承安
1196–1200
 
Tàihé
泰和
1200–1208
1190–1208 (1) Emperor Zhāngzōng
章宗
Wányán Yǒngjì
完顏永濟
Dà'ān
大安
1209–1212
 
Chóngqìng
崇慶
1212–1213
 
Zhìníng
至寧
1213
1209–1213 Prince Shào of Weì
衛紹王
or
Prince of Weì
衛王
(2)
Wúdúbǔ
吾睹補
or
Wányán Xún
完顏珣
Zhēnyòu
貞祐
1213–1217
 
Xīngdìng
興定
1217–1222
 
Yuánguāng
元光
1222–1223
1213–1223 (1) Emperor Xuānzōng
宣宗
Níngjiǎsù
寧甲速
or
Wányán Shǒuxù
完顏守緒
Zhèngdà
正大
1224–1232
 
Kāixīng
開興
1232
 
Tiānxīng
天興
1232–1234
1224–1234 (1) Emperor Āizōng
哀宗
Hūdūn
呼敦
or
Wányán Chénglín
完顏承麟
(2) 1234 Emperor Mò (Last Emperor)
末帝
(2)
(1) Quite long and thus not used when referring to this sovereign.
(2) Did not exist.

Yuan dynasty (元朝) (1271 – 1368)

Yuan.jpg

Chinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after

Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khublai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame (Tamerlane).

Khan Name Personal name Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Temple name
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin 孛兒只斤鐵木真 1206–1227 Tàizǔ 太祖
Tolui Borjigin Tolui 孛兒只斤拖雷 1228 Ruìzōng 睿宗
Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei 孛兒只斤窩闊台 1229–1241 Tàizōng 太宗
Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük 孛兒只斤貴由 1246–1248 Dìngzōng 定宗
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke 孛兒只斤蒙哥 1251–1259 Xiànzōng 憲宗
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai 孛兒只斤忽必烈 1260–1294 Zhōngtǒng 中統 1260–1264 Shìzǔ 世祖
Zhìyuán 至元 1264–1294
Temür Khan Borjigin Temür 孛兒只斤鐵穆耳 1294–1307 Yuánzhēn 元貞 1295–1297 Chéngzōng 成宗
1307–1308 Dàdé 大德 1297–1307
Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan 孛兒只斤海山 1308–1311 Zhìdà 至大 1308–1311 Wǔzōng 武宗
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra 孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 1311–1320 Huángqìng 皇慶 1312–1313 Rénzōng 仁宗
1320–1321 Yányòu 延祐 1314–1320
Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala 孛兒只斤碩德八剌 1321–1323 Zhìzhì 至治 1321–1323 Yīngzōng 英宗
Yesün Temür1 Borjigin Yesün-Temür 孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 1323–1328 Tàidìng 泰定 1324–1328 Tàidìngdi2 泰定帝
Zhìhé 致和 1328
Ragibagh Khan1 Borjigin Arigaba 孛兒只斤阿速吉八 1328 Tiānshùn 天順 1328 Tiānshùndi2 天順帝
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür 孛兒只斤圖帖睦爾 1328–1329 and 1329–1332 Tiānlì 天曆 1328–1330 Wénzōng 文宗
Zhìshùn 至順 1330–1332
Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila 孛兒只斤和世剌 1329 Míngzōng 明宗
Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal 孛兒只斤懿璘質班 1332 Níngzōng 寧宗
Toghon Temür1 Borjigin Toghan-Temür 孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 1333–1368 1333 Shundi 順帝 Huìzōng 惠宗
Yuántǒng 元統 1333–1335
Zhìyuán 至元 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng 至正 1341–1368
Zhìyuán 至元 1368–1370
1 — Chinese convention: for these sovereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tàidìng Dì.
2 — Not actually a posthumous name, but adopted from era name.

Note:

1) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.

2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.

Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.

Northern Yuan (北元)

after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China in 1368 (1368 – early 15th century)

Convention: use khan names or birth names.

Khan Names Personal Name Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous Name (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple Name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Toghon Temür Borjigin Toghan-Temür 孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 1368–1370 Zhìshùn 至順 1333 Emperor Shundi 順帝 Huìzōng

(same person as the last Yuan emperor in China)

惠宗
Yuántǒng 元統 1333–1335
Zhìyuán 至元 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng 至正 1341–1368
Zhìyuán 至元 1368–1370
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Borjigin Ayushiridara 孛兒只斤愛猷識里達臘 1370–1378 Xuānguāng 宣光 1371–1378 Zhàozōng 昭宗
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Borjigin Tögüs Temür 孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 1378–1387 Tiānguāng 天光 1378–1387
1 — Convention: for these sovereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tài Dìng Dì.

For the later Mongol rulers, see List of Mongol rulers

Ming dynasty (明朝) (1368 – 1644)

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name1 (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name1 (Miao Hao 廟號) Capital city
Hongwu Emperor Zhū Yuánzhāng 朱元璋 1368–1398 Hóngwǔ 洪武 1368–1398 Gāodì 高帝 Tàizǔ 太祖 Nanjing 南京
Jianwen Emperor Zhū Yǔnwén 朱允炆 1398–1402 Jiànwén 建文 1398–1402 Huìdì 惠帝 Huizong² 惠宗
Yongle Emperor Zhū Dì 朱棣 1402–1424 Yǒnglè 永樂 1402–1424 Wēndì 文帝 Chéngzǔ or Tàizōng 成祖 / 太宗
Hongxi Emperor Zhū Gāochì 朱高熾 1424–1425 Hóngxī 洪熙 1424–1425 Zhāodì 昭帝 Rénzōng 仁宗 Beijing 北京
Xuande Emperor Zhū Zhānjī 朱瞻基 1425–1435 Xuāndé 宣德 1425–1435 Zhāngdì 章帝 Xuānzōng 宣宗
Zhengtong Emperor Zhū Qízhèn 朱祁鎮 1435–1449

and

1457–1464³

Zhèngtǒng

and

Tiānshùn

正統

and

天順

1435–1449

and

1457–1464

Ruìdì 睿帝 Yīngzōng 宣宗
Jingtai Emperor Zhū Qíyù 朱祁鈺 1449–1457 Jǐngtài 景泰 1449–1457 Jǐngdì 景帝 Dàizōng 代宗
Chenghua Emperor Zhū Jiànshēn 朱見深 1464–1487 Chénghuà 成化 1464–1487 Chúndì 純帝 Xiànzōng 憲宗
Hongzhi Emperor Zhū Yòutáng 朱祐樘 1487–1505 Hóngzhì 弘治 1487–1505 Jìngdì 敬帝 Xiàozōng 孝宗
Zhengde Emperor Zhū Hòuzhào 朱厚照 1505–1521 Zhèngdé 正德 1505–1521 Yìdì 毅帝 Wǔzōng 武宗
Jiajing Emperor Zhū Hòucōng 朱厚熜 1521–1566 Jiājìng 嘉靖 1521–1566 Sùdì 肅帝 Shìzōng 世宗
Longqing Emperor Zhū Zǎihòu 朱載垕 1566–1572 Lóngqìng 隆慶 1566–1572 Zhuāngdì 莊帝 Mùzōng 穆宗
Wanli Emperor Zhū Yìjūn 朱翊鈞 1572–1620 Wànlì 萬曆 1572–1620 Xiǎndì 顯帝 Shénzōng 神宗
Taichang Emperor Zhū Chángluò 朱常洛 1620 Tàichāng 泰昌 1620 Zhēndì 貞帝 Guāngzōng 光宗
Tianqi Emperor Zhū Yóujiào 朱由校 1620–1627 Tiānqǐ 天啓 1620–1627 Zhédì 悊帝 Xīzōng 熹宗
Chongzhen Emperor Zhū Yóujiǎn 朱由檢 1627–1644 Chóngzhēn 崇禎 1627–1644 Zhuānglièmǐnhuángdì 莊烈愍皇帝 Sīzōng or Yìzōng 思宗 / 毅宗
1 — As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.
2 —The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (福王), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong
3 — After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother, the Jingtai emperor, assumed the throne and, a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However, the Zhengtong emperor was able to reclaim his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty (顺朝)

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Name most commonly known by Personal name Reign years Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號) Capital city
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng 李自成 1644 Yongchang 永昌 1644 Chuǎng Wáng (The Daring King) 闖王 Xi'an 西安

Southern Ming (南明)

The Southern Ming dynasty refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of years Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Zhu Yousong Zhū Yóusōng 朱由崧 1644–1645 Hóngguāng 弘光 1644–1645 Ānzōng 安宗 Nanjing 南京
Zhu Yujian Zhū Yùjiàn 朱聿鍵 1645–1646 Lóngwǔ 隆武 1645–1646 Shàozōng 紹宗 Fuzhou 福州
Zhu Changfang Zhū Chángfāng 朱常淓 1645 None given, but sometimes referred to as the "Regency of the Prince of Lu/Luh"
(Lù Wáng Lín Guó)
潞王臨國 1646
Zhu Yihai Zhū Yǐhǎi 朱以海 1645–1653 Zhaoqing 肇慶
Zhu Yuyue Zhū Yùyuè 朱聿𨮁 1646 Shàowǔ 紹武 1646 Wénzōng 文宗
Zhu Youlang Zhū Yóuláng 朱由榔 1646–1662 Yǒnglì 永曆 1646–1662 Zhāozōng 昭宗

*The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty (清朝) (1644 – 1912)

Qing Dynasty Map.jpg

Name by which most commonly known Personal name1 Reign Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years) Posthumous name2 (Shi Hao 諡號) Temple name2 (Miao Hao 廟號) Capital city
Nurhaci Nurhaci 努爾哈赤 1616–1626³ Tiānmìng 天命 Abkai fulingga 1616–1626 Gāodì 高帝 Tàizǔ 太祖
Huang Taiji Hong Taiji4 皇太極 1626–1643 Tiāncōng

Chóngdé

天聰

崇德

Abkai sure

Wesihun erdemungge

1627–1636

1636–1643

Wéndì 文帝 Tàizōng 太宗 Shenjing

(Nanjing)

盛京
Shunzhi Emperor Fúlín 福臨 1643–16615 Shùnzhì 順治 Ijishūn dasan 1643–1661 Zhāngdì 章帝 Shìzǔ 世祖 Beijing 北京
Kangxi Emperor Xuányè 玄燁 1661–1722 Kāngxī 康熙 Elhe taifin 1661–1722 Réndì 仁帝 Shèngzǔ 聖祖
Yongzheng Emperor Yìnzhēn 胤禛 1722–1735 Yōngzhèng 雍正 Hūwaliyasun tob 1722–1735 Xiàndì 憲帝 Shìzōng 世宗
Qianlong Emperor Hónglì 弘曆 1735–17966 Qiánlóng 乾隆 Abkai wehiyehe 1735–1796 Chúndì 純帝 Gāozōng 高宗
Jiaqing Emperor Yóngyǎn 顒琰 1796–1820 Jiāqìng 嘉慶 Saicungga fengšen 1796–1820 Ruìdì 睿帝 Rénzōng 仁宗
Daoguang Emperor Mínníng 旻寧 1820–1850 Dàoguāng 道光 Doro eldengge 1820–1850 Chéngdì 成帝 Xuānzōng 宣宗
Xianfeng Emperor Yìzhǔ 奕詝 1850–1861 Xiánfēng 咸豐 Gubci elgiyengg 1850–1861 Xiǎndì 顯帝 Wénzōng 文宗
Tongzhi Emperor Zǎichún 載淳 1861–18757 Tóngzhì 同治 Yooningga dasan 1861–1875 Yìdì 毅帝 Mùzōng 穆宗
Guangxu Emperor Zǎitián 載湉 1875–19087 Guāngxù 光緒 Badarangga doro 1875–1908 Jǐngdì 景帝 Dézōng 德宗
Xuantong Emperor Pǔyí
(also known as Henry)
溥儀 1908–191210 Xuāntǒng 宣統 Gehungge yoso 1908–1912 Xùndì 8 遜帝 Gongzōng9 恭宗
1 — The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.
2 — As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.
3 — Nurhaci founded the Jin () or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.
4 — Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).
5 — The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.
6 — The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.
7 — The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.
8 — Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Puyi.
9 — In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Puyi. Posthumous name: Mindi (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). It remains to be seen whether these names will be accepted by the Chinese public.
10 — Xinhai Revolution started on October 10, 1911. The last emperor, Puyi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. The Qing dynasty was overthrown the same day. However, that same day the Republic of China granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Puyi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Puyi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic of China. Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Puyi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Puyi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932–1934), then the puppet emperor of the same under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934–1945).

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao 年號) Capital city
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan 洪秀全 11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864 Yuánnián 元年 Tianjing

(Nanjing)

天京
Hong Tianguifu Hong Tianguifu 洪天貴福 6 June 1864 – 18 November 1864

Empire of China (中華帝國) (1915 – 1916)

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule is universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, the reign collapsed.

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era name (Nian Hao 年號) Capital city
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai 袁世凱 22 December 1915 – 22 March 1916 Hóngxiàn 洪憲 Beijing 北京

See also

References

  1. ^ Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23–24, 2011, Rome. 

External links

  • LIST OF CHINESE RULERS
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