List of Atlantic hurricane records

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Since the reliable record keeping of tropical cyclone data within the North Atlantic Ocean began in 1851,[1] there have been 1,505 systems of at least tropical storm intensity and 879 of at least hurricane intensity. Though a majority of these tropical depressions have fallen within climatological averages, prevailing atmospheric conditions occasionally lead to anomalous tropical systems which at times reach extremes in statistical record-keeping including in duration and intensity.[2] The scope of this list is limited to tropical cyclone records solely within the Atlantic Ocean and is subdivided by their reason for notability.

Tropical cyclogenesis

Earliest/latest formations for each category

Monochrome radar image of a hurricane. Rain, which the radar detects, is shown as white regions. Concentric circles denote distances from the radar site, located slightly offset from the center of the image.
Hurricane Alice was both the latest and earliest recorded hurricane to exist in any given calendar year.

Climatologically speaking, approximately 97 percent of tropical cyclones that form in the North Atlantic develop between the dates of June 1 and November 30 – dates which delimit the modern-day Atlantic hurricane season. Though the beginning of the annual hurricane season has historically remained the same, the official end of the hurricane season has shifted from its initial date of October 31. Regardless, on average once every few years a tropical cyclone develops outside the limits of the season;[3] as of November 2017 there have been 68 tropical cyclones in the off-season, with the most recent being Tropical Storm Arlene in 2017.[1] The first tropical cyclone of the 1938 Atlantic hurricane season, which formed on January 3, became the earliest forming tropical storm and hurricane after reanalysis concluded on the storm in December 2012.[4] Hurricane Able in 1951 was initially thought to be the earliest forming major hurricane – a tropical cyclone with winds exceeding 115 mph (185 km/h)[nb 1] – however following post-storm analysis it was determined that Able only reached Category 1 strength which made Hurricane Alma of 1966 the new record holder; as it became a major hurricane on June 8.[1] Though it developed within the bounds of the Atlantic hurricane season,[3][1] Hurricane Audrey in 1957 was the earliest developing Category 4 hurricane on record after it reached the intensity on June 27.[6] However, reanalysis from 1956 to 1960 by NOAA downgraded Audrey to a Category 3, making Hurricane Dennis of 2005 the earliest Category 4 on record on July 8, 2005.[7] The earliest-forming Category 5 hurricane, Emily, reached the highest intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on July 17, 2005.[8]

Though the official end of the Atlantic hurricane season occurs on November 30, the dates of October 31 and November 15 have also historically marked the official end date for the hurricane season.[3] December, the only month of the year after the hurricane season, has featured the cyclogenesis of fourteen tropical cyclones.[1] Tropical Storm Zeta in 2005 was the latest tropical cyclone to attain tropical storm intensity as it did so on December 30. However, the second Hurricane Alice in 1954 was the latest forming tropical cyclone to attain hurricane intensity. Both Alice and Zeta were the only two storms to exist in two calendar years – the former from 1954 to 1955 and the latter from 2005 to 2006.[9] No storms have been recorded to exceed Category 1 hurricane intensity in December.[1] In 1999, Hurricane Lenny reached Category 4 intensity on November 17 as it took an unprecedented west to east track across the Caribbean; its intensity made it the latest developing Category 4 hurricane, though this was well within the bounds of the hurricane season.[10] Hurricane Hattie (October 27-November 1, 1961) was initially thought to have been the latest forming Category 5 hurricane ever documented,[11] though reanalysis indicated that a devastating hurricane in 1932 reached such an intensity at a later date.[1][4] Consequently, this made the hurricane the latest developing tropical cyclone to reach all four Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale classifications past Category 1 intensity.[1]

Earliest Formation Latest Formation
Category Year Storm Date Reached Notes Year Storm Date Reached Notes
Tropical storm 1938 Unnamed January 3 [1][nb 2] 200506 Tropical Storm Zeta December 30 [1]
Category 1 1938 Unnamed January 4 [1] 195455 Hurricane Alice December 30 [1]
Category 2 1908 Unnamed March 7 [1] 2016 Hurricane Otto November 24 [12]
Category 3 1966 Hurricane Alma June 8 [1] 2016 Hurricane Otto November 24 [12]
Category 4 2005 Hurricane Dennis July 8 1999 Hurricane Lenny November 17 [1]
Category 5 2005 Hurricane Emily July 17 [8][13] 1932 1932 Cuba hurricane November 5 [1]

Earliest formation records by storm number

Earliest formation of Atlantic Basin tropical storms by storm number
Storm number Earliest Next earliest
Name Date of formation Name Date of formation
1 Unnamed January 3, 1938 Unnamed January 4, 1951
2 Unnamed May 17, 1887 Tie Unnamed May 26, 1908
Beryl May 26, 2012
3 Colin June 5, 2016 Unnamed June 12, 1887
4 Danielle June 20, 2016 Debby June 23, 2012
5 Emily July 11, 2005 Danny July 16, 1997
6 Franklin July 21, 2005 Unnamed August 2, 1959
7 Gert July 24, 2005 Unnamed August 7, 1936
8 Harvey August 3, 2005 Unnamed August 15, 1936
9 Irene August 7, 2005 Unnamed August 20, 1936
10 Jose August 22, 2005 Tie Jerry August 23, 1995
Joyce August 23, 2012
11 Katrina August 24, 2005 Tie Unnamed August 28, 1936
Karen August 28, 1995
12 Luis August 29, 1995 Leslie August 30, 2012
13 Tie Maria - September 2, 2005 Michael September 4, 2012
Lee - September 2, 2011
14 Nate September 5, 2005 Maria September 7, 2011
15 Ophelia September 7, 2005 (06z) Unnamed September 19, 1936
16 Philippe September 17, 2005 Ophelia September 21, 2011
17 Rita September 18, 2005 Philippe September 24, 2011
18 Stan October 2, 2005 Sebastien October 21, 1995
19 Unnamed October 4, 2005 Tony October 24, 2012
20 Tammy October 5, 2005 Unnamed November 15, 1933
21 Vince October 9, 2005 N/A
22 Wilma October 17, 2005 N/A
23 Alpha October 22, 2005 N/A
24 Beta October 27, 2005 N/A
25 Gamma November 18, 2005 N/A
26 Delta November 23, 2005 N/A
27 Epsilon November 29, 2005 N/A
28 Zeta December 30, 2005 N/A
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool
  • Note: Storms that originally form as a tropical depression will not be posted unless they reach tropical storm status (for example, Hurricane Michael in 2012 formed on September 3 as a tropical depression, but was not named until it reached tropical storm status, on September 4, thus putting Hurricane Michael on the list with the date September 4).

Location

Extreme latitudes and longitudes

Black and white image of a hurricane. Rainbands to the top of the hurricane are extended out to the upper-right, and the center of the hurricane itself is located at center-left. Clouds appear as shades of white and the sea as shades of black. However, sunglint is visible at center-right.
Hurricane Faith traversed a greater distance and retained tropical cyclone status further north than any other Atlantic hurricane.

This list contains tropical cyclones that formed at or moved to an extraordinary latitude or longitude. This list may include storms that reach extreme north latitude, or very equatorial cyclones. It should be noted that before the satellite era, analysis of distant tropical cyclones was extremely difficult.

  • September 6, 1966 – Hurricane Faith retained tropical cyclone status further north than any other storm, being classified as extratropical at about 62°N. It also retained Category 2 intensity through this period.
  • October 6, 1967 – Tropical Storm Ginger was upgraded into a tropical storm at 18.1°W, making it the easternmost Atlantic tropical storm on record.
  • August 6, 1971 – Hurricane Two became a hurricane at 46°N, the highest latitude a tropical storm has been upgraded in the Atlantic.
  • August 25, 1973 – Tropical Storm Christine developed as a tropical depression at 14°W over western Africa, the eastern-most tropical depression formation in the Atlantic basin.
  • September 22, 1973 – Hurricane Ellen became a major hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale at 42.1°N, further north than any other storm.
  • July 30, 1978 – Tropical Storm Amelia developed into a tropical depression at 97.0°W while located 30 miles (48 km) south of Brownsville, Texas, the western-most forming tropical cyclone in the Atlantic basin (excluding basin crossovers).
  • September 4, 1978 – Hurricane Ella retained Category 4 intensity further north than any other Atlantic hurricane, reaching 42.5°N before weakening.
  • September 9, 1980 – Hurricane Frances intensified into a Category 3 hurricane further south and east than any other storm on record, doing so at 12.8°N and 29.8°W.
  • September 18, 1982 – Hurricane Debby reached Category 4 strength at 38.8°N, eclipsing the previous record set by Hurricane Ella in 1978.
  • August 7, 1988 – Tropical Storm Alberto was classified a tropical storm off the coast of Massachusetts at 41.5°N, which is further north than any other tropical storm on record.
  • September 15, 1989 – Hurricane Hugo became a Category 5 hurricane at 54.6°W longitude, making it the easternmost forming Category 5 hurricane on record.
  • September 4, 1990 – Hurricane Isidore formed at a lower latitude than any other tropical cyclone on record for the North Atlantic, 7.2°N.
  • September 11, 2003 – Hurricane Isabel became a Category 5 hurricane at 54.8°W longitude, making it the second-easternmost forming Category 5 hurricane on record, surpassed only by Hugo of 1989.
  • September 5 & 6, 2004 – Hurricane Ivan became a Category 3 at 10.2°N latitude, the lowest latitude ever recorded for a major hurricane. It also set the record for southernmost Category 4 hurricane, reaching that intensity at 10.6°N.
  • October 9, 2005 – Hurricane Vince formed at a record northeast point in the Atlantic, however, this record was later broken by Grace in 2009. Vince also became a hurricane further east than any storm in Atlantic history at 18.9°W.
  • July 3, 2008 – Hurricane Bertha reached tropical storm intensity at 24.0°W, becoming the easternmost developing tropical storm in the month of July. Bertha would later reach hurricane and major hurricane intensity at 49.4°W and 51.6°W, respectively, also attaining monthly easternmost records for those categories.[14]
  • October 4, 2009 – Tropical Storm Grace developed into a tropical storm near the Azores at 38.5°N latitude by 29.5°W longitude, making it the furthest northeast that a storm has ever intensified into a tropical storm in the Atlantic. Grace would persist as a tropical storm for roughly two days before transitioning into an extratropical storm just southwest of Ireland at 12.7°W longitude by 48.8°N latitude.[15]
  • September 15, 2010 – Hurricane Julia reached Category 4 intensity at 31.4°W longitude, making it the easternmost tropical cyclone to reach such an intensity. This also makes it the strongest known tropical cyclone in the Atlantic east of the 40th meridian west.[16]
  • June 21, 2012 – Hurricane Chris was upgraded to hurricane intensity at 39.5°N latitude, attaining the record for the farthest-north for an Atlantic June hurricane to reach such an intensity; Chris would maintain hurricane intensity as far north as 41.9°N before weakening back to tropical storm strength.[17]
  • August 30, 2015 – Hurricane Fred was upgraded to hurricane intensity at 22.5°W longitude, southeast of Cape Verde, the farthest east that a hurricane developed in the tropical Atlantic south of 25°N latitude.
  • January 14, 2016 – Hurricane Alex became a hurricane at 31.5°N and 28.6°W in the middle of January before making landfall as a strong tropical storm in the Azores.[18][19]
  • September 30, 2016 – Hurricane Matthew became a Category 5 hurricane at 13.3°N latitude, the lowest latitude ever recorded for a Category 5 hurricane.
  • November 24, 2016 – Hurricane Otto became the southernmost hurricane to make landfall in Central America, and the second-lowest-latitude landfalling Atlantic hurricane on record, surpassed only by the 1933 Trinidad hurricane.
  • April 20, 2017 – Tropical Storm Arlene became a tropical storm at 37.7°N and 42.0°W in April.
  • June 19, 2017 – Tropical Storm Bret became a tropical storm at 9.4°N and 59.8°W in June.
  • September 5, 2017 – Hurricane Irma became a Category 5 hurricane at 57.7°W longitude, making it the third-easternmost forming Category 5 hurricane on record, surpassed only by Hugo of 1989 and Isabel of 2003.
  • October 14, 2017 – Hurricane Ophelia became the easternmost major hurricane on record, at 26.6°W longitude and maintaining that status east of 20°W.

Distance traveled

Greatest Travels
Sources: NOAA[20][21]
Rank Distance
(Miles)
Name Date
1 6,850 Hurricane Faith 1966
2 6,000 Hurricane Carrie 1957
3 5,760 Hurricane Alberto 2000
4 5,210 Hurricane Cleo 1964
Hurricane Chloe 1967
6 4,990 Hurricane Flora 1963

Intensity

Most intense

By pressure

Most intense Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Pressure
hPa inHg
1 Wilma 2005 882 26.05
2 Gilbert 1988 888 26.23
3 "Labor Day" 1935 892 26.34
4 Rita 2005 895 26.43
5 Allen 1980 899 26.55
6 Camille 1969 900 26.58
7 Katrina 2005 902 26.64
8 Mitch 1998 905 26.73
Dean 2007
10 Maria 2017 908 26.81
Source: HURDAT[1]

Generally speaking, the intensity of a tropical cyclone is determined by either the storm's maximum sustained winds or lowest barometric pressure. The following table lists the most intense Atlantic hurricanes in terms of their lowest barometric pressure. In terms of wind speed, Allen from 1980 was the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record, with maximum sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h). For many years, it was thought that Hurricane Camille also attained this intensity, but this conclusion was changed in 2014. The original measurements of Camille are suspect since wind speed instrumentation used at the time would likely be damaged by winds of such intensity.[22] Nonetheless, their central pressures are low enough to rank them among the strongest recorded Atlantic hurricanes.[1]

Owing to their intensity, the strongest Atlantic hurricanes have all attained Category 5 classification. Hurricane Opal, the strongest Category 4 hurricane recorded, intensified to reach a minimum pressure of 916 mbar (hPa; 27.05 inHg),[23] a pressure typical of Category 5 hurricanes.[24] Nonetheless, the pressure remains too high to list Opal as one of the ten strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones.[1] Presently, Hurricane Wilma is the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded, after reaching an intensity of 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) in October 2005;[22] this also made Wilma the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide outside of the West Pacific,[25][26][27][28][29] where seven tropical cyclones have been recorded to intensify to lower pressures.[30] However, this was later superseded by Hurricane Patricia in 2015 in the east Pacific, which had a pressure reading of 872 mbar. Preceding Wilma is Hurricane Gilbert, which had also held the record for most intense Atlantic hurricane for 17 years.[31] The 1935 Labor Day hurricane, with a pressure of 892 mbar (hPa; 26.34 inHg), is the third strongest Atlantic hurricane and the strongest documented tropical cyclone prior to 1950.[1] Since the measurements taken during Wilma and Gilbert were documented using dropsonde, this pressure remains the lowest measured over land.[32]

Hurricane Rita is the fourth strongest Atlantic hurricane in terms of barometric pressure and one of three tropical cyclones from 2005 on the list, with the others being Wilma and Katrina at first and seventh, respectively.[1] However, with a barometric pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg), Rita is the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.[33]

Most intense landfalling Atlantic hurricanes
Intensity is measured solely by central pressure
Rank Hurricane Season Landfall pressure
1 "Labor Day" 1935 892 mbar (hPa)
2 Gilbert 1988 900 mbar (hPa)
Camille 1969
4 Dean 2007 905 mbar (hPa)
5 "Cuba" 1924 910 mbar (hPa)
6 Janet 1955 914 mbar (hPa)
Irma 2017
8 Maria 2017 917 mbar (hPa)
9 "Cuba" 1932 918 mbar (hPa)
10 Katrina 2005 920 mbar (hPa)
Sources: Atlantic Hurricane Best Track Data
Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones
National Hurricane Center

In between Rita and Katrina is Hurricane Allen. Allen's pressure was measured at 899 mbar. Hurricane Camille is the sixth strongest hurricane on record. Camille is the only storm to have been moved down the list due to post-storm analysis. Camille was originally recognized as the fifth strongest hurricane on record, but was dropped to the seventh strongest in 2014, with an estimated pressure at 905 mbars, tying it with Hurricanes Mitch, and Dean. Camille then was recategorized with a new pressure of 900 mbars. Currently, Mitch and Dean share intensities for the eighth strongest Atlantic hurricane at 905 mbar (hPa; 26.73 inHg).[32] Hurricane Maria is in tenth place for most intense Atlantic tropical cyclone, with a pressure as low as 908 mbar (hPa; 26.81 inHg).[34] In addition, the most intense Atlantic hurricane outside of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico is Hurricane Irma of 2017, with a pressure of 914 mbar (hPa; 27.0 inHg).[35]

Many of the strongest recorded tropical cyclones weakened prior to their eventual landfall or demise. However, six of the storms remained intense enough at landfall to be considered some of the strongest landfalling hurricanes – six of the ten hurricanes on the list constitute six of the most intense Atlantic landfalls in recorded history. The 1935 Labor Day hurricane made landfall at peak intensity, the most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall.[36] Hurricane Camille made landfall in Waveland, Mississippi with a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg), making it the second most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall.[37] Though it weakened slightly before its eventual landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, Hurricane Gilbert maintained a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg) at landfall, making its landfall the second strongest, tied with Camille. Similarly, Hurricane Dean made landfall on the peninsula, though it did so at peak intensity and with a higher barometric pressure; its landfall marked the fourth strongest in Atlantic hurricane history.[32] In 1924, a hurricane made landfall on the western tip of Cuba with a pressure of 910 mbar (hPa; 26.88 inHg), making it the fifth-strongest Atlantic hurricane landfall.[38] Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico shortly after its peak intensity, with a pressure of 917 mbar (hPa; 27.08 inHg), making it the eighth-strongest Atlantic hurricane landfall. Despite being well past its peak intensity, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Buras-Triumph, Louisiana with a pressure of 920 mbar (hPa; 27.17 inHg), thus making it the tenth-strongest landfall.[39]

By highest sustained winds

Highest 1 minute sustained winds (175 mph or greater)
Rank Hurricane Season Winds
mph km/h
1 Allen 1980 190 305
2 "Labor Day" 1935 185 295
Gilbert 1988 185 295
Wilma 2005 185 295
Irma 2017 185 295
6 Mitch 1998 180 285
Rita 2005 180 285
8 "Cuba" 1932 175 280
Janet 1955 175 280
Carla 1961 175 280
Camille 1969 175 280
Anita 1977 175 280
David 1979 175 280
Andrew 1992 175 280
Katrina 2005 175 280
Dean 2007 175 280
Felix 2007 175 280
Maria 2017 175 280

Most intense by month

Intensity is measured solely by central pressure.

Most intense Atlantic tropical cyclones by month
Month Storm Year Minimum pressure Maximum winds Category Notes
January Alice 1955 ~980 mbar (hPa; 28.94 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1 [nb 3]
February "Groundhog Day" 1952 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg) 70 mph (110 km/h) Tropical storm [nb 4]
March Unnamed 1908 <991 mbar (hPa; 29.27 inHg) 100 mph (155 km/h) Category 2 [nb 4]
April Arlene 2017 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg) 50 mph (85 km/h) Tropical storm
May Able 1951 973 mbar (hPa; 28.74 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1
June Audrey 1957 946 mbar (hPa; 27.94 inHg) 125 mph (205 km/h) Category 3 [nb 5]
Alex 2010 110 mph (175 km/h) Category 2 [nb 5]
July Emily 2005 929 mbar (hPa; 27.44 inHg) 160 mph (260 km/h) Category 5
August Allen 1980 899 mbar (hPa; 26.55 inHg) 190 mph (305 km/h) Category 5
September Gilbert 1988 888 mbar (hPa; 26.23 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
October Wilma 2005 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
November "Cuba" 1932 918 mbar (hPa; 27.11 inHg) 175 mph (290 km/h) Category 5
December Nicole 1998 979 mbar (hPa; 28.91 inHg) 85 mph (140 km/h) Category 1

Hurricane Severity Index

Most severe landfalling Atlantic hurricanes in the United States
based on size and intensity for total points on the Hurricane Severity Index[40]
Rank Hurricane Year Intensity Size Total
1 Carla 1961 17 25 42
2 Hugo 1989 16 24 40
Betsy 1965 15 25 40
4 Camille 1969 22 14 36
Katrina 2005 13 23 36
Opal 1995 11 25 36
7 Miami 1926 15 19 34
8 Audrey 1957 17 16 33
Fran 1996 11 22 33
Wilma 2005 12 21 33

Fastest intensification

  • Fastest intensification from a tropical depression to a hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 12 hours
    Blanche 1969 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 85 mph (140 km/h) – from 0600 UTC to 1800 UTC August 11[1]
    Harvey 1981 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 80 mph (130 km/h) – from 1200 UTC September 12 to 0000 UTC September 13[1]
  • Fastest intensification from a tropical depression to a Category 5 hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 54 hours
    Wilma 2005 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 170 mph (275 km/h) – from 0000 UTC October 17 to 0600 UTC October 19[1]
    Maria 2017 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 160 mph (258 km/h) – from 1800 UTC September 16 to 0000 UTC September 19[41]
  • Fastest intensification from a tropical storm to a Category 5 hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 24 hours
    Wilma 2005 – 70 mph (110 km/h) to 170 mph (275 km/h) – from 0600 UTC October 18 to 0600 UTC October 19[1]
  • Maximum pressure drop in 12 hours – 83 mbar
    Wilma 2005 – 975 millibars (28.8 inHg) to 892 millibars (26.3 inHg) – from 1800 UTC October 18 to 0600 UTC October 19[1]
  • Maximum pressure drop in 24 hours – 97 mbar
    Wilma 2005 – 979 millibars (28.9 inHg) to 882 millibars (26.0 inHg) – from 1200 UTC October 18 to 1200 UTC October 19[1]

Largest in diameter

Below are the five largest hurricanes (by gale diameter) ever observed in the Atlantic basin.

Known Atlantic hurricanes with gale diameter of 750 miles
Rank Storm Season Diameter
(mi) (km)
1 Sandy 2012 945 1,520
2 Igor 2010 920 1,480
3 Olga 2001 864 1,390
4 Lili 1996 805 1,295
5 Karl 2004 780 1,255
Sources: [1]

Seasonal records

Highest number of named storms

Number of named storm occurrences by month
Month
Storms Season
January 1 1938, 1951, 1978, 2016
February 1 1952
March 1 1908
April 1 1992, 2003, 2017
May 2 1887, 2012
June 3 1886, 1936, 1968
July 5 2005
August 8 2004, 2012
September 8 2002, 2010
October 8 1950
November 3 2005
December 2 1887, 2003
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool
† – Highest number for month by virtue of being only known season to see a storm form

Naming

Each year, there are twenty-one names on a predetermined A–W list, followed by a list using the Greek alphabet. Having never reached "N" until 1990, the busy 1995 season ran through the first ever use of the seven names available from O through T. The Greek list was not touched until 2005, running through six Greek names in one season.

Seasonal activity

A hurricane with a peak intensity of Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is classified as major. The table on the right excludes seasons prior to 1965 due to lack of accurate data for the period. On average, there are 12.1 storms each year in the Atlantic Basin.

Number of tropical storms and hurricanes per season

This bar chart shows the number of named storms and hurricanes per year from 1851-2017. Data is incomplete prior to the advent of satellite tracking in the mid-1960s.[42]

Tropical cyclone count adjusted for lack of observation prior to 1965.

Effects

Costliest Atlantic hurricanes

Hurricane Harvey, caused approximately $198.6 billion (2017 USD) in damage, more than any other tropical cyclone worldwide.

Note: The damage from Hurricane Irma and Maria from the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season have not been fully assessed.

Costliest Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Damage
1 Harvey 2017 $199 billion
2 Katrina 2005 $108 billion
3 Sandy 2012 $75 billion
4 Ike 2008 $37.5 billion
5 Wilma 2005 $29.4 billion
6 Andrew 1992 $26.5 billion
7 Ivan 2004 $23.3 billion
8 Irene 2011 $16.6 billion
9 Charley 2004 $16.3 billion
10 Matthew 2016 $15.1 billion

Deadliest Atlantic hurricanes

Hurricane Mitch killed at least 19,325 people in Central America in October 1998.
Deadliest Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Fatalities
1 "Great Hurricane" 1780 22,000+
2 Mitch 1998 19,325+
3 "Galveston" 1900 8,000 – 12,000
4 Fifi 1974 8,000 – 10,000
5 Flora 1963 7,186 – 8,000
6 "Dominican Republic" 1930 2,000 – 8,000
7 "Pointe-à-Pitre" 1776 6,000+
8 "Newfoundland" 1775 4,000 – 4,163
9 "Okeechobee" 1928 4,075+
10 "Monterrey" 1909 4,000

Most tornadoes spawned

Hurricane Ivan spawned 120 tornadoes, more tornadoes than any other Atlantic hurricane on record.
Number of tornadoes spawned[43]
Rank Count Name Year
1 120 Hurricane Ivan 2004
2 115 Hurricane Beulah 1967
3 101[44] Hurricane Frances 2004
4 86 Hurricane Rita 2005
5 81 Tropical Storm Fay 2008
6 62 Hurricane Katrina 2005
7 54 Hurricane Harvey 2017
8 39 Hurricane Danny 1985
9 34 Hurricane David 1979
Hurricane Isaac 2012
11 33 Hurricane Cindy 2005

Miscellaneous records

Highest forward speed

Highest forward speed
Rank Speed Name Year Day Time ref(s)
1 69 mph (111 km/h) Tropical Storm Six 1961 September 15 1200 UTC [1][45]
2 68 mph (109 km/h) Hurricane Emily 1987 September 26 1200 UTC [1][45]
3 67 mph (108 km/h) Tropical Storm Four 1970 August 18 1200 UTC [1]
4 66 mph (106 km/h) Hurricane Luis 1995 September 11 0600 UTC [1]
5 63 mph (101 km/h) Hurricane Lisa 1998 October 9 1800 UTC [1]
Hurricane Irene 1999 October 19 0000 UTC [1]
Tropical Storm Helene 2000 September 25 1200 UTC [1]
Notes
These are the highest estimated forward speeds of any tropical system (including tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes) between 1851 and 2017. This list does not include extratropical systems, which routinely reach very high forward speeds.

Longest duration

Greatest duration
Sources: NOAA HRD,[46] NHC[47]
Rank Duration
(days, hours)
Name Date
1 27d, 18h "San Ciriaco" August 1899
2 27d, 6h Hurricane Ginger September 1971
3 24d, 18h Hurricane Inga September 1969
4 22d, 6h Hurricane Nadine September 2012
5 22d Hurricane Kyle September 2002
6 21d Hurricane Four September 1926
Hurricane Jose September 2017
7 20d, 18h Hurricane Carrie September 1957
Hurricane Nine September 1893
8 20d, 6h Hurricane Inez September 1966
9 19d, 6h Hurricane Alberto August 2000
Notes
Fluctuated between tropical and post-tropical at some point in its existence, so the number of days are non-consecutive.

Longest duration as a Category 5 hurricane

Greatest duration as a Category 5
Sources: HURDAT2[48]
Rank Duration
(days, hours)
Name Date
1 3d, 6h "Cuba" November 1932
2 3d, 3h Hurricane Irma September 2017
3 3d Hurricane Allen August 1980
4 2d, 12h Hurricane Ivan September 2004
5 1d, 18h Hurricane David August 1979
Hurricane Mitch October 1998
Hurricane Isabel September 2003
8 1d, 6h Hurricane Camille August 1969
Hurricane Maria September 2017
10 1d "Bahamas" September 1932
Hurricane Gilbert September 1988
Hurricane Rita September 2005
Hurricane Dean August 2007
Hurricane Felix September 2007
Notes
Was a Category 5 hurricane on more than one occasion, fluctuating between Category 5 strength and an inferior category, therefore the number of days are non-consecutive.

Worldwide cyclone records set by Atlantic storms

  • Costliest tropical cyclone: Hurricane Harvey2017 – US$198.6 billion in damages
  • Fastest seafloor current produced by a tropical cyclone: Hurricane Ivan2004 – 2.25 m/s (5 mph)[49][50]
  • Highest confirmed wave produced by a tropical cyclone: Hurricane Luis1995 – 98 feet (30 m)[51]
  • Highest forward speed of a tropical cyclone: Tropical Storm Six1961 – 69 mph (111 km/h)
  • Longest time a tropical cyclone has continuously had sustained winds of at least 185 mph (295 km/h): Hurricane Irma2017 – 37 hours[52]
  • Most tornadoes spawned by a tropical cyclone: Hurricane Ivan2004 – 120 confirmed tornadoes
  • Smallest tropical cyclone on record: Tropical Storm Marco2008 – gale-force winds extended 11.5 mi (18.5 km) from storm center (previous record: Cyclone Tracy 1974 – 30 mi (48 km))
  • Smallest tropical cyclone eye on record: Hurricane Wilma2005 – diameter 2.3 miles (3.7 km)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.[5]
  2. ^ The first storm of 1938 was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone reaching tropical storm intensity during the year. However, the 1952 Groundhog Day tropical storm was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone to have peaked at tropical storm intensity; it did so on February 2.[1]
  3. ^ Alice formed in December 1954 but persisted into January 1955.
  4. ^ a b These are the strongest systems in their respective months by virtue of being the only known systems.
  5. ^ a b Hurricanes Audrey (1957) and Alex (2010) had the same minimum pressure, though Audrey was a Category 3 hurricane at peak strength while Alex peaked as a high-end Category 2.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). Miami, FL: National Hurricane Center. April 11, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2017. 
  2. ^ National Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
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