Lingual tonsils

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Lingual tonsils
Illu04 tongue.jpg
Tongue
Details
System Immune system (Lymphatic system)
Identifiers
Latin tonsilla lingualis
Anatomical terminology
[edit on Wikidata]

The lingual tonsils are two small mounds of lymphatic tissue located at the back of the base of the tongue, one on either side. They are composed of lymphatic tissue that functions to assist the immune system in the production of antibodies in response to invading pathogenic bacteria or viruses.

Structure

Microanatomy

Lingual tonsils are covered externally by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium. The epithelium invaginates inward to form a single crypt. Beneath the epithelium is a layer of lymphoid nodules containing lymphocytes. These tonsils are surrounded by thin capsule of connective tissue which separates them from adjacent structures. Mucous glands located at the root of tongue are drained through several ducts into the crypt of lingual tonsils. Secretions of these mucous glands keep the crypt clean and free of any debris. Therefore, the lingual tonsils are less prone to infection.

Blood supply

Lingual tonsils are located on posterior aspect of tongue which is supplied through:

  • Lingual artery, branch of external carotid artery
  • Tonsillar branch of facial artery
  • Ascending pharyngeal branch of external carotid artery

Nerve supply

Lingual tonsils are innervated by tonsillar branches of glossopharyngeal nerve.That is located at the back of the tongue.

Function

Tonsils and the throat–lingual tonsils labelled

Like other lymphatic tissues, the function of lingual tonsils is to prevent infections. These tonsils contain B and T lymphocytes which get activated when harmful bacteria and viruses come in contact with tonsils. B lymphocytes kill pathogens by producing antibodies against them, while T lymphocytes directly kill them by engulfing them.

Clinical significance

Cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma of lingual tonsils can occur in people above 50 years of age.[citation needed]

Sleep apnea

Enlarged or hypertrophic lingual tonsils have the potential to cause or exacerbate sleep apnea.[citation needed]

Additional images

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1138 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

External links

  • Pictures at usc.edu(Registration required)
  • Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate 09.163
  • Histology image: 09802loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University
  • MedEd at Loyola histo/HistoImages/hl6-27.jpg (labeled as 'lymphoid tissue')]
  • Lingual Tonsil
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