Limbu people

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Limbu, Yakthung, Subba, ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ
Limboo group, aboriginal, trans himalayan Nipal.jpg
Limboo group, aboriginal, trans himalayan Nepal
Total population
663,100
Regions with significant populations
   Nepal 487,300[1]
 India 173,000
Languages
Limbu (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n]), Limbu script (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ ᤐᤠᤣ)
Religion
christian ' Mundhum, Kirat Mundhum[2]

The Limbu (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ) (exonym) or Yakthung (endonym) (IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]) are Kirati people indigenous and native to their homeland himalayas, hills, mountainous and plains regions of Limbuwan.[3][4][5]

The original name of Limbus is Yakthung, Yakthumba or Yakthungba (ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ).Limbu males and Limbu females are called “Yakthumma" or "Yakthungma". In Ancient texts believe that "Yakthung" or "Yakthum" is a derivative from china and some interpret its meaning as the "Yaksha winner".[6] In Limbu language it means "heroes of the hills" (Yak - hills, thung or thum - heroes or mighty warriors), which connotation with ancient Kiratas.[7] .[8][9] Subba is also a title given by the Shah Kings to only Limbu village chiefs.[10] Subba was not an indigenous Yakthung terminology, but now they are almost interchangeable terms.

Their history is stated to be written in a book called Bhongsoli also known as Vanisavali of which copies are kept in some of the most ancient families.[11] There are hundreds of Limbu Clans and Tribes.Each Limbu clans are classified under their Tribe or subnational entity or according to their place of origin.

The Chinese text Po-ou-Yeo-Jing,[which?] translated in 308 AD, refers to the Yi-ti-Sai (barbarians bordering on the north), a name which is an exact equivalent of Kiratas.[12][13] The Limbus were also one of the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim.[14][15] Their estimated population of 700,000 is mainly centred in the districts of Sankhuwasabha, Tehrathum, Dhankuta, Taplejung, Morang, Sunsari, Jhapa, Panchthar, Ilam, Kathmandu, Nakhipot, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur in Nepal, These are all within the Mechi and Kosi Zones or "Limbuwan". Portions of the Limbu population are also located in the east and west districts of Sikkim. A smaller number are scattered throughout the cities of Darjeeling and Kalimpong in West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland and in north and south Sikkim, Bhutan, Burma, and others have recently migrated to the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, the United States and many other countries.

History

Limbus are not subcaste of great khambu rai clans

Language

Accounts with Sirijunga

Limbu is one of the few Sino-Tibetan languages of the Central Himalayas to possess their own pre-20th century scripts. (Sprigg 1959: 590), (Sprigg 1959: 591-592 & MS: 1-4)

Vowels and consonants

Vowels:

ʌ, ɑ, i, u, e, ɑi, o, ɑu, ɛ, ɔ

Consonants:

k, kh, g, gh, ŋ, c/ts, ch/tsh, j/dz, jh/dz, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, m, j, r, l, w, sh, s, h, tr

Universal vocabulary

1. Sun : nam; 2. Moon: la:ba; 3. Star: tanchoˀba; 4. Soil: kham; 5. Water: cwat; 6. Stone: luŋ; 7. Fire: mi; 8. Home: him; 9. Tree: sinŋbuŋ; 10. Mother: mamaˀ; 11. Father: ambo; 12. Path: lam; 13. Flower: phuŋ; 14. Head: thibokpa; 15. Eye: mik; 16. Leg: laŋ; 17. Hand: huk; 18. Eat: cama; 19. Drink: thuŋma; 20. Walk: laŋghekma; 21. Sleep: imma;

Culture

Limbu women with traditional clothing and traditional tongba drink.

Limbus practice many of their own life cycle rituals. They believe that lineage is not transmitted patrilineally. Rather, a woman inherits her mother's gods, and when she marries and lives with her husband she brings with her the deities that will then be recognized as the household deities.

Limbu bury their dead and observe for two-to-three days through practiced death rituals. During death ceremony, they put the head of dead in chares ko thal and coin on forehead. They block the nose, ear and put alcohol on the lips of the dead body. Nikwasamma is a dead ritual done to cleanse the house by Phedangma. Relatives, neighbours and visitors bring money as respect and put offering on the top of the dead body. Sons of dead body shave head and eyebrows to respect the body of the dead. They will be known as the new hier in the family. They buried the dead body covered with white cloth in wooden box. The length of the mourning period varies depending on the gender of the deceased. Weddings, mourning, gift exchanges, and settlement of conflicts involve consumption of alcohol i.e. liquor, especially the Limbu traditional beer popularly known as thee which is also drunk in a container called Tongba. Dancing parties are arranged for visitors to the village. These affairs give the young Limbu girls and boys a chance to meet and enjoy dancing and drinking.

Attire and ornaments

YalangTemplate:Yɑˀlɑ:ŋ (Nep. Dhan nach), paddy dance, in Taplejung, Nepal

The traditional dress of the Limbus are mekhli and taga.

While performing mangsewa IPA: [mɑŋsewɑ] (God+worship), Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] people wear mekhli and taga in white colour as it symbolizes purity.

Dhaka is the traditional fabric of the Limbus which are made by weaving it in geometric patterns in a handloom.[16] The art of making dhaka is taught by one generation to another. You will always see a Limbu man clad in dhaka topi (hat) and scarf, and a Limbu lady in dhaka saree, mekhli, blouse and shawl.

In the olden days, the Limbus were skilled in silk farming.[17] The Kiratis were also known as silk traders.[18] According to JB Subba and Iman Xin Chemjong, the Kirat is a corrupt form of kereta, silkworm.

Female dresses and ornament

  • Mekhli- Long dress worn with a horizontal strip of cloth (phɔˀi:) with collars crossing over or in a Vneck style.(Laghea)
  • Chunglokek/sunghamba- Blouse
  • Chaubandi Cholo- Blouse with collars overlapping each other
  • Sim- 'gunyo' in Nepali. A long strip of cloth wrapped around like a skirt.
  • Phaoee IPA: [phɔˀi:]- waist belt

Limbu women are famed for their use of gold jewellery and put by them on a daily basis with pride. Aside from samyang IPA: [sɑmyɑŋ] (gold), they use yuppa (silver), luung IPA: [luŋ](glass stones), ponche (coral/amber), and mudhin (turquoise). Most Limbu ornaments are nature inspired. Nowadays, traditional Limbu ornaments are used by different ethnic groups and can be found in other parts of Nepal. This is due to the sold by different jewelry shops often referring Nepali. As many other global indigenous people, they are shamanistic and worship nature.

  • Samyanfung IPA: [sɑmyɑŋphuŋ](Gold flower)- Huge circular disc like in gold. The common design features a coral on the centre. Amongst Limbus, Samyangfung IPA: [sɑmyɑŋphuŋ] represents sun.
  • Nessey IPA: [nɛssɛˀ] ( ne>nekho ear +se>to bulge)- Large circular flattened gold earring. Common designs are water springs with coral or glass stones.
  • Laksari- Gold earrings worn continuously on the ear lobes In the shape of leaves, diamonds etc.
  • Namloyee or yogakpa- Large silver necklace in the shape of a square or circle embedded with coral stones. Same as Tibetan ghau.
  • Yangyichi or Reji - Long necklace with coins
  • Sesephung (Bright Flower) - A forehead piece with coral moon.
  • Yarling- Lotus bud shaped earrings
  • Pongwari or kantha- Necklace with golden beads and red felt.
  • Hukpangi- Silver bangle
  • Swagep- Finger ring
  • Ponche-Red coral beads

Male dresses and ornaments

  • Paga- Head wear that is pointy and tied at the back with long strips.
  • Ningkheng- Muffler
  • Phaoee IPA: [phɔˀi:]- Waist belt
  • Sandokpa- Upper body dress
  • Sungrehba- coat like upper body dress
  • Lapetta and pagappa- Upper body dress
  • Paohao- Main body dress
  • Hangchang- Upper body dress for royal family
  • -Te't
  • Hangpen- Lower body dress for royal family*

-Shumbaa

  • toppree- cap

This form of clothing was worn until Nepal forced "one religion, one dress, one language" policy which is why many Limbus in Nepal wear the traditional Nepalese dress, chaubandi cholo and daura sural. The Yakthung of Sikkim still wear traditional Limbu clothing. Many efforts are being made by groups such as Yakthung Chumlung to raise awareness on the cultural dress and heritage.

Limbu(Limboo) Architecture

The house of Limbus is a symbolic representation of Yuma- a goddess of the Limbu community. The details of the windows and doors are embroidered with wood carvings depicting different flowers which are used by the Limbus during rituals. Some decorative details are direct representation of gold jewelries worn by Limbu women. These houses can be found at Eastern Nepal and western part of Sikkim, India. These are now endangered house and are hardly built due to adaptation of modern architecture thus resulting in the extinction of local craftsmen.

Flag

The Limbu people have their own flag. The blue represents the bodies of water and the sky, the white represents air and peace, and the red represents the earth and pure blood of the Limbu people. The sun in the centre represents various Limbu spiritual practices and everyday living. The use and recognition of the flag ended in the eighteenth century during the Gorkha invasion. Limbuwan organisations use the flag in Limbuwan laaje IPA: [la:jeˀ] areas.

Lifestyle

The Limbus traditionally practiced subsistence farming. Rice and maize comprised their principal crops. Although there is an abundance of arable land, productivity is greatly limited by insufficient technology. Excess crops are often traded for food that cannot be grown in the region. Limbu Women weave Dhaka fabric cloth on their traditional small hand looms made from bamboo and wood.[19]

A sizable number of Limbu youths are working as labourer in khambu kings lands

Wedding practices

Limbus generally marry within their own community. A Limbu will not be allowed to marry their own clans for up to 7 generations back to ensure that they are not related. Cross-cousin marriage is not allowed in Limbu culture. Marriage between a man and the widow of his elder brother can take place if they mutually agree. Marriage between a man and a woman outside the clan is also possible either by arrangement or by mutual consent of the man and woman in question. It is conventionally said that the customs and traditions of Limbus were established in the distant past by Sawa Yethang IPA: [sawa yethaŋ] (council of eight kings). The marriages are mostly arranged by parents or they can also result when a man elopes with a woman. Asking for a woman's hand is an important ceremony. In that system, the woman can ask for anything, including an amount of gold, silver, etc. This confirms to the woman's family that the man is financially secure enough to keep their daughter happy. A few days after the wedding, the man's family members have to visit the woman's house with a piglet and some alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, depending upon the financial standard of his house. The most important ceremonies of a Limbu wedding take place in the groom's house rather than the bride's because the bride has to stay with her husband. There are two special dances in this ceremony, one is called "yalakma" or dhan nach in Nepali (rice harvest dance) and "Kelangma" IPA: [ke la:ŋma] or Chyabrung IPA: [cyɑbruŋ] in Nepali. The Yalakma IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ] is characterized by men and women dancing in a slow circle, whereas the Kelangma IPA: [ke lɑ:ŋmɑ] consists of complex footwork synchronized with the beat of the drums. Anyone can join the dance, which can last for many hours. The Yalakma IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:kmɑ] can also be a celebration of the harvest season or other social occasions.

Religion and festivals


The Limbus follow the social rules and regulation of Mundhum oral 'scripture' and a religious book.[20] The high god of the Limbu is called Tagera Ningwaphumang IPA: [niŋwɑˀphu:mɑŋ], which may be translated simply as "Supreme Body of Knowledge".[21] Their God Tagera Ningwaphuma is described as a forceful power the creator of life on earth.[22] In earthly form, Tagera Ningwaphuma is worship as the goddess Yuma Sammang IPA: [yumɒˀ] and her male counterpart Theba Sammang.[23] The deity Yuma IPA: [yumɒˀ] (literally: "Grandmother" or "Mother Earth") known as "Yuma Samyo" or "Niwaphuma" is the most important and popular among some Limbus and is worshiped in all occasions. Yuma IPA: [yumɒˀ]is the mother of all the Limbus, therefore one regards his or her mother as a goddess. They also have many different classes of ritual specialists, of which "Phedangma IPA: [phɛdɑŋmɑ]", "Yema/Yeba" IPA: [yɛma/yɛba], and "Shamba" are some. Their religion is enshrined in the evergreen Cynodondactylon (Dubo) grass. Traditionally, the Limbu bury their dead, but due to the influence from other Hindus, cremation is becoming more popular. Limbu people also have their own clergy, such as Phedangma IPA: [phɛdaŋmɑ], Samba, Yeba (male) Yeba-Yema IPA: [yɛba/yɛma] (female).But now most of the Limbu people follow Kirat religion also.As of the changing time some of the Limbu people are Christian and Hindu also but it is believed that their main religion is Mundhum. A very different reformist tradition was established by the Limbu guru Phalgunanda, who established the 'Satyahang' religion.[24]

Traditional music and singing styles

Kirati Limbu women performing Kelang IPA: [ke:lɑ:ŋ]dance during the festival of Kirat festival Udhauli 2012 in Sydney.

Limbus residing in Sikkim, Darjeeling, Assam, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma have their own identity because of a strong belief in "Yumawad". Yumawad is a type of religious scripture which has been kept alive by their religious leaders and handed down verbally from generation to generation. Some of the retellings of Yumawad are also included in Limbu traditional music with social stories, dreams, and everyday life. There has been a rich tradition of Limbus singing their folk songs. Their folk songs can be divided into the following groups:

  1. Khyali - a conversational song in which young lash and lads sing in very poetic expressions and in a very sweet tone.
  2. Traditional Love Songs -
    1. Sakpa Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm]Samlo - This song is sung during the Kusakpa Yaalang IPA: [yɑˀlɑ:ŋ] dance in a fast beat.
    2. Kemba Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm]Samlo - This song is sung during the Kemba Yeaaˀlang dance in a slow beat.
    3. Domke Akma Palam IPA: [pɑ:lɑm] Samlo - It is sung when doing the normal chores and also during the Domke Akma dance.
  3. Hakpare Samlo - this song is sung by middle-aged men and women who have interest in Mundhum and who are well versed in it. One can find spiritual and worldly specialties in this song.
  4. Nisammang IPA: [nisɑmmɑŋ]Sewa Samlo - This song is sung during religious functions. It is a devotional song. Dancing is an important aspect of life among Limbus. Based on acting style, the following types of dances are performed:
    1. Dance performed after origin of life: This type of dance is known as Ke Lang or Chyabrung dance. The dance imitates the actions of animals, insects and any form of living beings.
    2. Agricultural dance: Under this type of dance there are -
      1. Yea Kakma- This dance is performed in the evening after the crops are reaped.
      2. Damke Akme- This dance is performed while sowing crops.
    3. War dance: This form of dance is known as 'Nahangma IPA: [nɑ.hɑŋmɑ]'. It is performed during "Nahangma IPA: [nɑ.hɑŋmɑ]"- their religious function. Before Nahangma dance, Manggena traditional ritual is performed at home and all the blood relatives, cousins are present. During Manggena, stone refer as god with red tika offered is put on banana leaf. A large adult black homegrown pig is killed and present to phedangba. A Junglefowl is given to each person according to match with person's age and gender same as of their Junglefowl. Person who cannot be present due to problems will be done by their closest family member on their behalf. Phedangba say vision of each person when they present their own Junglefowl and later Phedangma beheaded the Junglefowl and sprinkle the blood. They eat their own charcoal burned Junglefowl liver with salt eaten with rice. The rest of meat are prepared for meal Bhutuwa or mixed yangben with rice for dinner. After the Manggena, Nahangma is performed that his spirit has become strong and reached at the top of Chuklung and returned from Chuklung. Chuklung means top of Himalayas. However, this can be done by only those who have no father. In this dance, only adult males and "Shamani" priests can take part. During the dance,they carry a Phedza[25] in their right hand and a domesticated young adult male Junglefowl in their left hand or sword in their right hand and a shield in their left hand, or an arrow in their right hand and a bow in their left hand.

The traditional ritual are done according to the tribes and clans. Some tribes won't eat chicken or pork or mutton while some tribes have different way in celebrating war dance ritual.

    1. Historical dance: In this dance form, the historical war of ten Limbus fought in Aambepojoma IPA: [ɑmbɛˀpɔjɔˀmɑ] Kamketlungma is depicted.
    2. Mysterious and ancient dance performed by Shamani priests: this type of dance is known as Yagrangsing, Phungsok Lang, Tongsing Lang. The dance is performed only by the Shamani priests.

Traditional food

Alcohol is significantly and religiously important to the Limbu culture.[26] Limbus usually made their traditional dish from homegrown domesticated livestock meats like beef, lamb, mutton, poultry, pork, fish and yak over factory farming. They are also domesticated for religious purpose.[27] In general, they consume dhal bhat tarkari with pickle. Dhal (beans soup), bhat (rice), tarkari (curry) with meat and different kinds of achar(pickle). Limbu people always use Phedza[28] to prepare meats. Famous Limbu cuisines are[29][30][31][citation needed]

  • Chembikeek sumbak (oil-fried kinema with spices)
  • Chhurpi (made of Yak, buttermilk)
  • Filinge achar (Niger seed pickle)
  • Gundruk nepalese (fermented leafy vegetables with soup)
  • Kaan sadeko (fried pork ears)
  • Khareng (maize/ millet/ wheat roti baked and cooked)
  • Khoreng (Baked bread roti made from wheat/ millet/ buckwheat/ riceflour)
  • Kinema (fermented beans with soup)
  • Lunghakcha (baked, maize flour rolled in maize khosela)
  • Macha ko siddra (dried river fish)
  • Mandokpenaa thee (fermented millet beverage served with Tongba)
  • Mohi sumbak (oil-fried mohi with spices)
  • Mula ko acchar (radish pickle)
  • Nambong muchhi (Silam mixed with chilli, dry pickle)
  • Pena manda (millet flour cooked in more water)
  • Phando (chutney made from mix of soybean and chilli powder)
  • Phanokeek sumbak (oil-fried fermented bamboo shoots with spices)
  • Phung khey sejonwa (maize/millet distilled liquor)
  • Poponda (finger millet flour wrapped in leaves)
  • Pork Dameko (Pan-seared pork)
  • Pork sekuwa (spicy chopped)
  • Sagee sumbak (neetle tender shots, flower/fruits curry)
  • Sakhekya (dry meat beef)
  • Sargyang (pork blood intestine)
  • Sekuwa (pork, chicken, beef, vegetables skewers)
  • Sibligaan (wild edible greens with bitter taste and high in antioxidant)
  • Sijongwaa aara
  • Sigolya and Penagolya (Baked, millet or barley flour rolled)
  • Sungur ko khutta daal (pork feet in cooked lentil soup)
  • Sura-keek sumbak (oil-fried moldy cheese with spices)
  • Sura sumbak (oil-fried cheese with spices)
  • Tongba traditional drink
  • Wamyuk (hen's inner feathers, liver, hands, wings, intestine and spices curry)
  • Yakhoo Kusee muchee (seed of pumpkin chilli)
  • Yangben (wild edible lichen)
  • Yangben-Faksa (Pork Curry with Yangben)
  • Yangben sumbak (pork blood liver with yangben)
  • Yumet (bhutuwa, a religious Mangena food meats cooked in blood)

There are some taboos while eating the foods. They use a variety of plants and herbs for medicine. Limbus always welcome their guests with foods, Tongba (traditional beverage millet beer), Rakshi (traditional alcoholic beverage), Lassi (yoghurt milk drink ), water and homemade fruit juices.[32]

Folk musical instruments

Limbu musical instruments include the following:[33]

  • Chethya/Yethala
  • Chyabrung
  • Mephrama
  • Miklakom
  • Niyari Hongsing Ke
  • Negra
  • Phakwa
  • The Phamuk is a melody instrument of Limbus which includes three bamboo pipes each about 4cm thick are attached together side by side.
  • Phenjekom
  • Puttungey
  • Simikla
  • Taa is made of brass, 25cm in diameter and one pair of cymbals weighs one kilo. It is played by unmarried Limbu women in Ke Lang.
  • Tetlafakwa IPA: [tɛˀlɑphɛkwɑ]
  • Ting
  • Tungeba
  • Ungdung
  • Yalambar Baja
  • Yea Pongey
An aged man playing Chyabrung Drum, Yuksom, West Sikkim.

Traditional sports

For the Limbu people, Archery has always been considered as the main traditional sport. Archery often involves religious demonstrations and rituals. Historically, Limbu cavalry archers were the important when resisting invasions before the pre-Nepal era. The word Limbu itself came from the word Lim-pfungh which in translation means "Shooting-Arrows" or "Act of archery".

There are legends about the beginning of the Limbuwan Gorkha war. In these legends, a Gorkha Military General met a Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] hunter in a forest. When the General asked the hunter about his presence and what he was doing, the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] hunter replied "Lim-pfungh". The Gorkha army later experienced the fierceness from the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ]-Tribes' horseback archers for years during the Gorkha-Limbu war. Thus, the name "Limbu" was recorded on the papers of the Gorkhas to describe the Yakthung IPA: [yɑkthuŋ] people. However, after the success of Gorkha invasion, horse breeding and keeping declined swiftly in Limbu territories.

Bare-hand Wrestling has also been practised among the Limbu men during festivals. This was also used to settle personal matters after a festive drinking in which the losing wrestler would have to pay the winner by buying him a drink or inviting him to his house for a drink of traditional tongba IPA: [tɔ:ŋbɑ]. na:nchiŋma is the term for wrestling in Yakthung-pan IPA: [yɑkthuŋ pɑ:n].

Notable Limbu people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Government of Nepal.National Planning Commission Secretariat.Central Bureau of Statistics. National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report), November 2012 (PDF). Kathmandu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-04-18. 
  2. ^ P.64 Kinship and Marriage Among the Limbu of Eastern Nepal: A Study in Marriage Stability By Rex Lee Jones University of California, Los Angeles., 1973
  3. ^ State government and politics, Sikkim By Nirmalananda Sengupta Sterling, 1985
  4. ^ Evaluation Of Man And The Modern Society In Sikkim By Jash Raj Subba, 2008
  5. ^ P.6 History, Culture and Customs of Sikkim, J. R. Subba, 2008
  6. ^ P.20 The culture and religion of Limbus By Chaitanya Subba, 1995
  7. ^ The culture and religion of Limbus By Chaitanya Subba, K.B. Subba, 1995
  8. ^ History, Culture and Customs of Sikkim By J. R. Subba
  9. ^ Library of Congress Subject Headings By Library of Congress, 2013
  10. ^ Democracy, pluralism, and change: an inquiry in the Nepalese context By Sanjaya Serchan Chhye Pahuppe, 2001
  11. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, Volume 3, Part 1 By Office of the superintendent of government printing, 1909
  12. ^ Saklani, Dinesh Prasad Ancient communities of the Himalaya Indus Publishing Company, India (1 Mar 2002) ISBN 978-81-7387-090-3 p. 36
  13. ^ Levi, Sylvain Le Nepal Asian Educational Services, India; Facsimile edition (20 Dec 2007)ISBN 978-81-206-0580-0 p. 78
  14. ^ Sanyal, Dr. Chanru Chandra (1979). The Limbus: A South Eastern Himalayan Kirata People. Dipti Printing. p. 7. 
  15. ^ Skoda, Uwe (2014). Navigating Social Exclusion and Inclusion in Contemporary India and Beyond: Structures, Agents, Practices (Anthem South Asian Studies). Anthem Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-1783083404. 
  16. ^ p.15 Rural Enterprise: Case Studies from Developing Ccountries By Malcolm Harper, Shailendra Vyakarnam Intermediate Technology Publications, 1988
  17. ^ Chaintanya Subba, The Culture and Religion of Limbus, K.B. Subba, 1995
  18. ^ Kumar Pradhan, The Gurkha Conquests, Oxford University Press, 1991
  19. ^ Rural Enterprise: Case Studies from Developing Countries, Front Cover By Malcolm Harper, Shailendra Vyakarnam, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1988 - Cooperative societies - 105 pages, P.15
  20. ^ Ancestral Voices: Oral Ritual Texts and Their Social Contexts Among the Mewahang Rai of East Nepal By Martin Gaenszle Lit, 2002
  21. ^ P.33 Kinship and Marriage Among the Limbu of Eastern Nepal: A Study in Marriage Stability Rex Lee Jones By University of California, Los Angeles, 1973
  22. ^ Buddhist Modernities: Re-inventing Tradition in the Globalizing Modern World By Hanna Havnevik, Ute Hüsken, Mark Teeuwen, Vladimir Tikhonov, Koen Wellens Routledge, 17 Feb 2017
  23. ^ P.37 Images of Sikkim: the land, people, and culture By Ramesh Sharma, Sikkim, 1983
  24. ^ P.141 Migration and Religion in Europe: Comparative Perspectives on South Asian Experiences By Ester Gallo, 22 Apr 2016
  25. ^ P.496 A Grammar of Limbu, Front Cover By George van Driem, Walter de Gruyter, 1 Jan 1987 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 593 pages
  26. ^ P.38 Alcohol and drug use in Nepal: with reference to children By Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Centre 2001
  27. ^ Culture and the Environment in the Himalaya By Arjun Guneratne Routledge, 24 Dec 2009
  28. ^ P.496 A Grammar of Limbu, Front Cover By George van Driem, Walter de Gruyter, 1 Jan 1987 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 593 pages
  29. ^ The Tribesman's Journey to Fearless: A Novel Based on Fearism By Desh Subba, 28 May 2015
  30. ^ P.128-133 History, Culture and Customs of Sikkim By J. R. Subba, 2008
  31. ^ P.75 Handbook of Plant-Based Fermented Food and Beverage Technology, Second Edition By Y. H. Hui, E. Özgül Evranuz CRC Press, 17 May 2012
  32. ^ O'Neill, Alexander; et al. (2017-03-29). "Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 13 (21). doi:10.1186/s13002-017-0148-9. Retrieved 2017-05-11. 
  33. ^ Sikkim, Front Cover By Kumar Suresh Singh, Anthropological Survey of India by Seagull Books, 1993, Ethnology, 249 pages, P.109

Further reading

  • Bareh, Hamlet (2001). "The Sikkim Communities". Encyclopaedia of North-East India: Sikkim. Mittal Publications. ISBN 81-7099-794-1. 
  • Perumal Samy P Limbu in LSI Sikkim Part-I Page Nos.219-293 Published by Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner India, Ministry of Home
  • Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-documents/lsi/ling_sikkim.html

External links

  • Limbu alphabet
  • Limbu language
  • www.limbulibrary.com.np - Online Library of Kirat books, history, short story, language, script etc.
  • History of kirat - historian authored by Iman Singh Chemjong, Nepal.
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