Lichfield Cathedral

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Lichfield Cathedral
Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St Chad
Lichfield Cathedral 2010-10-13.jpg
The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral
Lichfield Cathedral is located in Staffordshire
Lichfield Cathedral
Lichfield Cathedral
Shown within Staffordshire
Coordinates: 52°41′08″N 1°49′50″W / 52.685556°N 1.830556°W / 52.685556; -1.830556
Location Lichfield, Staffordshire
Country England
Denomination Church of England
Website www.lichfield-cathedral.org
Architecture
Status Active
Functional status Cathedral
Style Gothic
Years built c. 1195–1340
Specifications
Length 113m
Nave width 21m
Width across transepts 50m
Height 76.8 m (central spire)
Number of towers 3
Number of spires 3
Spire height 76.8 m (crossing), 60.5 m (western)
Administration
Diocese Lichfield (since 787-1075, c.1200-)
Province Canterbury
Clergy
Bishop(s) Michael Ipgrave
Dean Adrian Dorber
Precentor Andrew Stead
Canon Chancellor Pat Hawkins
Canon(s) Peter Holliday (Custos)
Canon Treasurer vacant
Laity
Director of music Ben and Cathy Lamb
Organist(s) Martyn Rawles

Lichfield Cathedral is situated in Lichfield, Staffordshire, England. It is the only medieval English cathedral with three spires. The Diocese of Lichfield covers all of Staffordshire, much of Shropshire and part of the Black Country and West Midlands. The 99th and current Bishop of Lichfield is Michael Ipgrave who was appointed on 10 June 2016.

Overview

Ground plan of the cathedral

The cathedral is dedicated to St Chad and Saint Mary. Its internal length is 113 metres (370 feet), and the breadth of the nave is 21m (68'). The central spire is 77m (252') high and the western spires are about 58m (190').

The stone is sandstone and came from a quarry on the south side of Lichfield. The walls of the nave lean outwards slightly, due to the weight of stone used in the ceiling vaulting; some 200–300 tons of which was removed during renovation work to prevent the walls leaning further.

Lichfield suffered severe damage during the English Civil War in which all of the stained glass was destroyed. In spite of this the windows of the Lady Chapel contain some of the finest medieval Flemish painted glass in existence. Dating from the 1530s it came from the Abbey of Herkenrode in Belgium, in 1801, having been purchased by Brooke Boothby when that abbey was dissolved during the Napoleonic Wars. It was sold on to the cathedral for the same price. There are also some fine windows by Betton and Evans (1819), and many fine late 19th century windows, particularly those by Charles Eamer Kempe.

The Lichfield Gospels, also known as the Book of Chad, are the gospels of Matthew and Mark, and the early part of Luke, written mainly in Latin with some text in early Welsh and dating from around 730. There were originally two volumes but one went missing around the time of the English Civil War. It is closely related in style to the Lindisfarne Gospels. The manuscript is on display in the Chapter House from Easter to Christmas.

The Close is one of the most complete in the country and includes a medieval courtyard which once housed the men of the choir. The three spires are often referred to as 'the Ladies of the Vale'.

History of the cathedral

Early history and elevation to Archbishopric

The cathedral choir
The high altar

When Chad was made Bishop of Mercia in 669 he moved his See from Repton to Lichfield, possibly because this was already a holy site, as the scene of martyrdoms during the Roman period. The first cathedral to be built on the present site was in 700AD when Bishop Hedda built a new church to house the bones of St Chad which had become a sacred shrine to many pilgrims when he died in 672. Offa, King of Mercia seemed to resent his own bishops paying allegiance to the Archbishop of Canterbury in Kent who, whilst under Offa's control, was not of his own kingdom of Mercia. Offa therefore created his own archbishopric in Lichfield, who presided over all the bishops from the Humber to the Thames. All this began in 786, with the consent of Pope Adrian. The Pope’s official representatives were received warmly by Offa and were present at the Council of Chelsea (787), often called `the contentious synod', where it was proposed that the Archbishopric of Canterbury be restricted in order to make way for Offa's new archbishop. It was vehemently opposed, but Offa and the papal representatives defeated Archbishop Jaenbert, installing Higbert as the new Archbishop of Lichfield. Pope Adrian sent Higbert the pallium, denoting his support for this move. In gratitude, Offa promised to send an annual shipment of gold to the pope for alms and supplying the lights in St. Peter's church in Rome. However, The Archbishopric of Lichfield lasted for only 16 years, ending soon after Offa's death, when it was restored to Archbishop Aethelheard of Canterbury.

Starting in 1085 and continuing through the twelfth century the original wooden Saxon church was replaced by a Norman cathedral made from stone, and this was in turn replaced by the present Gothic cathedral begun in 1195. It was completed by the building of the Lady Chapel in the 1330s. The Choir dates from 1200, the Transepts from 1220 to 1240 and the Nave was started in 1260. The octagonal Chapter House, which was completed in 1249 and is one of the most beautiful parts of the Cathedral with some charming stone carvings, houses an exhibition of the cathedral's greatest treasure, the Lichfield Gospels, an 8th-century illuminated manuscript.

Devastation of the English Civil War

The Sleeping Children by Francis Chantrey (1817), portrays two young sisters, Ellen-Jane and Marianne, who died in tragic circumstances in 1812

There were three great sieges of Lichfield during the period 1643–1646 as the cathedral close was surrounded by a ditch and defensive walls it made a natural fortress. The cathedral authorities with a certain following were for Charles I, but the townsfolk generally sided with Parliament, and this led to the fortification of the close in 1643. Robert Greville, 2nd Baron Brooke, led an assault against it, but was killed [1] by a deflected bullet from John Dyott (known as 'dumb' because he was a deaf mute) who along with his brother Richard Dyott had taken up a position on the battlements of the central cathedral spire on 2 March 1643.[citation needed] Brooke's deputy John Gell, took over the siege. The Royalist garrison surrendered to Gell two days later.[citation needed]

In April of the same year (1643) Prince Rupert led an Royalist expeditionary force from Oxford to recapture Lichfield.[1] The siege started on 8 April. During the second assault Rupert's engineers detonated what is thought to be the first explosive mine to be used in England to breach the defences. Unable to defend the Close, Colonel Russell, the parliamentary commander of the garrison, surrendered on terms to Rupert on 21 April.[2]

The cathedral suffered extensive damage: the central spire was demolished, the roofs ruined and all the stained glass smashed. Bishop Hacket began the restoration of the cathedral in the 1660s, aided by substantial funds donated by the restored monarch, but it was not until the 19th century that the damage caused by the Civil War was fully repaired. Up until the 19th century, on top of an ornamented gable, between the two spires, stood a colossal figure of Charles II, by William Wilson. Today it stands just outside the south doors.[citation needed]

Victorian restoration

The Cathedral Close, Lichfield with its many fine buildings is one of the most unspoilt in England
The Lichfield Angel carving

Although the 18th century was a golden age for the City of Lichfield, it was a period of decay for the cathedral. The 15th-century library, on the north side of the nave, was pulled down and the books moved to their present location above the Chapter House. Most of the statues on the west front were removed and the stonework covered with Roman cement. At the end of the century James Wyatt organised some major structural work, removing the High Altar to make one worship area of Choir and Lady Chapel and adding a massive stone screen at the entrance to the Choir. Francis Eginton painted the east window and was commissioned by the chapter to do other work in the cathedral. The ornate west front was extensively renovated in the Victorian era by George Gilbert Scott.

It includes a remarkable number of ornate carved figures of kings, queens and saints, working with original materials where possible and creating fine new imitations and additions when the originals were not available. Wyatt's choir-screen had utilised medieval stone-work which Scott in turn used to create the clergy's seats in the sanctuary. The new metal screen by Francis Skidmore and John Birnie Philip to designs by Scott himself is a triumph of High Victorian art, as are the fine Mintons tiles in the choir, inspired by the medieval ones found in the Choir foundations and still seen in the Library.

Lichfield Angel

In February 2003, an eighth century sculpted panel of the Archangel Gabriel was discovered under the nave of the cathedral. The 600mm tall panel is carved from limestone, and originally was part of a stone chest, which is thought to have contained the relics of St Chad.[3] The panel was broken into three parts but was still otherwise intact and had traces of red pigment from the period. The pigments on the Lichfield Angel correspond closely to those of the Lichfield Gospels which have been dated to around 730AD. The Angel was first unveiled to the public in 2006, when visitor numbers to the cathedral trebled. After being taken to Birmingham for eighteen months for examination, it is now exhibited in the cathedral.

Dean and chapter

Above the ornate south doorway of Lichfield Cathedral stand seven figures carved in Roman cement. Figures from left to right, representing: Saints Augustine of Hippo, Jerome, Ambrose of Milan, Gregory the Great, John Chrysostom, Athanasius and Basil.

As of 7 January 2018:[4]

  • DeanAdrian Dorber (since 24 September 2005 installation)
  • Canon Precentor (Canon for Liturgy, Music and Formation) — Andrew Stead (Canon since September 2013; Precentor since Easter 2017; previously Treasurer and school chaplain)
  • Canon Custos — Peter Holliday (since 2013)
  • Canon Chancellor (Canon for Pastoral Development and Mission) — Pat Hawkins (since October 2014 installation)
  • Canon Treasurer — vacant since Stead's 2017 move

The additional role of Vice Dean has been vacant since Anthony Moore's resignation in 2017.

Lay Chapter

  • Bryan Ramsell
  • Anne Parkhill
  • Margaret Harding
  • Peter Durrant

Music

Lichfield Cathedral Organ

Organists

Notable organists of Lichfield Cathedral include the 17th-century composer Michael East, and the musical educator and choral conductor William Henry Harris who conducted at the coronations of both Elizabeth II and George VI

Priest Vicars Choral

  • The Precentor's Vicar: Vacant
  • The Dean's Vicar: Vacant
  • The Chancellor's Vicar: Vacant
  • The Treasurer's Vicar: Vacant

Lay Vicars Choral and Choristers

The Choir has 9 Lay Vicars Choral and up to 18 Choristers.[5]

Burials

Aerial view, November 2011

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Willis-Bund 1905, pp. 83–84.
  2. ^ Willis-Bund 1905, pp. 80–90.
  3. ^ Wilcox, Peter (2011). The Gold, the Angel and the Gospel Book. Lichfield Cathedral. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-9558887-7-9. 
  4. ^ "Who's Who". Lichfield-cathedral.org. 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018. 
  5. ^ Lichfield Cathedral Choir Web Site
  6. ^ Lord Anglesey's burial - See p. 35

References

  • Willis-Bund, John William (1905), The Civil War In Worcestershire, 1642-1646: And the Scotch Invasion Of 1651, Birmingham: The Midland Educational Company 

External links

  • Lichfield Cathedral Web Site
  • Manuscripts of Lichfield Cathedral - Digital facsimiles of the St Chad Gospels and Cathedral's Wycliffe New Testament; includes overlay viewer, multispectral images, historical images (going back to 1887), collation, and presently sixteen interactive 3D and RTI renderings - University of Oklahoma
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