Libyan Civil War (2014–present)

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For the civil war in 2011, see Libyan Civil War (2011).
Libyan Civil War
Part of the Arab Winter, the Libyan Crisis
Libyan Civil War.svg
Military situation in Libya on 16 April 2017
  Under the control of the Tobruk-led Government and Libyan National Army
  Under the control of the Government of National Accord and Allies
  Under the control of the National Salvation Government
  Controlled by the Mujahedeen Councils of Derna, Benghazi and Adjabiya
  Controlled by local forces
  Controlled by Tuareg forces
(For a more detailed map, see military situation in the Libyan Civil War)
Date 16 May 2014 – present
(2 years, 11 months, 1 week and 4 days)
Location Libya
Status

Ongoing

Main belligerents

Libya Council of Deputies (Tobruk-based)[1][2]

 Egypt[8][9] (limited involvement)
 United Arab Emirates[8][10] (limited involvement)
Supported by:


Libya Gaddafi loyalists[22]

Libya Government of National Accord
(since 2016)

Supported by:

Libya General National Congress (Tripoli-based)[36]

Supported by:


Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries[44][45]

Shura Council of Mujahideen in Derna

Libya Benghazi Defense Brigades[46][47]

Ajdabiya Shura Council[48]

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (from 2014)[49]

Supported by:

AQMI Flag asymmetric.svg Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (2014–15;[53][54] alleged since[55])
Commanders and leaders

Libya Aguila Saleh Issa
(President of Council of Deputies)
Libya Abdullah al-Thani
(Prime Minister) [76]
Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar
(Commander of Operation Dignity)
Col. Wanis Abu Khamada
(Commander of Libyan Special Forces)
Brig. Gen. Saqr Geroushi
(Chief of Staff of the Libyan Air Force)

Chief of Staff Abdel Razek Al-Nazuri (Libyan Ground Forces)

Libya Fayez al-Sarraj
(Chairman of the Presidential Council and Prime minister)
Libya Col. Al-Mahdi Al-Barghathi
(GNA Minister of Defense)

Rida Issa[29]
(Libyan Navy commander)

Libya Nouri Abusahmain (former)
(President of the GNC)
Libya Khalifa al-Ghawi  (WIA)
(Prime Minister, not internationally recognized)[77]
Libya Sadiq Al-Ghariani
(Grand Mufti)
Salah Badi
(Operation Libya Dawn Commander)
Shaaban Hadia
(LROR Commander)
Adel Gharyani
(LROR Commander)


Abu Khalid al Madani
(Ansar al-Sharia Leader)[78]
Mokhtar Belmokhtar 
(Commander of Al-Mourabitoun, believed dead)[79]
Mohamed al-Zahawi [80]
(Former Ansar al-Sharia Leader)
Wissam Ben Hamid [81]
(Libya Shield 1 Commander)

Salim Derby 
(Commander of Abu Salim Martyrs Brigade)[82]

Abu Nabil al-Anbari  (Top ISIL leader in Libya)[83][84]

Abu Hudhayfah al-Muhajir[85]
(ISIL governor of Wilayat Tripolitania)
Casualties and losses
5,695 killed (as of 31 Dec. 2016)[86]
20,000 injured (as of May 2015)[87]

The second Libyan Civil War[88][89] is an ongoing conflict among rival groups seeking control of the territory of Libya. The conflict has been mostly between the government of the Council of Deputies (CoD) that was elected democratically in 2014, also known as the "Tobruk government" and internationally recognized as the "Libyan government"; and the rival General National Congress (GNC) endorsed government, also called the "National Salvation Government", based in the capital Tripoli established after Operation Libya Dawn.

In December 2015 the Libyan Political Agreement (LPA) [90] was signed. The LPA was the result of protracted negotiations between rival political camps based in the capital, Tripoli, Tobruk and elsewhere which agreed to unite as the Government of National Accord. Although the Government of National Accord is now functioning, its authority is still unclear as specific details acceptable to both sides have not yet been agreed upon.

The CoD also known as the House of Representatives, strongest in eastern Libya, has the loyalty of the Libyan National Army under the command of General Khalifa Haftar and has been supported by air strikes by Egypt and the UAE.[91] The GNC, based in western Libya and backed by "Libya Dawn", Qatar, Sudan and Turkey,[91][92][93][94] initially accepted the results of the 2014 election, but rejected them after the Supreme Constitutional Court nullified an amendment regarding the roadmap for Libya's transition and HoR elections.[13] Due to controversy about constitutional amendments, the HoR refused to take office from GNC in Tripoli,[95] which was controlled by powerful militias from the western coastal city of Misrata. Instead, the HoR established its parliament in Tobruk.

In addition to these, there are also smaller rival groups: the Islamist Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, led by Ansar al-Sharia (Libya), which has had the support of the GNC;[96] the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's (ISIL's) Libyan provinces;[97] as well as Tuareg militias of Ghat, controlling desert areas in the southwest; and local forces in Misrata District, controlling the towns of Bani Walid and Tawergha. The belligerents are coalitions of armed groups that sometimes change sides.[91]

The United Nations brokered a cease-fire in December 2015, and on 31 March 2016, the leaders of a new UN-supported "unity government" arrived in Tripoli.[64] On 5 April, the rival GNC government announced that it was suspending operations and handing power to the new unity government, officially named the "Government of National Accord", although it was not yet clear whether the new arrangement would succeed.[65] As of 22 August, the unity government still had not received the approval of the House of Representatives with most members of the parliament voting against it in a motion of no confidence.[98][99][100][101] At a meeting in Cairo in February 2017, Field Marshal Haftar of the Tobruk government refused to hold direct talks with Prime Minister Sarraj of the GNA and thus Egypt's efforts to unify the two governments failed.[102]

Contents

Background of discontent with General National Congress

At the beginning of 2014, Libya was governed by the General National Congress (GNC), which won the popular vote in 2012 elections.The GNC had become the subject of considerable discontent for, among other things. The GNC lost credibility as a result of having overstepped its mandate on the one hand, and accomplished little on the other. The GNC was made of two major political groupings, the National Forces Alliance (NFC) and the Justice and Construction Party (JCP). The two major groups in parliament had failed to reach political compromises on the larger more important issues that the GNC faced.

Division among these parties, the row over the political isolation law, and a continuous unstable security situation greatly impacted the GNC's ability to deliver real progress towards a new constitution for Libya which was a primary task for this body.[103]

The GNC also included members associated with conservative Islamist Groups as well as revolutionary groups (thuwwar). Some members of the GNC had a conflict of interest due to associations with militias and were accused of channeling government funds towards some armed groups and allowing others to conduct assassinations and kidnappings. Parties holding majority of seats and some holding minority of seats began to use boycotts or threats of boycotts which increased division and suppressed relevant debates by removing them from the congressional agenda;[104] voting to declare sharia law and establishing "a special committee" to "review all existing laws to guarantee they comply with Islamic law";[105] imposing gender segregation and compulsory hijab at Libyan universities; and refusing to hold new elections when its electoral mandate expired in January 2014[106] until General Khalifa Haftar launched a large-scale military offensive against the Islamists in May 2014, code-named Operation Dignity (Arabic: عملية الكرامة‎‎; 'Amaliya al-Karamah).[107][108]

Political Fragmentation of the GNC

The 2012 elections, overseen by the Libyan electoral commission with the support of the UN Special Mission In Libya (UNSMIL) and nongovernmental organizations like the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), have been considered "fair and free" by most Libyans. However, the elections did not necessarily create a strong government because the Parliament was fragmented due to the lack of organized political parties in Libya post-revolution. The GNC was made up two major parties, the National Forces Alliance and the Justice and Construction Party, as well as independents in which some where moderates and others conservative Islamists. The GNC became a broad-based congress.[103]

The GNA elected Nouri Abusahmain as president of the GNC in June 2013.[109][110] He was considered an independent Islamist and a compromise candidate acceptable to liberal members of the congress, as he was elected with 96 out of a total of 184 votes by the GNC.[111]

GNC establishes the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room (LROR)

The GNC was challenged due to increasing security concerns in Tripoli. The GNC itself was attacked many times from militias and armed protesters who stormed the GNC assembly hall.[112] Following his appointment, Abusahmain was tasked with providing security. He setup the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room (LROR) which was initially intended to protect and secure Tripoli in August 2013. But this armed group was responsible for kidnapping Prime Minister Zeidan in October of that year resulting in the GNC dismissing it from its security function and Abusahmain himself as president.[113] During his term, Abusahmain blocked inquiries into the distribution of state funds and it was alleged that Abusahmain was channeling government funding towards the LROR.[111] The LROR was not an Islamist armed group but rather was made of rebels from the city of Gharyan. Its commander was Adel Gharyani.

In October 2013, following the kidnapping of the Prime Minister, Abusahmain used his presidency to change the agenda of the GNC in order to prevent a debate over disestablishing the LROR. At the same time, he cancelled a request to establish a committee to investigate the allocation, by Abusahmain himself, of 900 million Libyan Dinars (US $720 million) to the LROR and various other armed groups.[104] Instead, the LROR had its responsibilities reduced by the GNC but was allowed to continue to operate, and no one was prosecuted for the incident.

Kidnapping of Prime Minister Zeidan

The kidnapping of Zeidan was believed to be a coup attempt supported by members of the GNC, who was viewed as too moderate (see: 2013 Libyan coup d'état attempt).

Most journalists reported that it was the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room (LROR) (Ghurfat Amaliyat al-Thuwar) created by Abusahmain by decree 143 of 7 July. Yet there is evidence to suggest that this is not the case and that armed groups such as the Duru3 actually conducted the kidnapping.[114]

Expansion of armed groups during the GNC's term

Many Libyans blamed the GNC and the interim government for a continued lack of security in the country. The interim government struggled to control well-armed militias and armed groups that established during the revolution. Libyans in Benghazi especially began to witness assassinations and kidnapping and perceived the GNC to be turning a blind eye to the deteriorating security situation in the east.

But security concerns increased across the country allowing armed groups to expand in both Tripoli and in the east.

  • In 2012, the assassination of the US ambassador to Libya took place by Ansar al-Sharia.[115]
  • In October 2013 the kidnapping of Prime Minister Ali Zeidan by the LROR.
  • The kidnapping of Egyptian diplomats in January 2014 also by the LROR.
  • In March 2014 armed protesters allegedly linked to the LROR stormed the GNC parliament building, shooting and injuring two lawmakers and wounding several others.[112]

In April 2014, an anti-terrorist training base called "Camp 27", located between Tripoli and the Tunisian border, was taken over by forces fighting under the control of Abd al-Muhsin Al-Libi, also known as Ibrahim Tantoush,[116] a long-serving Al-Qaeda organizer and former member of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group.[117] The Islamist forces at Camp 27 have subsequently been described as part of the Libya Shield Force.[118] The Libya Shield Force was already identified by some observers as linked to al-Qaeda as early as 2012.[119][120]

GNC's Political Isolation Law

Although Islamists were outnumbered by Liberals and Centrists in the GNC, in May 2014 they lobbied for a law "banning virtually everyone who had participated in Qaddafi's government from holding public office". While several Islamist political parties and independents supported the law, as they generally had no associations to the Qaddafi regime, the law enjoyed strong public support. Polls demonstrates that a large majority of the Libyan people supported the exclusion of high-ranking Qaddafi-regime officials.[103]

The law particularly impacts elite expatriates and leaders of liberal parties. There existed reservations that such a law would eliminate technocratic expertise needed in Libya at the time.

Armed militiamen stormed government ministries, shut down the GNC itself and demanded the law's passage. This intimidated the GNC into passing the law in which 164 members approved the bill, with only four abstaining and no member opposing it.[103]

Suppression of women's rights

GNC opponents argue that it was supporting Islamist actions against women. Sadiq Ghariani, the Grand Mufti of Libya, is perceived to be linked closely to Islamist parties. He has issued fatwas ordering Muslims to obey the GNC,[121] and fatwas ordering Muslims to fight against Haftar's forces[122]

In March 2013, Sadiq Ghariani, the Grand Mufti, issued a fatwa against the UN Report on Violence Against Women and Girls. He condemned the UN report for "advocating immorality and indecency in addition to rebelliousness against religion and clear objections to the laws contained in the Quran and Sunnah".[123][124] Soon after the Grand Mufti issued a clarification op-ed that there should be no discrimination between men and women yet women have a greater role in the family, nevertheless, this does not mean Islam violates the rights of women.[125]

Later in 2013, lawyer Hamida Al-Hadi Al-Asfar, advocate of women's rights, was abducted, tortured and killed. It is alleged she was targeted for criticising the Grand Mufti's declaration.[126] No arrests were made.

In June 2013, two politicians, Ali Tekbali and Fathi Sager, appeared in court for "insulting Islam" for publishing a cartoon promoting women's rights.[127] Under sharia law they were facing a possible death penalty. The case caused widespread concern although they were eventually acquitted in March 2014. After the GNC was forced to accept new elections, Ali Tekbali was elected to the new House of Representatives.

Protesters stage a large demonstration in Shahat against the GNC's mandate extension plan.[107]

During Nouri Abusahmain's presidency of the GNC and subsequent to GNC's decision to enforce sharia law in December 2013, gender segregation and compulsory hijab were being imposed in Libyan universities from early 2014, provoking strong criticism from Women's Rights groups.

GNC extends its mandate without elections

The GNC failed to stand down at the end of its electoral mandate in January 2014, unilaterally voting on 23 December 2013 to extend its power for at least one year. This caused widespread unease and some protests. Residents of the eastern city of Shahat, along with protesters from Bayda and Sousse, staged a large demonstration, rejecting the GNC's extension plan and demanding the resignation of the congress followed by a peaceful power transition to a legitimate body. They also protested the lack of security, blaming the GNC for failing to build the army and police.[107] Other Libyans rejecting the proposed mandate rallied in Tripoli's Martyrs Square and outside Benghazi's Tibesti Hotel, calling for the freeze of political parties and the re-activation of the country's security system.[128]

On 14 February 2014, General Khalifa Haftar ordered the GNC to dissolve and called for the formation of a caretaker government committee to oversee new elections. However his actions had little effect on the GNC, which called his actions "an attempted coup" and called Haftar himself "ridiculous" and labelled him an aspiring dictator. The GNC continued to operate as before. No arrests were made. Haftar launched Operation Dignity two months later, on 16 May.[citation needed]

Council of Deputies versus New GNC

On 25 May 2014, about one week after Khalifa Haftar started his Operation Dignity offensive against the General National Congress, that body set 25 June 2014 as the date for new elections.[129] Islamists were defeated, but rejected the results of the election, which saw only an 18% turnout.[130][131][132] They accused the new Council of Deputies parliament of being dominated by supporters of the former dictator, and they continued to support the old GNC after the Council officially replaced it on 4 August 2014.[91][133][134]

The conflict escalated on 13 July 2014, when Tripoli's Islamists and Misratan militias launched Operation Libya Dawn to seize Tripoli International Airport, capturing it from the Zintan militia on 23 August. Shortly thereafter, members of the GNC, whom had rejected the June election, reconvened as a new General National Congress and voted themselves as replacement of the newly elected Council of Deputies, with Tripoli as their political capital, Nouri Abusahmain as president and Omar al-Hasi as prime minister. As a consequence, the majority of the Council of Deputies was forced to relocate to Tobruk, aligning itself with Haftar's forces and eventually nominating him army chief.[135] On 6 November, the supreme court in Tripoli, dominated by the new GNC, declared the Council of Deputies dissolved.[136][137][138] The Council of Deputies rejected this ruling as made "under threat".[139]

On 16 January 2015, the Operation Dignity and Operation Libya Dawn factions agreed on a ceasefire.[62] The country was then led by two separate governments, with Tripoli and Misrata controlled by forces loyal to Libya Dawn and the new GNC in Tripoli, while the international community recognized Abdullah al-Thani's government and its parliament in Tobruk.[140] Benghazi remained contested between pro-Haftar forces and radical Islamists.[141]

Opposing forces

Islamist forces

The Islamist "Libyan Dawn" has been described as "an uneasy coalition" including "former al-Qaeda jihadists" who fought against Qaddafi in the nineties, Berber ethnic militias, members of Libya's branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, and a "network of conservative merchants" from Misrata, whose fighters make up "the largest block of Libya Dawn's forces".[142] The Islamist forces are identified as "terrorists" by the elected parliament in Tobruk.[143] The city of Zawia and its associated brigades have been waging operations in western Libya in support of the Libya Dawn coalition. The motivations of the Zawia brigades participation in the war have been described as unrelated to religion and instead deriving foremost from tribal conflict with the Warshafana and secondarily as a result of opposition to the Zintani brigades and General Haftar.[144]

The Libya Shield Force supports the Islamists. Its forces are divided geographically into the Western Shield, Central Shield and Eastern Shield. Elements of the Libya Shield Force were identified by some observers as linked to Al-Qaeda as early as 2012.[119][120] The term "Libya Shield 1" is used to refer to the Islamist part of the Libya Shield Force in the east of Libya.[145]

In Eastern Libya, Islamist armed groups have organized themselves into the Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries. These are:

In western Libya, the prominent Islamist forces are the Central Shield (of the Libya Shield Force), which consists especially of Misrata units, and the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room. Two smaller organizations operating in western Libya are Ignewa Al-Kikly and the "Lions of Monotheism".

Al-Qaeda leader Abd al-Muhsin Al-Libi, also known as Ibrahim Ali Abu Bakr or Ibrahim Tantoush[117] has been active in western Libya, capturing the special forces base called Camp 27 in April 2014 and losing it to anti-Islamist forces in August 2014.[116] The Islamist forces around Camp 27 have been described as both Al-Qaida[116] and as part of the Libya Shield Force.[118] The relationship between Al-Qaeda and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb is unclear, and their relationship with other Libyan Islamist groups is unclear. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb are also active in Fezzan, especially in border areas.

The Zawia tribe has been allied to Libya Dawn since August 2014[146] although in June 2014 at least one Zawia army unit had appeared to side with General Haftar, and reports in December claimed Zawia forces were openly considering breaking away from Libya Dawn.[147] Zawia militia have been heavily fighting the Warshefana tribe. In the current conflict, the Warshefana have been strongly identified with the forces fighting against both Libya Dawn and Al Qaeda. Zawia has been involved in a long-standing tribal conflict with the neighbouring Warshefana tribe since 2011.[148]

Anti-Islamist forces

The anti-Islamist forces are built around Haftar's faction of the Libyan National Army, including land, sea and air forces.

Since the Battle of Tripoli Airport, armed groups associated with Zintan and the surrounding Nafusa region have become prominent. The Airport Security Battalion is recruited in large part from Zintan.

The "Zintan Brigades" fall under the leadership of the Zintan Revolutionaries' Military Council. They consist of:

  • The Qaaqaa Brigade
  • The Lightning Bolt (Sawaiq) Brigade
  • The Civic Brigade (لواء المدني)

The Airport Security Battalion at Tripoli Airport was linked to the Zintan Brigades.

Warshefana tribal armed groups, from the area immediately south and west of Tripoli, have been playing a growing role in the anti-Islamist forces. On 5 August, they were reported to have recaptured Camp 27, a training base west of Tripoli. But it had been captured by forces under Al-Qaeda organizer Ibrahim Ali Abu Bakr Tantoush in April 2014. Warshefana armed groups have also been involved in a long-standing tribal conflict with the neighbouring Zawia city since 2011.[148] Zawia has been allied to Libya Dawn since August 2014[146] although its commitment to Libya Dawn is reportedly wavering.[147]

A minority portion of the Libya Shield Force is reported to have not joined the Islamist forces. It is not clear if this means they have joined the anti-Islamist forces. Although journalists have referred to this group as "Libya Shield 2"[149] to distinguish it from the Islamist faction which calls itself Libya Shield 1, it is not clear that this name is commonly used.

Taking sides

General Khalifa Haftar who launched the anti-Islamist operation on 16 May 2014.

On 19 May 2014, a number of Libyan military officers announced their support for Gen. Haftar, including officers in an air force base in Tobruk, and others who have occupied a significant portion of the country's oil infrastructure, as well as members of an important militia group in Benghazi. On the other hand, several fighters from Misrata moved to Tripoli to counter Haftar's offensive, but this happened after the general managed to gather allies from Bayda, 125 miles east of Benghazi.[150]

Additional supporters of the movement include Libya's former Prime Minister Ali Zeidan, ousted by General National Congress (GNC) Islamist parties, and Libya's ambassador to the United Nations who had announced his backing of Haftar's offensive against Islamist lawmakers and extremist militias, just hours after the country's air force commander had made a similar move, further building support for a campaign. The current Prime Minister has described Operation Dignity as a coup d'état.[3][151] The commander of the army's special forces also said he had allied with Haftar.[4] However, the show of support for the general appears to have triggered a heavy backlash, as Libya's navy chief Brig. Gen. Hassan Abu-Shanaq, who also announced his support for Haftar's revolt, was wounded in an assassination attempt in the capital Tripoli along with his driver and a guard. On 20 May, the air forces headquarters in Tripoli came under a rocket attack but no casualties were reported.[3][152]

On 21 May, the uprising was described by the Washington Post as the most serious challenge to the Libyan authorities since the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi in 2011.[150]

The Islamist forces have attempted to secure some support by focusing on a tribal theme, arguing that the elected government is not adequately opposed to the idea of military units led by Zintanis.[153] As a Berber/Amazigh, Nouri Abusahmain's prominence has also secured the Islamists some Berber/Amazigh support. One unnamed pro-Dawn Amazigh commander has apparently claimed "The majority of Dawn are not Islamist..." and "We all have different reasons for wanting less Zintani influence in western Libya."[153]

Awakening

In the Benghazi region, a salafist group calling itself "the Awakening" (sahwa), the "Islamic Awakening", or "the Awakening of Islam", co-operates with the Tobruk government specifically in the conflict against the Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries. It is not clear what stance the group would take between the Tobruk government and Libya Dawn. The Awakening group appears to be a proxy of the Saudi Islamic Awakening movement, which is linked to the Muslim Brotherhood, which is the largest group in the Libya Dawn government.

Effects of the war

Libyan oil fields, pipelines, refineries and storage

As of February 2015, damage and disorder from the war has been considerable.[154] There are frequent electric outages, little business activity, and a loss in revenues from oil by 90%.[154] Over 4,000 people have died from the fighting,[86] and some sources claim nearly a third of the country's population has fled to Tunisia as refugees.[154]

A recent announcement from the company said the company aims 900,000 barrel per day in the next year. Oil production has fallen from 1.6 million barrel per day to 900,000 in four years of war.[155]

2014

16–17 May 2014: Operation Dignity offensive in Benghazi

Fighting

Hostilities first broke out early in the morning of Friday 16 May 2014 when Gen. Haftar's forces assaulted the bases of certain Benghazi Islamist militia groups, including the one blamed for the 2012 assassination of US ambassador Christopher Stevens. Helicopters, jets and ground forces took part in the assault, killing at least 70, and injuring at least 250. Haftar has vowed to not stop until the extremists groups are purged.[156][157] Shortly before the assault Haftar reportedly asked a close friend, "Am I committing suicide?"[158]

The operation, codenamed "Operation Dignity" by Haftar, began when forces loyal to General Haftar attacked units of the February 17th Martyrs Brigade, the Libya Shield No. 1 Brigade (also known as Deraa No. 1 Brigade), and Ansar al-Sharia. Fighting was largely confined to the south western Benghazi districts of Hawari and Sidi Ferej. In particular the fighting focused on the area between the south-western gate checkpoint and the cement factory; an area controlled by Ansar al-Sharia. As part of the fighting helicopters were seen over Hawari. Fighting was also reported in the port area between marines and the Libya Shield No. 1 (Deraa No. 1) Brigade.[159]

Haftar's forces seemingly moved on Benghazi from the east, with some units originating from Marj. Included within these forces were various tribal units. Elements of the Libyan military in Benghazi then seemingly joined them. There were also unconfirmed reports of forces loyal to Ibrahim Jadhran’s Cyrenaica federalist forces fighting alongside units loyal to Haftar.[159]

Although the Libyan Air Force and marines have close links with the Saiqa Special Forces Brigade, neither the Brigade, nor the Benghazi Joint Security Room (BJSR), were seemingly involved. The BJSR former spokesperson, Colonel Mohammad Hejazi, spoke of Libyan military forces fighting "terrorist formations" in the Benghazi districts of Sidi Ferej and Hawari. Hejazi also claimed that Libyan "army forces" were now in control of a camp at Rafallah Al-Sahati. Libya Herald also claimed that an eyewitness had claimed to have seen tanks belonging to the Saiqa Brigade stationed on the road in front of its camp at Buatni. The Brigade called for Benghazi residents to avoid districts witnessing the clashes.[159]

As a result of the fighting the streets of Benghazi were largely empty and roads into Benghazi were effectively closed.[159] The fighting also resulted in the closure of Benina International Airport, near Benghazi.[160]

The following day, fighters from Rafallah al-Sahati and the 17 February Brigade also returned to their bases, from which they had been driven off the previous day.[161]

Haftar's subsequent press release

On 17 May, Haftar held a press conference in which he proclaimed that the current GNC was no longer representing the Libyan people and was illegitimate. He claimed to have uncovered evidence that the GNC had opened Libya's borders to avowed terrorists and had invited numerous international Islamist fighters to come to Libya, offering them Libyan passports. He explained that his primary aim was to "purge" Islamist militants from Libya, specifically the "terrorist" Muslim Brotherhood.[162]

Government reaction

At a government press conference held as a response to the Benghazi assault, acting Prime Minister Abdullah Al-Thinni condemned the move by Haftar as illegal and claimed that the move undermined attempts to confront terrorism. Thinni had called Ansar al-Sharia a terrorist organisation earlier in May 2014.[159]

Thinni claimed that only 1 Libyan Air Force plane had taken part in the clashes, alongside 120 army vehicles, although eyewitnesses reported to CNN as having seen multiple aircraft involved in the assault.[163]

Major General Abdulsalam Jad Allah Al-Salheen Al-Obaidi, the Chief of Staff of the Libyan National Army, also condemned the attack by Haftar, and called forces loyal to him "intruders into Benghazi". Instead Obaidi urged "revolutionaries" in Benghazi to resist them.[159]

The next day, Libya's army responded to Haftar's airstrikes by proclaiming a no-fly zone over Benghazi banning all flights over the city in a direct challenge to Haftar in order to prevent the paramilitary force from using air power against Islamist militias in the region.[164][165][166]

Casualties

By the end of the first day Haftar's LNA had seemingly suffered 4 dead and 24 wounded. LNA dead and wounded were taken to a hospital in Marj. The number of dead and wounded from the Islamist groups was made difficult due to Ansar al-Sharia's policy of not releasing casualty reports. The 17th February Brigade similarly released no figures.[159] Overall, the resulting battle claimed between 70 and 75 lives.[156]

18 May: Operation Dignity offensive in Tripoli

Gen. Haftar’s militia allies backed by truck-mounted anti-aircraft guns, mortars and rocket fire attacked parliament, sending lawmakers fleeing for their lives as gunmen ransacked the legislature, declaring the body suspended. A commander in the military police in Libya read a statement announcing the body's suspension on behalf of a group led by Haftar.[167]

The clashes began on the evening of Sunday 18 May, beginning first at the GNC building, before then spreading to Hay Al-Akwakh, particularly in the area of the steel bridge on the Airport road. Missiles were also reported to have fallen close to the TV station on Ennasr Street. Heavy firing was also heard in the Corniche area on the way to Mitiga airbase. The clashes however died down by the late evening.[168]

Later on Sunday evening a group of 5 officers, who identified themselves as the Leaders of the Libyan Army, announced the suspension of the General National Congress. The officers, under the lead of the Zintani former head of Military Intelligence, Col. Muktar Fernana, instead announced that the Constitutional Committee would carry out the work of the GNC. Under the plan al-Thinni's government was to remain in office, and would oversee the formation of military and security forces. The statement therefore blocked Ahmed Maiteeq from assuming the position of Prime Minister. Col. Fernana also proclaimed that the Libyan people "would never accept to be controlled by a group or organization which initiates terror and chaos".[169] Col. Fernana claimed that Gen. Haftar had assigned a 60-member assembly to take over from the GNC, with the current government acting only on an emergency basis.[170]

19–20 May 2014: Military commanders endorse Operation Dignity movement, some militias oppose it

On Monday 19 May Col. Wanis Abu Khamada, the commander of Libya's Special Forces, announced that his forces would be joining Haftar's operation against Islamist militant groups in Benghazi. Khamadas Special Forces had previously come under attack from Islamist militants in Benghazi, with dozens of members of the unit being killed. In his declaration Khamada announced that his unit would join Haftar's Libyan National Army "with all our men and weapons".[171] Khamada argued that the operation was "the work of the people".[172] By Monday the death toll for Friday's clashes had reached 79.[171] However, the Tripoli-based Al-Qaeda-inspired Lions of Monotheism group announced that it would fight forces loyal to Gen. Haftar.[173]

Forty members of parliament,[174] and the heads of the navy,[175] the air-force,[176] and much of the army have endorsed Haftar. On the evening of 21 May the National Forces Alliance issued a statement of support of Haftar, proclaiming that Libyans have found themselves "drowning in swamp of terrorism, darkness, killing and destruction". The following day the official Libyan news agency claimed that the Interior Ministry had announced its support for Haftar's operation, in direct contrast to the governments denunciation of the operation as a coup.[177]

The Libyan Revolutionaries Operations Room issued a call for serving military personnel to desert, claiming that they did not need the support of Haftar. The group called on its forces to temporarily withdraw from the Army, and to disclose to their commanders the names of anyone involved in attempting to kill either officials or members of the security forces. It would seek the prosecution of named individuals through the Attorney General’s office. In their announcement LROR claimed that they would lead the fight against criminals in Libya, and would carry on without Haftar or his operation.[178]

In a televised statement late Wednesday Haftar appeared in a military uniform surrounded by military officers and accused the current Islamist-led parliament of turning Libya to a state "sponsoring terrorism" and a "hideout to terrorists" who infiltrated the joints of the state, wasted its resources and controlled its decision making. He asserted that the military wants the continuation of political life and stressed that the new council is a civilian one in an apparent attempt to defuse fears of militarizing the state.[179]

Tripoli residents reported several loud explosions earlier that day near the al-Yarmouk air defense barracks. This came after the air defense top commander Juma al-Abani released a video message saying he was joining Haftar's campaign against Islamists. Heavy fighting involving anti-aircraft machine guns mounted on trucks also broke out overnight near an army camp in Tajoura, an eastern suburb. The city was quiet by dawn. The health ministry reported that at least two people from Mali died in the fighting.[180]

Ansar al-Sharia issued a statement denouncing Haftar's operation as a "war against the religious Muslim youth". The group instead claimed that they had been the subject of a hate campaign by those against Islam and Sharia, and that their opponents were the real terrorists. The group instead claimed that they wished to safeguard Muslim blood and had not hindered the building of Libya's security organisations. The group claimed that the campaign against them was being conducted by "evil television channels" and were led by "ex-regime sympathisers and secularists supported by their masters in the west". The group also asked tribes to prevent their sons from joining Haftars forces.[181]

22–31 May 2014: Weekly pro-Haftar demonstrations, political and military developments

On both 23 May and 30 May after Friday prayers, tens of thousands of demonstrators rallied in various cities including Tripoli and Benghazi in support of Gen. Haftar and his campaign against Islamist militias and also in support of Haftar's calls to suspend parliament. In Benghazi, thousands of pro-Haftar demonstrators gathered outside Tibesti Hotel and in the city's Tahreer Square, as well as others in the city of Bayda further east. "No to militias, Libya will not become another Afghanistan" and "Yes to the army, yes to the police", their banners read. Meanwhile, crowds in Tripoli's Martyr's Square chanted against the parliament and in support of a national army and police force to replace the militias that run rampant in the country. They sang the national anthem as they waved the flag and carried banners that read "Yes to Dignity". They called for an official response to the militias. "Libya is in trouble, we want police, we want army", they chanted. While some Libyans don't back Haftar and don't want military rule, they support what he is doing.[182][183][184] The protest, dubbed the "Friday of Dignity", took its name from the offensive launched by Haftar, one week ago in the eastern city of Benghazi. The demonstrations were some of the largest the country has seen since the uprising three years ago and were the first since then to be held simultaneously in cities across Libya, which put more pressure on the embattled Islamist-led parliament to offer concessions. The interim government issued a statement in support of Friday’s protests and reasserted its proposal this week to suspend parliament. "The participation of tens of thousands [in the protests] requires all to answer to the demands of the people who represent legitimacy that can't be ignored", the statement said.[184]

In opposition to Haftar, Islamist militias from Misrata, known collectively as the Libyan Central Shield, have deployed in the capital amid a standoff with forces loyal to Haftar.[185] They are under the command of the country's chief of staff who answers to the GNC.[186] This followed calls by the head of the now boycotted GNC and the army chief on the Islamist militias to defend the interests of the Islamist backed position of the GNC.[185][187][188]

Meanwhile, within the Libyan government itself, an intense power struggle has emerged between Maiteeq and Thinni for leadership of the Libyan government, including conflicting orders and statements.[189] On May 28, Operation Dignity forces carried out airstrikes on the February 17th Martyrs Brigade, one of the biggest and best-trained Islamist militias in eastern Libya. The Islamists allegedly responded with anti-aircraft fire.[190][191]

June 2014

On 2 June, fighting re-erupts in Benghazi when Ansar al-Sharia militants attacked Haftar's forces, the latter responding with combat helicopter strikes in the west of the city. At least 22 people were killed and 70 wounded, with both sides accusing one another of indiscriminate firing on residential areas. It started the previous day, when aircraft pounded one of the militants' compounds in region. The education ministry closed schools and postponed exams until the violence is quelled and hospitals called for blood donations. Residents in south Benghazi set up checkpoints to avoid being taken by cross-fire in case rival fighters decided to take shelter in their homes. There was also fighting in the eastern town of Al-Marj where dozens were wounded.[192][193][194]

The next day, Libya's new prime minister Ahmed Maiteeq took office following his previous election by Libya's Islamist-dominated parliament in a contested vote. This was during a power struggle between him and outgoing PM Abdullah al-Thani. Maiteeq was surrounded by an Islamist militia, the Libyan Central Shield, who escorted him to the cabinet building to assume his new post and hold his first cabinet meeting after Al-Thani ordered his forces guarding the building to stand down in order to avoid bloodshed. Al-Thani called on the General National Congress to wait until the country's Supreme Constitutional Court decides whether the Maiteeq's election is legal or not, while Islamist lawmakers who back the new prime minister blamed Al-Thani for Benghazi's violence and accused him of failing to restore security and of preventing the transition of power in favor of Maiteeq.[193]

On 4 June, four people were killed and several others were wounded, among them was air division chief Gen. Saghr al-Jerushi, in an assassination attempt on Gen. Haftar in his home in the town of Abyar east of Benghazi. Haftar himself survived the attack which took place when a vehicle exploded in a farmhouse where the general held his meetings. His spokesman accused Islamist militias of being behind the attempt.[195][196] The same day, Michael Greub, a 42-year-old Swiss national who was head of the International Committee of the Red Cross sub-delegation in Misrata, was killed in the city of Sirte when his vehicle was ambushed by masked gunmen right after he left a meeting with two other colleagues. The attackers opened fire on the car, killing him, while his driver and escort managed to escape unharmed. Yves Daccord, the ICRC's director-general condemned the attack and said that the organization was "devastated and outraged".[197]

The Supreme Constitutional Court of Libya said on June 5 that Ahmed Maiteeq's election was illegal. "The election of Ahmed Maitiq took place without a majority of votes and his appointment was unconstitutional," the court stated. Al Arabiya reported that Abdullah al-Thani and his interim government left the capital for Bayda after being threatened by militia groups that support Maiteeq.[198] The following day, Libya's intelligence chief Salem al-Hassi submitted his resignation, expressing disapproval over the parliament's insistence on appointing Maiteeq in contested circumstances.[199] Tarek Mitri, head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya, announced an initiative for dialogue bringing together the country's political forces, expressing concern over the violence in Benghazi.[200] On the same day, Haftar's forces launched air raids on Islamist bases in Benghazi's Sidi Faraj and al-Qawarsheh and destroyed an ammunition warehouse in Derna.[201]

On 9 June, the Supreme Constitutional Court gave its final ruling on Maiteeq's contested vote, declaring that it was unconstitutional and invalid without citing a legal basis for the decision. The GNC accepted the ruling via a statement by the parliament's second deputy speaker. Maiteeq stepped down shortly after, saying that he would be "the first" to comply with the judiciary's ruling. "Abdullah al-Thani is the caretaker prime minister until congress learns the court's reasons for deciding Maiteeq's election was unconstitutional," he said.[202] The next day, Haftar announced that he had agreed to a ceasefire deal brokered by the Crisis Committee appointed by the government which also includes dialogue with other warring parties. The deal was attempted to allow Libyans to vote during GNC elections that were to be held on June 25 after parliament agreed to dissolve itself following a ruling by the country's elections commission.[203][204][205] Meanwhile, Ansar al-Sharia denied reports that it would hold talks with Haftar. "We have not reached agreement with the Crisis Committee, and we did not even agree to negotiate with this dictator [Haftar]," the group said in a statement. This came after the body of one of Ansar al-Sharia's leaders, Al-Mahdi Saad Abu al-Abyad, was found south of Derna. However, the militia group added that it would welcome any talks with tribal leaders instead.[204] On June 11, a suicide car bomber targeted a checkpoint manned by fighters loyal to Gen. Haftar in Benghazi.[206] The lorry exploded upon arriving at the post, killing the perpetrator and injuring five soldiers, one losing his leg.[207]

On 15 June, Haftar's forces launched a new assault on a number of jihadist camps in western Benghazi. The offensive consisted of tanks and rocket launchers and explosions were heard throughout the city. The general's spokesman said that the forces managed to capture several senior Islamists, among them were five militant leaders. An electricity plant near the city's airport was hit by rockets, causing power outages. The number of casualties was unclear but hospital sources indicated that 12 people were killed during the clashes, among them five soldiers and three civilians.[208][209]

On 17 June, American special forces and FBI personnel captured Ahmed Abu Khattala, whom they suspect to have a connection with the 2012 attack in Benghazi that killed US ambassador Christopher Stevens and three other American nationals. President Barack Obama said that Abu Khattalah will face "the full weight of the American justice system".[210]

On 22 June, Gen. Haftar gave a 48-hour ultimatum for Turkish and Qatari nationals to leave eastern Libya, accusing both countries of supporting terrorism in the country.[211]

On 26 June, shortly after the elections, Salwa Bughaighis, a human rights lawyer in Benghazi, who was a critic of both Muammar Gaddafi and several of the Islamist militias which overthrew him, was assassinated in her home.[212]

Libya Body Count claimed June saw 43 people killed in fighting.[213]

July 2014: Operation Dawn and fall of Benghazi to Anti-Haftar forces

Operation Dawn (2014) redirects to here
See: Battle of Tripoli Airport

Islamist extremists are reported to have killed some 270 lawyers, judges, activists, military officers, and policemen—activists in civil society—in the course of taking over Benghazi in the summer of 2014.[214]

On 13 July, a coalition of military entities and militias, including the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room (LROR) and some brigades from the Misrata Union of Revolutionaries, such as Hatten, Mercer, and Haraka,[215] launched an offensive codenamed "Operation Dawn" on Tripoli International Airport,[216] thus beginning the Battle of Tripoli Airport. They were later joined by other militias from Misrata, Tripoli, and Zawiya, as well as by Islamist militias, the Knights of Janzour, Amazigh units, and some militias associated with cities of the Jebel Nafusa.[217] The following day, the United Nations Support Mission in Libya evacuated its staff after 13 people were killed in clashes in Tripoli and Benghazi. The fighting, between government forces and rival militia groups, also forced Tripoli's airport to close. A militia, including members of the LROR, tried to seize control of the airport from the Qaaqaa & Sawaiq Brigades[218] of the Zintani militia, which has controlled it since Gaddafi was toppled. Both the attacking and defending militias are believed to be on the official payroll.[219][220] In addition Misrata Airport was closed, due to its dependence on Tripoli International Airport for its operations. Government spokesman, Ahmed Lamine, stated that approximately 90% of the planes stationed at Tripoli International Airport were destroyed or made inoperable in the attack, and that the government may make an appeal for international forces to assist in reestablishing security.[220][221] A week of prolonged fighting between rival militias in Tripoli airport resulted in at least 47 deaths: the battle involved use of artillery and Grad rockets.[222]

On 26 July, the United States evacuated its embassy in Tripoli, moving all State Department employees to Tunisia.[223]

On 27 July, (last day of the fasting month of Ramadan in Libya) an oil depot near Tripoli International Airport was hit by rocket fire, igniting a large blaze. The oil depot has a capacity of 6 million liters, and nearby liquid gas storage facilities were at risk of being ignited by the blaze. Libyan TV stations urged residents to evacuate the area.[224] By 28 July (Eid al-Fitr day in Libya), firefighters had withdrawn from the site due to fighting in the area, though the fire was not yet under control.[225]

On 29 July, Islamist groups including Ansar al-Sharia seized a military base in Benghazi that served as the headquarters of the Saiqa Special Forces Brigade; a unit that supports General Khalifa Haftar.[226] Saiqa Special Forces officer Fadel Al-Hassi claimed that Saiqa abandoned the base, which included both Camp 36 in the Bu Attni district as well as the special forces school, after coming under heavy shelling. The battle for the base involved the use of rockets and warplanes, and resulted in the deaths of at least 30 people. During the fighting a pro-Haftar MiG crashed into waste ground in Kuwaifiya, although the pilot however managed to eject. Operation Dignity Spokesperson Mohamed Hejazi claimed that the aircraft had suffered a technical malfunction, and insisted it had not been shot down.[227] Following the fall of the base, video footage emerged of Mohamed al-Zahawi, the head of Ansar al-Sharia, as well as Wissam Ben Hamid, the leader of Libya Shield 1, standing outside the base.[228] Saiqa initially denied the loss of the base, although Saiqa Commander Wani Bukhamada acknowledged the loss by the afternoon of the 29th.[229] A senior Saiqa official later claimed to the Libya Herald that Saiqa losses in Benghazi between the 21 and 30 July totaled some 63 dead and 200 wounded. Whilst the official was unsure of the number of Islamist dead, he claimed that it was in the dozens. The fighting, having involved indiscriminate shelling and bombing in and around the predominantly residential area of Buatni, also resulted in dozens of civilians being killed in crossfire.[230]

Mustafa A.G. Abushagur, a politician elected in the July elections, and who was widely tipped to become the next President of the House of Representatives, was kidnapped from his Tripoli home in the late afternoon of the 29 July by an armed group in an ambulance.[231] He was released several hours later, at 3am in the morning of the 30 July, without any ransom having been paid.[232] Abushagur later held a conference on the 1 August in Tripoli, where he claimed to have been kidnapped by The Zintani Barq Al-Nasr militia, although he stressed he did not believe the group to have been acting on behalf of their city.[233]

On 30 July Mohamed Sowan, the leader of the Justice and Construction Party; the Libyan wing of the Muslim Brotherhood, voiced support for the ongoing offensive in Tripoli by Islamist militias against Zintani Militias at Tripoli International Airport. Sawan claimed the offensive was a legitimate response to the anti-Islamist Operation Dignity being led by General Haftar.[234]

The same day the leader of Ansar al-Sharia declared that Benghazi is an "Islamic Emirate". Protesters opposed to the militia group marched to the al-Jalaa hospital that the militants were guarding and temporarily seized it. The protesters also rallied to the special forces base that Ansar al-Sharia captured, but were dispersed when militants fired upon them.[235] By 31 July, Islamist forces affiliated with the newly formed Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, which includes Ansar al-Sharia, was reported to have captured most of Benghazi. Forces loyal to General Haftar appeared to have had the territory under its control in the region reduced to Benina International Airport.[236] Speaking to al-Arabiya News, Haftar denied that Benghazi was under the control of militias, and instead claimed that his National Libyan Army was in control of the city, claiming instead that his LNA forces had only withdrawn from certain positions, and had done so for tactical reasons.[237]

Aircraft under the command of Brigadier-General Saqr Geroushi, the commander of Operation Dignity Air Force units, later launched nighttime air strikes on what they claimed to be an Ansar al-Sharia base in Ajdabiya, which had recently been taken by Ansar al-Sharia. Geroushi claimed the target; the compound of a Chinese construction company, had been being used by Ansar al-Sharia as an arms depot and a support base for its operations in Benghazi. In response to questions over reported deaths resulting from exploding arms in the depot, Geroushi claimed he did not know if anyone had been killed or injured in the raid. Geroushi claimed however that the assault would continue until Ansar al-Sharia was forced out of the town. Geroushi also claimed that Ansar al-Sharia had been taking their wounded from the fighting in Benghazi to the hospital in Ajdabiya, which he claimed had been taken over by Islamists. He also claimed the more severely wounded were being transported to Misrata, and then on to Turkey for treatment.[238]

August 2014

On 1 August, the Libyan Health Ministry announced that the recent fighting in the greater Tripoli and Benghazi areas had, up to Wednesday 30 July, resulted in a total of 214 deaths and 981 injuries recorded at hospitals. Libya Body Count, an independent NGO, claimed that July alone had seen over 400 deaths, with 253 recorded in Benghazi, and 130 in Tripoli.[239]

On 2 August, twenty-two people were killed and more than 70 wounded when a battle broke out in Tripoli International Airport, during which the government claimed that heavily armed groups attacked civilians, displacing hundreds of families.[240] Over the next couple of days, several missiles landed randomly on the city's airport road and in nearby districts such as Abu Sleem, Seraj and Krimea among others. Rocket attacks in Hadba killed several people, including a 59-year-old Indian worker. In Tripoli's western suburb of Janzour, the local Fursan Janzour militia as well as the National Mobile Forces camp, which is part of the Misrata-led Operation Dawn and allied to the militia, came under attack and were overrun by Zintan's Barq al-Nasr Brigade, backed by Warshefana forces. The number of fatalities during the fighting is unknown. Libya's Red Crescent estimated that 2,500 families were forced to flee during the violence.[241]

On 5 August, Warshefana forces captured Camp 27, an important military barracks, in an overnight joint operation with the Zintanis from Libya Shield 1, an Islamist militia.[242] On 6 August 2014, the Benghazi Revolutionary Shura Council announced that they had seized three additional army bases in Benghazi, seizing a large number of heavy weapons and armored vehicles in the process.[243] On 7 August 2014, Camp 27 was reported to have been retaken by forces affiliated with the Operation Libya Dawn coalition.[244]

On Sunday 10 August Maj. Gen. Abdulsalam Al-Obaidi, the Chief of Staff of the Libyan National Army, gave evidence in a three-hour session before the newly elected House of Representatives in Tobruk.[245] During the session Obaidi claimed he had "no control" over the various government funded rebel groups.[246] Speaking about the Libya Shield Force, Obaidi claimed he had no way to find out how many soldiers were fighting under the Force, and also claimed to have no way to either reform the group or change its leadership.[246] Mohammed el-Jarh, a Libyan analyst based in Tripoli, claimed that members of the House of Representatives were determined to hold Obaidi accountable after his comments.[246] Benghazi representative Salih al-Shawihidi denied that there were plans to replace Obaidi with Saad al-Qatrani.[246] The following day a letter that had been sent by Obaidi to numerous militias on the 6 August was leaked on the internet. In the letter Obaidi instructed all groups, including the Libya Shield Forces which are officially under his command, and which he had assigned to Tripoli, to stop fighting. The letter reflected the House of Representatives decision No. 3, which had been issued on the same day, and which ordered all sides to commit to an immediate cease fire.[247]

Operation Dignity tries to close Benghazi Port

On 11 August Brig. Gen. Saqr Adam Geroushi, Command of Operation Dignity's Air Force Units, stated that Operation Dignity units would attack any ships attempting to enter Benghazi port, despite any orders from Benghazi Municipal Council or the Libyan government.[248] Geroushi claimed that the port was being used by Islamist fighters to reinforce and resupply their positions in Benghazi, and that reinforcements were being shipped to Benghazi form the ports of Mirsata, Ras Lanuf and Derna.[248] Operation Dignity Air Units reportedly proceeded to bomb the port of Derna on August 11.[248]

Operation Dignity forces had previously ordered the port to close, although the Benghazi council had announced on 9 August that the port would remain open.[248] The same day Operation Dignity spokesperson Mohamed Hejazi claimed all shipping to or from the ports of Misrata or Derna would also be fired upon.[248] Instead all shipping was ordered to redirect to the Operation Dignity stronghold of Tobruk.[248]

Assassination in Tripoli

On 12 August, masked gunmen shot dead Col. Muhammad Swaysi, head of Tripoli's police department, when his car was ambushed by two other vehicles after he left a meeting with local authorities in the Tajoura suburb. Two of his colleagues were kidnapped when they attempted to leave the car.[249] Suways was a supporter of Haftar's Operation Dignity, and had come out against the Misrata-led Operation Libya Dawn. Earlier in the week Suways, who was in charge of security in Tripoli, had ordered Tripoli's police officers to return to work, as Tripoli's police officers had not been in active service since the Civil War. A group calling itself the Official Operations Room, said to be linked with the LROR, claimed on its Facebook page that Misratan militias, with the help of others from Suq al-Huma, had arrested four individuals who it accused of planning to take over a camp in Tajoura. The group described the four as Gaddafi supporters, and claimed two, including Suways, had been killed.[250]

House votes to disband militias & calls for UN support

On 13 August the House of Representatives passed a law disbanding all officially recognized and funded militias formed after the 2011 February revolution, including Joint Operations Rooms[251] in an effort to strip the various groups of the legitimacy they claim to have been bestowed on them by the GNC & various government ministries.[252]

Out of the 104 Representatives present 102 voted in favour of the motion.[251] A deadline of 31 December 2014 was given for implementing the law.[251] The House had tried to pass the law the previous day although had failed to agree on the laws wording.[253] In spite of the law it was unclear how it would be enforced.[252]

A Libyan lawmaker speaking to Reuters claimed the law to cover "all armed brigades, including all the Shields and Qaqaa and Sawaiq."[252] Ali Saedy, Representative for Wadi Shatti, in live comments on Libyan TV, claimed that the law had been passed by a large majority of the House. He claimed that some of those opposed to the law felt that the time was not right to dissolve all Libyan militias, whilst others were opposed due to having different opinions or ideologies.[251] Ali Tekbali, a Representative for Tripoli, claimed that the reason only 104 of the House's 200 members took part was because many Representatives were unable to attend the vote in Tobruk due to being busy with various business.[251]

The same day the House also called for the United Nations & the Security Council to intervene in Libya in order to protect civilians & government institutions.[252] Representative Saedy claimed that the House had been forced into calling for international support after the House' calls for a ceasefire were ignored.[251]

Clashes in Benghazi and airstrikes in Tripoli

On 17 August, the Al-Saiqa special forces abandoned their last stronghold in the city, Benina Airport. They were pushed out through Gwarsha into Benghazi's Buatni district where Operation Dignity forces had asked the residents to leave the area for their safety. The head of Al-Saiqa said that the unit took over the airport road which was held by Ansar al-Sharia, adding that the Islamist group had been firing shells into Buatni's surroundings and that heavy clashes took place in Ard Bayera.[254]

Later that day, unidentified warplanes bombarded a number of positions in Tripoli, including the Islamist-held Wadi Rabie camp and an ammunition store owned by Misrata's Hattin Brigate in the town of Qasr bin Ghashir near the city's international airport. Five people were killed and more than 30 were wounded during the overnight operation. The government confirmed the incident and the Libyan armed forces' chief of staff, Gen. Abdulsalam Al-Obaidi, said that the attack involved two unidentified aircraft powered by laser-guided smart bombs and missiles fired from a 7 to 8 kilometers altitude.[255] He also said that the government's air force was not equipped with such weaponry and did not have the required technology nor the capacity to carry out the raids.[256] Furthermore, none of the country's militias are known to have warplanes. The Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room (LROR) allied to the Misratan brigades blamed Gen. Khalifa Haftar’s forces. Operation Dignity forces initially denied any involvement, adding that they only provided the coordinates.[255] However, Haftar's air chief, Gen. Saqr Geroushi, later confirmed his forces' involvement in a statement to Reuters. "We, the Operation Dignity, officially confirm to have conducted air strikes on some militias' locations belonging to Misrata militias," he said.[257] Geroushi also added that a munitions base at Sdada, south of Misrata, had also been bombed.[255]

Towns reject House of Representatives

The same weekend delegations from the cities of Misrata, Khoms, Zliten and Emsalata travelled to Sebha to in an attempt to try and persuade the local council and civil society organisations to order the area’s nine representatives in the new House of Representatives to withdraw.[258] Several days later the Sebha Municipal Council building was stormed by armed men who prevented council officials from reading a joint statement on Operation Dawn. One official claimed those responsible were members of the Awlad Sulaiman tribe, which is opposed to Operation Dawn.[259]

On 19 August, the Amazigh towns of Nalut and Kabaw in the Nafusa Mountains announced a boycott of the House of Representatives, which they claimed was unconstitutional.[258] The Nalut Municipal Council, along with Nalut's revolutionary brigades and civil society organisations called on Salem Ignan, the towns representative, to withdraw from the parliament, which they claimed had an obvious bias towards Haftar's Operation Dignity, as seen in the fact that it was based in Tobruk. The Kabaw town leadership claimed that they would not recognise any decisions made by the new parliament, and also that the towns representative, Ali Al-Asawi, did not, and had never, represented the town. Both towns in particular rejected the House's call for foreign intervention in Libya in response to the upsurge in violence. Despite the timing of the announcements, the boycotts were seen as having more to do with long standing Amazigh boycott of the parliament over the issue of Amazigh representation, and less to do with the opposition to the parliament from Misrata and Islamist groups. It was immediately unclear whether the representatives from the towns would boycott the parliament.[258]

The following day leaders in Tarhuna released a statement announcing their opposition to the House of Representatives and their support for Operation Dawn. The town released a joint statement from the towns revolutionaries, Local Council, Military Council, Elders, Shura Council and a number of civil society organisations, in which they announced that the towns four representatives in the parliament did not represent the town, and represented only themselves. The town leaders also rejected all decisions made by the parliament, especially its recent call for a foreign intervention in Libya. The statement denounced the call as a "flagrant violation of the sovereignty of Libya and a betrayal of the will of the Libyan people," and claimed that the airstrikes conducted several days prior against Operation Dawn were the result of the decision. The groups also declared that they had set up a Revolutionary Shura Council of Tarhuna, which they claimed would assume full responsibility for correcting the path of the nation and implementing the principles of and goals of the Libyan Revolution.[260]

Splits emerge in Benghazi

Splits between Islamist groups in Benghazi also began to emerge in mid-August. On 16 August, a Muslim Brotherhood group made up of more moderate Islamists announced a new group to deal with problems in the city, called the Shura Council of Benghazi. In response, the Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, a jihadist group, denounced the new group and claimed that they would not recognize it. The Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries also claimed that the new rival group was attempting to grab power and capitalize on the gains made by the jihadists.[261][262]

Fall of Tripoli Airport

On 23 August, after more than a month of fighting, Tripoli International Airport finally fell to fighters from Libyan Central Shield, a coalition of Islamist and Misrata forces.[263][264] The following day, Operation Dawn forces announced that they have consolidated the whole city and adjacent towns after driving out rival Zintan militias 90 kilometers south of the capital.[265] Libya's newly elected parliament condemned the offensive and called the militants now in control of Tripoli "terrorist organizations". Operation Dawn spokesman later called for the re-assembly of the previous Islamist-dominated GNC and said that the taking over of the airport was necessary to "save the country's sovereignty".[266] The Los Angeles Times reported that at least 90% of the airport's facilities, and 20 airplanes, were destroyed in the fighting.[267]

September 2014

Islamist armed groups extended their control over central Tripoli. The Council of Deputies parliament set up operations on a Greek car ferry in Tobruk. A rival General National Congress parliament continued to operate in Tripoli.[265][268]

On 15 September, targets in the predominantly Amazigh city of Gharyian were subjected to airstrikes. Khalifa Haftar claimed to have ordered these attacks.[269]

On 21 September 2014, a rival oil minister, Mashallah al-Zawie, gave a speech at the oil ministry in Tripoli.[270][271]

October 2014

Military confrontation between factions in western Libya, particularly since the beginning of October, has increasingly been waged between groups supportive of the Zintani brigades and opponents of those forces. The spread of combat zones beyond Tripoli as well as the intensification of fighting in the Nafusa Mountains has accelerated this trend.[272][273]

A Libya Dawn source reported that clashes had erupted along the al-Kassarat road and in the Wadi al-Hai region.[274][275] The fighting was primarily between a coalition of Misratan and Gharyianian militiamen and other Libyan Dawn forces on one side and an alliance of the Zintani-oriented Qa'qa' milita and forces aligned with Warshafana and the Noble Tribes on the other. Libyan Dawn forces claim to have captured the Wadi al-Hai region as a result of these battles.[275]

Heavy fighting commenced in the city of Kikla and the surrounding vicinity on October 11 when Zintani brigades initiated an offensive to gain control over various towns and routes in the Nafusa Mountains.[276] Many residents wounded in the fighting are being treated at medical facilities in Gharyan.[276] The escalating strife in the Nafusa Mountains has raised fears of the prospect for broader tribal and ethnic warfare.[276]

On October 15, units associated with Khalifa Haftar and Operation Dignity staged ground and air attacks against the Ansar al-Sharia and February 17 Martyrs Brigade organizations in Benghazi.[277] Haftar claimed that this was the concluding stage of Operation Dignity and that he would retire from his position upon the termination of the operation.[277] There were conflicting reports about possible Egyptian involvement or assistance in the offensive.[277][278]

Also, on October 15, the Libya Herald quoted a Zintani commander as stating the clashes were ongoing between Zintani militias and the Saraya Gharian force in the vicinity of Gwalish.[279] The Libya Herald also reported that officials in Gharyan have requested military assistance from the cities of Jadu and Nalut in fighting the Zintani brigades.[279]

The Tripoli-based political authority has announced its own set of oil policies, drawing criticism and denunciation from Prime Minister Thinni of the Bayda/Tobruk-based government.[280][281] The rival oil minister, Mashallah al-Zawie, has urged the resumption of stalled investments.[280][281]

Clashes between Tuareg and Tebu tribal militias have repeatedly flared in Ubari at various times during October.[282]

On 5 October 2014, radical militants in control of the Libyan city of Derna pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, thus making Derna the first city outside Syrian and Iraq to become part of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant caliphate.[49]

November 2014

On November 1, Zintan militia captured the town of Kikla, killing 18 and wounding 84 Islamist fighters.[283]

On November 5, a Tuareg militia reportedly seized control of the El Sharara oil field in Fezzan.[284]

On November 11, Sudanese foreign minister Ali Karti claimed that the rival Libyan governments had both accepted a peace initiative proposed by Sudan as a framework for resolving the division and conflict permeating the country.[285]

On November 12, car bombs were detonated in Tobruk and al-Bayda. The Tobruk attack reportedly wounded at least 21 people.[286] On November 13, bombs targeted the embassies of Egypt and the UAE in Tripoli.[287]

On November 24, warplanes affiliated with Operation Dignity forces attacked the Mitiga airport in Tripoli. The attack led to a temporary shut down of the airport, though it reportedly failed to damage the airport facilities, as munitions instead struck and damaged nearby houses.[288] On November 25, a second air raid against Mitiga was conducted, although this attack also failed to incapacitate the facility's infrastructure.[289] In response to the attack on Mitiga, a court in Tripoli issued an arrest warrant for Khalifa Haftar.[290]

December 2014

On December 2, local sources in the city of Zuwara reported that aircraft associated with Operation Dignity struck a food supply storage area, a fishing port, and a chemical factory, damaging these facilities, as well as killing eight and wounding twenty-four.[291][292]

A demonstration was held in Tripoli's Algeria Square calling for the implementation of a constitutional monarchy as a means of resolving some of the country's difficulties.[293][294]

After amassing strength in Sirte, Misratan forces launched on December 13 an offensive called "Operation Sunrise" against the Petroleum Facilities Guard, led by Ibrahim Jathran, and other pro-Tobruk forces for control of Ras Lanuf and the Sidra oil terminal.[295] Several days of clashes over the oil facilities have ensued, including the deployment of airstrikes in the struggle.[296] Most of the air assaults have been conducted by forces allied with the Tobruk-based government, however, Libya Dawn forces allegedly carried out an airstrike on December 16 in the al-Hilal region. This attack reportedly caused no casualties or infrastructure damage.[296]

On December 16, a car bomb detonated in Tripoli near the city's security headquarters, reportedly causing no casualties but inflicting damage on nearby buildings and cars.[296]

On December 18, the National Oil Corporation reiterated its commitment to political neutrality and independence from partisan affiliation with either of the two rival governments.[297]

On December 25, Libya Dawn militia launched an assault on a power plant inside Sirte killing at least 19 soldiers. On the same day a rocket struck an oil export terminal in the city of Sidra engulfing it in flames.[298]

On December 27, a car bomb was detonated in Tripoli near the General Directorate for the Protection of Diplomatic Missions, though no casualties were reported. ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack.[299]

On December 28, the Libyan air force struck Misrata airport as a reprisal for attacks by Libya Dawn on oil terminals. A port facility, an air force academy, and a steel plant were also targeted. Local security officials claimed that the airport sustained no damage and remained operational.[300]

On December 30, the Libyan air force shot down a Libya Dawn helicopter around Al-Sidra oil terminal. Aircraft and at least one helicopter from the militia had attacked government forces deployed in the area.[301]

2015

January 2015

On 5 January, the Libyan air force bombed a Greek-owned tanker, chartered by Libya's National Oil Corporation, off the coast of Darna that was believed to be acting 'suspiciously', killing two crew members and wounding two. The bombing caused Turkish Airlines, the last foreign airline still flying to Libya, to suspend flights.[302][303]

On January 9, assailants attacked the al-Nabaa News TV Channel's headquarters in Tripoli with rocket-propelled grenades, inflicting damage on the facility.[304] No casualties were reported.[304]

On 16 January, the Operation Dignity and Libya Dawn factions declared a ceasefire and agreed to form a unity government and further political talks.[62]

On January 27, gunmen attacked the Corinthia Hotel, a location frequently used by Libyan officials and foreign diplomats, in Tripoli.[305][306] After detonating a car bomb in the parking lot, the assailants stormed the building and opened fire, killing at least ten individuals besides the attackers.[305][306] Libyan security forces have since reclaimed control over the hotel building. ISIL has claimed responsibility for the attack.[305][306]

February 2015

On February 4, gunmen believed to be linked to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant stormed and seized control of the Al-Mabrook oilfield south of the city of Sirte. A French diplomatic source in Paris said four local employees were believed to have been killed in the raid.[307]

On February 9, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant reportedly took over the town of Nofaliya in Sirte District, after a convoy of 40 heavily armed vehicles arrived from Sirte and ordered Nofaliya's residents to "repent" and pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The fighters appointed Ali Al-Qarqaa as emir of the town.[60][308]

On February 13, gunmen affiliated with the IS seized government buildings and radio and television stations in Sirte.[309][310] These force reportedly issued an ultimatum demanding other military entities evacuate the city by the dawn of Sunday (15 February).[311] In response, the unrecognized rump GNC of the Tripoli-based government announced a decision to form a joint force to reclaim facilities in Sirte from IS militants. However this joint force never did attempt to recapture the city from IS, this comes as a result of Misrata militias withdrawing from Sirte when ISIL attacked their posts.[312]

On February 15, ISIL in Libya released a video depicting the beheading of 21 Coptic Christians from Egypt. Within hours, the Egyptian Air Force responded with airstrikes against IS training locations and weapons stockpiles in Derna in retaliation for the killings, killing around 50 militants and 7 civilians.[313][314][315] Warplanes acting under orders from the Tobruk-based government also struck targets in Derna, reportedly in coordination with Egypt, whereas the Tripoli-based government condemned the airstrikes, calling them "terrorism" and "a violation of sovereignty in Libya".[315][316] On February 19, Qatar recalled its ambassador from Cairo in protest against Egypt's unilateral military action, saying it could harm innocent civilians and advantage one side in Libya's conflict.[317]

On February 20, IS operatives detonated three bombs in Al Qubbah, targeting a petrol station, a police station, and the home of parliamentary speaker Agila Salah.[318] These attacks reportedly killed at least 40 people.[318] The U.S. State Department,[319] the Misrata Municipality,[320] and Libya Dawn[321] condemned the attacks.

On February 21, delegates representing the municipal councils of the cities of Misrata and Zintan met in the town of al-Asabaa and agreed to a prisoner exchange.[322] Also on February 21, the Misrata Municipal Council created two committees for dialogue, one tasked with the western regions, and the other with the east.[323]

On February 22, two bombs exploded at the gate of the Iranian ambassador's residence in Tripoli.[324] No casualties were reported.[324]

On February 23, the Battar brigade, one of the Islamic State's primary military hosts in Libya, issued a statement "damning" the composition of both governments and a multitude of military bodies in the country as "infidels."[325] On the same day, the internationally recognized Tobruk's House of Representatives voted to suspend its participation in UN-brokered talks with the Tripoli government.[326] In response, UNSMIL renewed its call for dialogue.[327]

Divisions and recriminations among jihadists have reportedly surfaced and have been intensifying in January and February 2015. There were conflicting reports about whether Ansar al-Sharia leader Mohamed Al-Zahawi perished fighting against Operation Dignity forces or if he was executed by members of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.[69] The Shura Council of Derna has condemned the Al-Qubbah bombings conducted by the Islamic State, triggering tension between the two groups.[328]

Following the execution of Egyptian Christians by ISIL militants and the subsequent Egyptian intervention into Libya, the Egyptian government has allegedly opened channels of communication with Misratan and Libya Dawn leaders.[329]

March 2015

On March 2, the Tobruk-based government named former anti-government General Haftar as its army chief.[135]

On March 14, pro-Dawn forces associated with Misrata and Operation Sunrise clashed with IS militants in Sirte.[330][331][332] Fighting between Libya Dawn forces and ISIL militants was also reported in the Daheera area west of the city of Sirte, and at the Harawa vicinity east of Sirte.[333]

On March 15, IS militants conducted a bomb attack against a police checkpoint in Tripoli, wounding five, and executed a car bomb attack in Misrata near a military camp associated with the 166 battalion, killing one person. The 166 battalion has been a primary brigade in directing and managing Libya Dawn's confrontations with IS forces.[334]

On March 18, IS commander Ahmed Rouissi was killed in the course of combat taking place near Sirte between Libya Dawn forces and IS militants. Tunisian officials suspected that he was the mastermind in the murders of two Tunisian opposition leaders in 2013.[335]

On March 19, military forces associated with the Tripoli-based government reportedly recaptured Nofaliya from IS control.[336][337][338]

On March 20 and 21, Zintani and Warshanfana forces clashed with Libya Dawn units in the Aziziya region.[38][339] Also, on March 20, the internationally recognized Tobruk-based government stated that they had launched a military operation to "liberate" Tripoli from the GNC Islamist forces (Libya Dawn). As a result, the Tripoli-based GNC government threatened to walk out on the peace talks in the Moroccan resort of Skhirat.[340]

On 25 March, the Tobruk-based government launched an offensive on the city of Derna, to expel ISIL and other militant groups from the city.[341]

On March 26, the Operation Sunrise forces loyal to the Tripoli-based government and the Petroleum Facilities Guards, led by Ibrahim Jathran and aligned with the Tobruk-based government, reached a deal pertaining to the Sidra Basin area. Both sides agreed to maintain the cease-fire and to intensify focus on fighting ISIL. As a result of the agreement, Sunrise forces withdrew from Bin Jawad and some other former areas that functioned as fronts in its battle with the Petroleum Facilities Guards.[342][343][344]

On 30 March, Ansar al-Sharia's general Sharia jurist Abu Abdullah Al-Libi pledged allegiance to ISIL.[345][346]

On 31 March 2015, Libyan General Khalifa Haftar promised to retake the city of Benghazi from militant groups within a month.[347]

Also, on March 31, the new GNC of the Tripoli-based government sacked its Prime Minister, Omar al-Hassi.[348] The Tripoli-based government cited dissatisfaction with Omar al-Hassi's performance as the reason for his dismissal, and stated that its first deputy speaker, Khalifa al-Ghowel, will run a caretaker cabinet until a new government is formed within one month.[349]

April 2015

On 13 April 2015, the South Korean embassy in Tripoli was attacked by two gunmen, who killed two embassy guards and injured a third person. Hours later, a bomb damaged the gate and a residential building near the Moroccan embassy, although no injuries or deaths were reported. ISIL claimed responsibility for those incidents.[350]

In mid-April, fighting broke out in Tripoli itself on Saturday, April 18, between Libya Dawn and supporters of Haftar. A pro-Haftar insurgency has been involved in fighting in the eastern suburbs of Tajoura and Fashloum 101 Battalion. The unit's leader, Abdullah Sassi, was captured and possibly killed by Libya Dawn forces.

On April 24, aircraft associated with the Tripoli-based government struck ISIL targets in Sirte.[351]

On April 25, as a result of clashes with the Tribes' Army, an element of the Libyan National Army in western Libya, and attendant missile strikes, the Gharyan municipality declared a state of emergency, a mobilization of forces, and a closure of colleges.[352][353]

May 2015

On May 11, a Turkish cargo ship was shelled by the Libyan Air Force after heading to the port of Derna. It is known that Derna has been under extremist militants since 2014.[354]

On May 29, eight people were killed and eight others were wounded following a rocket strike by Islamist militants in the city of Benghazi.On the same day Islamic State fighters captured the Qurdabiya air base south of Sirte after Tripoli aligned troops withdrew from the area.[355]

June 2015

On June 1, a suicide bomber blew himself up outside a checkpoint in the city of Dafniya, killing 5 Libya Dawn militia and injuring 7 others. ISIL issued a statement claiming the attack and declaring war to the coalition.[356]

On June 3, Islamic State fighters beheaded a Libyan National Army volunteer at the famous Atiq Mosque in Derna. The Islamic state also posted photos of young boys being shown the severed head and bloody body of the victim immediately after the killing.[357]

On June 10, the Al Qaeda affiliate Shura Council of Derna declared war on ISIL after members of the later allegedly assassinated SCD commander Nasr Akr, nine ISIL militants and two SCD fighters were killed in clashes that followed the incident.[358]

On June 13, the towns of Rigdaleen, Jumayl, Zaltan and Al-Agrabiya agreed with the Libyan National Army to enter these towns peacefully and without any bloodshed. Since then the Libyan National Army has taken over these towns and are securing their facilities.[359] This outcome was a consequence of a peace deal being brokered among cities in western Libya.

On June 12, Medfaiyah Wal-Sewarigh ("Artillery and Missiles") Brigade, which is part of the Libya Dawn militias, took 10 diplomatic staff from the Tunisian consulate in Tripoli as hostages. This comes as Tunisian authorities arrest a senior member of Libya Dawn named Walid Al-Ghleib on charges of terrorist offences including supplying Tunisian terrorists with weapons.[360]

On June 14, the United States announced it had conducted an airstrike on a group associated with al-Qaeda. It was reported that Mokhtar Belmokhtar was the target and that he was killed in the airstrike. The internationally recognized government was consulted in advance, and it confirmed the death of Belmokhtar.[361][362][363]

Throughout June, municipal authorities in western Libyan cities have reached a series of agreements to foster peace and de-escalation. These agreements have encompassed and included cities backing opposing sides of the civil war, such as Misrata, Zintan, Kikla, Gharyan, Zuwara, Zawia, Zliten, Rigadaleen, Jumayl, Zaltan, Sabratha, and others, as well as forces engaged in local animosities and tribal conflicts. The terms of the peace and reconciliation accords between cities include the cessation of warfare, prisoner exchanges, the unblocking of roads and critical routes, and the withdrawal of rival armed units back to the administrative borders of their associated cities.[364][365][366][367][368][369]

July 2015

On July 1, the head of the General National Congress, Nouri Abusahmain, accompanied by Salah Badi, a Libya Dawn militia leader, held a protest outside of the GNC headquarters protesting against the dialogue process. This came as the UNSMIL significantly reduced the role of the State Council, ninety of which are from the General National Congress.[370]

On July 12, Al-Wushka, a little town 35 kilometers east of Abu Grain, was taken over by the Libyan branch of ISIL, without any resistance from the militant forces that control western Libya. It is known that the Islamic State has been gaining a lot of ground west of their stronghold Sirte after militia fighters from Misrata were pushed away from the city. That same day in Morocco, the Libyan factions signed the draft peace deal, but without the participation of the team from the General National Congress who boycotted the meetings because of objections to parts of the text.[371][372]

August 2015

On August 1, five people were killed in clashes between the Libyan Armed Forces and various Islamist groups. Fighting has been taking place in Ajdabiya, near the oil port of Brega, which included an attack by the Libyan Air Force.[373]

On August 13, 38 residents from the town of Sirte were killed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, after residents revolted against them in reaction to the killing of an Islamic Salafist Imam who refused to hand over his mosque to the militant extreme group. Among the dead were two children, four elderly and the rest were fighters from the local tribe of Furjan. ISIL threatened to use gas against the civilians unless attacks against it stopped.[374]

On August 14, multiple airstrikes were conducted on Sirte after the massacre committed by ISIL. The air assault lasted for half an hour targeting multiple areas in Sirte including the town’s internal security complex, the Ouagadougou Conference centre, part of the university campus and the Mahari hotel.[375]

September 2015

Ansar al-Sharia released a message in which the organization denied having pledged allegiance to ISIL or its caliph. Ansar al-Sharia also denied having links with the Tripoli government, which it termed "an apostate government."[376]

October 2015

On October 1, ISIL militants attacked the port of Es Sidr with a gun assault and an attempted car bombing against the defending Petroleum Facilities Guard. Petroleum Facilities Guard reporetedly suffered one death and two wounded while ISIL incurred the death of four militants.[377]

On October 8, the UN envoy heading the internationally backed dialogue process, Bernardino Leon, held a press conference in Morocco in which he announced the names of several potential members of the proposed Government of National Accord. Fayez al-Sarraj, a member of the House of Representatives, was announced as the candidate for the office of prime minister.[378] Three deputy prime ministers were announced, including Ahmed Maetig, Musa Kuni, and Fathi Majbari. Omar Aswad and Mohamed Ammar were declared as two other potential members of a six-person presidential council.[379]

Shortly after the press conference, the Misrata Municipal Council expressed support for the proposed Government of National Accord.[380] Furthermore, an overwhelming preponderance of Misrata's militias have declared support for the plan.[381]

On October 23, extremist militants, possibly associated with the Islamic State, fired mortar rounds at protesters in Benghazi's Kish Square, killing nine and wounding at least 35.[382][383]

On October 30, Martin Kobler, a German diplomat, was appointed to replace Bernardino Leon as U.N. Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya.[384]

November 2015

Following the appointment of Martin Kobler and the announcement of the impending departure of Bernardino Leon from the U.N., Leon was appointed as director-general of the UAE's diplomatic academy.[385] This job announcement, along with its attendant £35,000 a month salary, led to accusations, particularly by supporters of Libya Dawn and the Tripoli-based government, that Leon's tenure as U.N. envoy had been tainted by bias and partiality. These accusations were reinforced by allegedly leaked emails which purported to reveal collusion between Leon and the UAE to divide the forces backing the Tripoli government, as well as violations of the U.N. arms embargo by the UAE.[386] Additionally, the Tripoli-based government arrested a UAE national on suspicion of espionage on November 11.[387]

December 2015

Efforts to establish peace between the rival governments were made on 16 and 17 December, when the leaders of both governments met in Malta and delegates signed an agreement in Morocco. Despite this, fighting still continued, with clashes in Ajdabiya killing 14 people.[388]

2016

January 2016

On January 7, a truck bomb attack targeted a police training center in the coastal city of Zliten, killing at least 47 and wounding scores of people.[389] The incident was one of the deadliest terrorist attacks in Libyan history.[390] Difficulties in treating the huge number of wounded at facilities in Zliten resulted in many patients being transferred to hospitals in Tripoli, Misrata, and Khoms.[391] Another car bomb attack occurred on the same day at the entrance to the oil port of Ras Lanuf, killing multiple people.[392] The Islamic State claimed responsibility for the massacres at Zliten and Ras Lanuf.[393]

On January 10, the ISIL attacks the port of Zueitina, by sea, with 3 boats. The Guards of Petrol Installations (GPI), an armed group linked to the Tobrouk's Gouvernment, are prepared, because they were warned of the assault a few days ago. They seriously damaged one boats, and forced the others to retreat. So, the GPI resisted to this assault.[394]

February 2016

The U.N.-backed presidential council announced a list of names for ministers of the Government of National Accord on February 14, 2016.[395] The presidential council presented the list of names to the House of Representatives for approval.[396]

An US air raid on suspected ISIL camp on February 19 near the city of Sabratha resulted in killing 49 people, including two Serbian embassy members, who had been taken hostage by the militiants on 8 November 2015 from a convoy of cars heading towards the Tunisian border.[397] An ISIL operative named Noureddine Chouchane who is behind the Sousse attacks that left 30 British citizens dead was believed to have been killed in the airstrike.

On February 20, the Libyan National Army led by Brigadier General Khalifa Haftar launched a citywide assault to capture the city of Benghazi in an operation called "Blood of the Martyrs", with some assistance from French special forces.[398] The Army managed to capture Marisa port which was a key life line for terrorists in the city to get supplies from the city of Misrata. The army also managed to take control of Bouatni district south of Benghazi.[399][400]

On the 21st of the same month, in Benghazi the Libyan National Army also managed to take over the rest of Bouatni, while overrunning Hawari and Leithi districts both of which were strongholds of ISIL & Ansar al-Sharia.[399][401]

On February 23, ISIL militants clashed with forces associated with the Sabratha military council inside of Sabratha.[402] These clashes were followed on the same day by an ISIL offensive that allegedly temporarily seized various buildings after penetrating the city. However, local forces conducted a counterattack against the ISIL militants, reportedly driving them out of the city's centre.[403] However, fighting continued in Zawagha district.[404]

March 2016

On March 6, Libyan aircraft based in Misrata conducted airstrikes against Islamic States targets in Sirte.[405] Jamal Zubia, a foreign media spokesman for the Tripoli-based government, claimed that as many as 18 people were killed in the strikes, including senior Islamic State members.[405] A resident in Sirte stated that the air strikes had targeted districts in and around the city, resulting in at least one civilian being killed.[405]

On March 10, following the airstrikes against targets in Sirte, ISIL militants attacked Misratan forces stationed at the Abu Grain checkpoint, killing three security personnel.[406] Also on March 10, Zintani forces clashed with suspected ISIL militants who had briefly taken control of a major road about 320 km west of Sirte and 200 km south of the capital, Tripoli. One member of the Zintani Brigades was injured before the militants retreated.[406]

On March 12, the Presidential Council of the U.N.-backed Government of National Accord issued a statement urging all Libyan institutions to begin a transfer of authority to the unity government.[407] It also called upon the international community to cease all dealings with alternative governments.[408] In the statement, the Presidential Council asserted that a document signed by a majority of the HOR's members expressing support for the new government, in addition to the endorsement by other political figures, conferred legitimacy on the Government of National Accord.

On March 15, Haithem Tajouri, the commander of the Tripoli Revolutionaries' Brigade, seized control of the Hall of the People facility.[409] Subsequently, on March 16, Tajouri expressed support for a return of monarchy in Libya and had the Qaddafi-era Hall of the People plastered with pro-monarchy posters.[410]

On March 16 the European Union agreed to implement sanctions, travel bans, and asset freezes, on Nouri Abusahmain, the president of the Tripoli-based new GNC, Khalifa al-Ghwell, the new GNC's prime minister, and Aguila Saleh, the president of the Tobruk-based House of Representatives.[411] The European Union cited these three political leaders as being "spoilers" obstructing implementation of the U.N-backed plan of resolution to the Libya conflict and the associated Government of National Accord.

During an interview on March 17, Fayez al-Sarraj, the Prime Minister of the U.N/internationally supported Government of National Accord, declared that his government would move into Tripoli "within in a few days."[412] Seraj also stated, in the same interview, that his government's security plan included agreements with police, military forces, and some armed groups in Tripoli that would enable the Government of National Accord to ensconce itself in the capital.

On March 24, the Tripoli-based new GNC declared a state of emergency in response to reports that four members of the Government of National Accord had entered Tripoli.[413]

On March 30, various members of the Presidential Council, including Prime Minister Fayez Serraj, arrived at a naval base in a Tripoli after travelling from Tunisia on a boat.[414]

On March 31, the Libya Herald reported that top officials from the new GNC, under heavy pressure and warnings from former supporters, had dispersed back to their home cities.[415] GNC Prime Minister Khalifa Ghwell, Sheik Sadeq al-Ghariani, GNC President Abu Sahmain, GNC Media Department head Jamal Zubia, and milita commander Salah Badi were reported as having left Tripoli.[415]

Also on March 31, the Presidency Council’s Temporary Security Committee reportedly took control of the prime ministry facilities on the Sikka Road.[415] Additionally, ten coastal cities in western Libya announced support for the Government of National Accord through the Sabratha municipality's official Facebook page.[416]

At the end of March, the mayors of Sabratha, Zultan, Rigdaleen, Al-Jmail, Zuwarah, Ajilat, Sorman, Zawia, as well as those of West and South Zawia, issued a joint statement endorsing the Government of National Accord.[417]

April 2016

On April 2, the National Oil Corporation stated that it would work with the Presidential Council.[418]

On April 3, the municipality of Bani Walid announced support for the Presidential Council and the Government of National Accord.[419]

Political and military authorities in al-Hawamid declared support for the Presidential Council and the Government of National Accord on April 3.[420]

On April 4, Tunisia declared plans to reopen its embassy in Tripoli.[421][422]

On April 5, the National Salvation Government associated with the General National Congress announced that it was resigning, "ceasing operations," and ceding power to the Presidential Council.[423][424] Following the dissolution of the GNC, former members of that body declared the establishment of the State Council, as envisaged by the LPA.[425]

On April 6, the State Council selected Abdurrahman Swehli as its president and Saleh al-Makhzoum as its First Deputy.[426][427] On the same day, Saleh al-Makhzoum stated that the Presidential Council, utilizing its powers as Commander-in-chief, would soon announce the leadership of the Libyan army, in cooperation with House of Representatives and the State Council. Furthermore, he suggested that a resolution for the controversy pertaining to article 8 of the LPA would be achieved.[427]

On the 17th of April, the Libyan National Army managed to crush extreme militants in and around the University of Benghazi, where militants had taken it a ground for them to launch rockets at the city and train their followers.[428]

On April 18, the Libyan Army managed to capture the Al-Hawari cement factory and the adjoining two cemeteries. They later overrun the entire district of Al-Hawari south west of the city, this however came at a cost of five soldiers' lives and a senior commander named later as Abdul Hamid Boker.[429]

Also on April 18, a meeting of the House of Representatives was set to convene to vote on the issue of acceptance or rejection of the Government of National Accord, but the planned session was derailed by Aquila Saleh, the Speaker of the House Representatives, and a minority bloc within the parliament which opposes the GNA.[430][431] Several previous and subsequent attempts to hold a vote on the GNA have been unsuccessful.[432][433]

On April 19, the Libyan National Army together with Al-Saiqa special forces were able to seize control of the entire area of Al-Quwarsha.[434]

On April 20, the Libyan National Army's Omar Mukhtar Operation Room which covers Derna and the areas surrounding the region, were able to take control of the south eastern suburb of Fataieh and an area called District 400 following a new ground and air offensive.[435]

The Presidential Council, on April 20, congratulated the LNA and the Derna Mujaheddin Shura Council for their successes against ISIL in Benghazi and Derna.[436][437]

On April 23, the Petroleum Facilities Guard clashed with ISIL militants near the Brega oil terminal, resulting in the death of one PFG member and several wounded.[438] Ibrahim Jathran, the leader of the Petroleum Facilities Guard, was injured in the fighting.[439]

On April 28, Prime Minister Faiez Serraj issued a prerecorded television address during which he stated that he had tasked his government's Defense Minister, Mahdi Barghathi, with assembling a joint command and a joint operations room for the recapture of Sirte from ISIL.[440] Serraj declared that the forces for the operation would be drawn up of military units from across the country.[441]

May 2016

On May 3, the town of Zella saw clashes between militants of the Ziyad Belaam's Omar Mukhtar Brigade on one side, reportedly backed by air strikes, and the Libyan National Army on the other. A Misratan official alleged that the LNA forces battling Belaam's brigade were fighters from the Justice and Equality Movement, a Sudanese rebel group, however no specific evidence was found of such accusations. Belaam's forces retreated about 30 kilometres away from the town.[442]

On May 5, ISIL militants staged a preemptive offensive against GNA-allied forces in Abu Grein and other areas in central Libya.[443] The attacks involved use of vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs), as well as the capture of a number of towns and villages. The initial ISIL assault was followed in the subsequent days by the organization's use of additional VBIED attacks.[444]

On May 6, shells fired by militants, possibly associated with ISIL, in Kish Square killed and wounded a number of individuals participating in a pro-LNA demonstration in Kish Square of Benghazi.[445] The Presidential Council and Mansour Al-Hassadi of the State Council condemned the assault as a terrorist attack.[446]

On May 7, GNA-affiliated units reportedly recaptured a bridge checkpoint in Sadada from ISIL.[447] Also on May 7, Muhammad Al-Ghersy, the spokesman of the recently established Joint Operations Room of the Central Region, declared in a presser that the Joint Operations Room had begun preparing for expanded military actions against the ISIL presence in and around Sirte.[448][68]

On May 9, the Presidential Council announced the formation of the Presidential Guard.[23] The Presidential Guard is intended to function as an elite military force tasked with protecting sovereign institutions such as the Central Bank of Libya.[23] Additionally, it is reported to have a remit to ensure the security of airports, ports, and electricity lines.[23] Membership in the organization will be drawn from army soldiers, the police, and militiamen.[23]

On May 12, four members of military forces loyal to Libya's new U.N.-backed unity government have been killed and 30 wounded in clashes with Islamic State insurgents near the western Libyan city of Misrata, a hospital spokesman said. The fighting was going on east of Assdada, around 80 km (50 miles) south of Misrata.[449]

In mid-May, the LNA and Operation Dignity leadership declared the initiation of "Operation Volcano" to purge Derna of the Derna Mujaheddin Shura Council.[450][451] Subsequently, clashes between the LNA and the DMSC broke out. In response, the Derna Mujaheddin Shura Council announced a general "mobilization" to confront the LNA forces.[452]

On May 16, military forces associated with the Government of National Accord's central region Joint Operations Room claimed to have recaptured Abu Grein from IS militants.[69] This report followed days of intermittent clashes and air strikes.

On May 17, the military forces of the Government of National Accord declared their control over the al-Wishkah district, 25 km from Abu Grein.[453] The GNA's Joint Operations Room stated that their casualties had been six soldiers killed and seventeen injured in ongoing clashes with ISIL forces, eventually reaching nearly 50 kilometres from Sirte.[454]

The GNA's central region Joint Operations Room has named the anti-ISIL offensive “Al-Bunyan Al-Marsoos,” variously translated as "Impenetrable Wall" or "Solid Foundation."[454]

On May 22, Bashir Abu Thafirah, the Commander of the Ajdabia border sector, announced that a military operations room under the command of the Government of Nation Accord would be formed in two days. He declared that the operations room would cover the area from Ajdabia to Sirte and consist of the Petroleum Facilities Guard, as well as Ajdabia military units and other forces under the command of the Ajdabia border sector military leadership.[455]

On May 25 the Central Bank of Libya's parallel eastern branch based in Bayda and representing the House of Representatives and Al-Thani government announced the printing of new banknotes to be put into circulation by June.[456] According to the Central Bank's claimed governor Ali Al-Hibri, these 50LYD and 20LYD that amount to 4 billion LYD were printed in Russia. The following day the Presidential Council announced that these printed banknotes were to be considered invalid and shortly after the United State's embassy in Libya, based in Tunis, announced through social media postings that they would consider these banknotes counterfeit.[457]

In late May, pro-GNA military forces seized many locations near the city of Sirte from ISIL. Operation Al-Bunyan Al-Marsoos forces reported the capture of the Sirte power station and also its advance on the town of Jarif to the south of Sirte.[458][459]

Also in late May, the eastern front of Sirte saw action. The Petroleum Facilities Guard reported the capture of Bin Jawad and Noufiliyah from ISIL.[71]

June 2016

In June, clashes continued in Sirte between the military forces of the Government of National Accord and IS. Fighting on June 21 left 36 dead and 100 wounded, with sectors of the 700 district being cleared of snipers and with the broadcasting and electrical company headquarters being captured by government forces. According to reports, Colonel Al-Mahdi Al-Barghathi, the government's minister of defense, is personally overseeing the operation to take Sirte, and British and French special forces are fighting alongside the Libyan loyalist army units to retake the city.[460]

July 2016

On July 15; 2016, the "Defense for Benghazi Brigades", an anti-Haftar militia, sponsored by Sadiq Al-Ghariani, has captured the village of El Magrun, south of Benghazi.[461] But the army recaptured it on July 19,[462] and on July 20, captured El Jlaidiya (53 north of Ajdabiya)[463] Three French special forces soldiers were killed on July 20 when their helicopter was shot down near Benghazi, just hours after the country officially confirmed its presence on the ground.[464]

August 2016

On August 1, the United States air forces led air strikes (co-ordinated with the unity government in Tripoli) against ISIL positions in Sirte.[465]

On August 4, a suicide bombing targeted the Libyan army at al-Guwarsha (a southern gate of Benghazi) resulted in 23 killed, 54 wounded.[466]

The House of Representatives on August 22 rejected the GNA's government with most members of the parliament voting against the government in a motion of no confidence.[99][100][467]

September 2016

October 2016

Further information: 2016 Libyan coup d'état attempt

On 14 October 2016, forces loyal to GNC took over the building of the High Council of State and announced the restoration of Ghawi cabinet.[468][469] Then, clashes occurred between Sarraj loyalists and Ghawi loyalists.[470][471] Later, forces loyal to Ghawil sent reinforcements to protect the parliament building.[472]

Ghwail forces also seized the Government Palace.[473]

On 16 October, the Presidential Guard pledged allegiance to GNA.[474] On 17 October, Ghwail said on TV that GNC fully control of the capital.[474] Clashes between Ghawil forces and policemen occurred.[475]

November 2016

On 5 November 2016, GNS seized Al Khums.[476]

December 2016

On 1 December, Omar al-Hassi announced the formation of the High Council of Revolution, who is a parallel executive body.[477]

On 2 December, clashes occurred between the two sides.[478] On 3 December, an agreement for a ceasefire has been found.[479]

Sirte was declared to be cleared of ISIL loyalists on December 6 after over 6 months of fighting, depriving the group of their remaining urban stronghold in Libya.

2017

January 2017

Field Marshal Haftar met with Russian military officials aboard the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, which was on its way to Syria. There they reportedly discussed the possibility of supplying weapons to the Libyan National Army.[480][481]

February 2017

Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj stated in late February that he hopes Russia will serve as a mediator between the GNA and the government in Tobruk.[482]

March 2017

On 2 March 2017, GNA vice premier Ahmed Maiteeq and foreign minister Mohamed Taha Siala met with Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov in Moscow. There they discussed solving the Libyan crisis, including the possibility of dialogue between the GNA and the Council of Deputies.[483][484][485][484]

On 3 March, the Islamist-dominated Benghazi Defense Brigades launched an offensive, capturing a strip of territory between the oil ports of Nofaliya and Ras Lanuf from the Libyan National Army,[486] and then handing this territory over to the Government of National Accord.[487] As of 7 March, LNA forces in Brega were reportedly preparing for a counterattack,[488] and the Tobruk government had backed out of the UN-brokered deal with the Tripoli government, calling for fresh elections to be held.[489]

Peace efforts

During the first half of 2015, the United Nations facilitated a series of different negotiating tracks seeking to bring together the rival governments of Libya and warring militias tearing Libya apart.[490] The U.N. representative to Libya reconvened delegations from Libya's rival governments on 8 June 2015 to present the latest draft proposal for a unity government for the war-torn country.[490] After a warning one week earlier that the country had been running out of money and had risked ceasing to be a functional state, Bernardino Leon urged the Libyans to approve the fourth version of the draft proposal in a ceremony in Morocco.[490] On 8 October 2015, Bernardino Leon held a press conference in which the names of several potential members of a unified government were announced.[378]

A meeting between the rival governments was held at Auberge de Castille in Valletta, Malta on 16 December 2015. The meeting was delayed for a few days after the representatives from the Tobruk government initially failed to show up.[491] The leader of the Tripoli government, Nouri Abusahmain, announced that they "will not accept foreign intervention against the will of the Libyan people," while the leader of the Tobruk government Aguila Saleh Issa called on the international community to "allow [them] time to form an effective unity government." Representatives from both governments also met officials from the United Nations, Italy, the United States and Russia in a conference in Rome.[492]

On 17 December, delegates from both rival governments signed a peace deal backed by the UN in Skhirat, Morocco, although there was opposition to this within both factions.[1][2] The Government of National Accord was formed as a result of this agreement, and its first meeting took place in Tunis on 2 January 2016.[493]

Domestic reactions

Haftar and his supporters describe Operation Dignity as a "correction to the path of the revolution" and a "war on terrorism".[494][495][496] The elected parliament has declared that Haftar's enemies are "terrorists", .[143] Opponents of Haftar and the coup d'état government in Tripoli claim he is attempting a coup. Omar al-Hasi, the internationally unrecognized Prime Minister of the Libya Dawn-backed Tripoli government, speaking of his allies' actions, has stated that: "This is a correction of the revolution." He has also contended: "Our revolution had fallen into a trap."[497] Dawn commanders claim to be fighting for a "revolutionary" cause rather than for religious or partisan objectives.[498] Islamist militia group Ansar al-Sharia (linked to the 2012 Benghazi attack) has denounced Haftar's campaign as a Western-backed "war on Islam"[499] and has declared the establishment of the "Islamic Emirate of Benghazi".

Foreign reactions, involvement, and evacuations

Neighboring countries

Algeria

Early in May 2014, the Algerian military said it was engaged in an operation aimed at tracking down militants who infiltrated the country's territory in Tamanrasset near the Libyan border, during which it announced that it managed to kill 10 "terrorists" and seized a large cache of weapons near the town of Janet consisting of automatic rifles, rocket-propelled grenades and ammunition boxes.[500] The Times reported on 30 May that Algerian forces were strongly present in Libya and it was claimed shortly after by an Algerian journalist from El Watan that a full regiment of 3,500 paratroopers logistically supported by 1,500 other men crossed into Libya and occupied a zone in the west of the country. They were later shown to be operating alongside French special forces in the region. However, all of these claims were later denied by the Algerian government through Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal who told the senate that "Algeria has always shown its willingness to assist [our] sister countries, but things are clear: the Algerian army will not undertake any operation outside Algerian territory".[501]

On 16 May 2014, the Algerian government responded to a threat on its embassy in Libya by sending a team of special forces to Tripoli to escort its diplomatic staff in a military plane out of the country. "Due to a real and imminent threat targeting our diplomats the decision was taken in coordination with Libyan authorities to urgently close our embassy and consulate general temporarily in Tripoli," the Algerian Foreign Ministry said in a statement.[502] Three days later, the Algerian government shut down all of its border crossings with Libya and the army command raised its security alert status by tightening its presence along the border, especially on the Tinalkoum and Debdab border crossings. This also came as the state-owned energy firm, Sonatrach, evacuated all of its workers from Libya and halted production in the country.[503] In mid-August, Algeria opened its border for Egyptian refugees stranded in Libya and said it would grant them exceptional visas to facilitate their return to Egypt.[504]

Egypt

Egyptian authorities have long expressed concern over the instability in eastern Libya spilling over into Egypt due to the rise of jihadist movements in the region, which the government believes to have developed into a safe transit for wanted Islamists following the 2013 coup d'état in Egypt that ousted Muslim Brotherhood-backed president Mohamed Morsi. There have been numerous attacks on Egypt's trade interests in Libya which were rampant prior to Haftar's offensive, especially with the kidnapping of truck drivers and sometimes workers were murdered.[505] Due to this, the military-backed government in Egypt had many reasons to support Haftar's rebellion and the Islamist February 17th Martyrs Brigade operating in Libya has accused the Egyptian government of supplying Haftar with weapons and ammunition, a claim denied by both Cairo and the rebel leader.[506] Furthermore, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who has become increasingly popular among many Libyans wishing for stability,[507] has called on the United States to intervene militarily in Libya during his presidential candidacy, warning that Libya was becoming a major security challenge and vowed not to allow the turmoil there to threaten Egypt's national security.[508]

On 21 July, the Egyptian Foreign Ministry urged its nationals residing in Libya to adopt measures of extreme caution as it was preparing to send consular staff in order to facilitate their return their country following an attack in Egypt's western desert region near the border with Libya that left 22 Egyptian border guards killed.[509] A week later, the ministry announced that it would double its diplomatic officials on the Libyan-Tunisian border and reiterated its call on Egyptian nationals to find shelter in safer places in Libya.[510] On 3 August, Egypt, Libya and Tunisia agreed to cooperate by establishing an airbridge between Cairo and Tunis that would facilitate the transfer of 2,000 to 2,500 Egyptians from Libya daily.[511]

On 31 July, two Egyptians were shot dead during a clash at the Libyan-Tunisian border where hundreds of Egyptians were staging a protest at the Ras Jdeir border crossing. As they tried to cross into Tunisia, Libyan authorities opened fire to disperse them.[512] A similar incident occurred once again on 15 August, when Libyan security forces shot dead an Egyptian who attempted to force his way through the border along with hundreds of stranded Egyptians and almost 1,200 Egyptians made it into Tunisia that day.[504] This came a few days after Egypt's Minister of Civil Aviation, Hossam Kamal, announced that the emergency airlift consisting of 46 flights aimed at evacuating the country's nationals from Libya came to a conclusion, adding that 11,500 Egyptians in total had returned from the war-torn country as of 9 August.[513] A week later, all Egyptians on the Libyan-Tunisian border were evacuated and the consulate's staff, who were reassigned to work at the border area, withdrew from Libya following the operation's success.[514] Meanwhile, an estimated 50,000 Egyptians (4,000 per day) arrived at the Salloum border crossing on the Libyan-Egyptian border as of early August.[515]

Malta

Along with most of the international community, Malta continues to recognize the Council of Deputies as the legitimate government of Libya. Libyan chargé d'affaires Hussin Musrati insisted that by doing so, Malta was "interfering in Libyan affairs".[516] Due to the conflict, there are currently two Libyan embassies in Malta. The unrecognized General National Congress now controls the official Libyan Embassy in Balzan, while the internationally recognized Council of Deputies has opened a consulate in Ta' Xbiex. Each of the two embassies say that visas issued by the other entity are not valid.[517]

Following the expansion of ISIL in Libya, particularly the fall of Nawfaliya, the Maltese Prime Minister Joseph Muscat and Leader of the Opposition Simon Busuttil called for the United Nations and European Union to intervene in Libya to prevent the country from becoming a failed state.[518][519]

Tunisia

Post-revolutionary Tunisia also had its share of instability due to the violence in Libya as it witnessed an unprecedented rise in radical Islamism with increased militant activity and weapons' smuggling through the border.[520]

In response to the initial clashes in May, the Tunisian National Council for Security held an emergency meeting and decided to deploy 5,000 soldiers to the Libyan–Tunisian border in anticipation of potential consequences from the fighting.[521] On 30 July, Tunisian Foreign Minister Mongi Hamdi said that the country cannot cope with the high number of refugees coming from Libya due to the renewed fighting. "Our country's economic situation is precarious, and we cannot cope with hundreds of thousands of refugees," Hamdi said in a statement. He also added that Tunisia will close its borders if necessary.[522]

Others

Supranational
  •  United Nations - On 27 August 2014, the UN Security Council unanimously approved resolution 2174 (2014), which called for an immediate ceasefire and an inclusive political dialogue.[523] The resolution also threatened to impose sanctions, such as asset freezes and travel bans, against the leaders and supporters of the various militias involved in the fighting, if the individuals threaten either the security of Libya or the political process.[524]
States
  •  France – On 30 July 2014, the French government temporarily closed its embassy in Tripoli, while 40 French, including the ambassador, and 7 British nationals were evacuated on a French warship bound to the port of Toulon in southern France. "We have taken all necessary measures to allow those French nationals who so wish to leave the country temporarily," the foreign ministry said in a statement.[525][526]
  •  IndiaMinistry of External Affairs spokesman, Syed Akbaruddin, said that India's diplomatic mission in Libya has been touch with the 4,500 Indian nationals, through several co-ordinators. "The mission is facilitating return of Indian nationals and working with the Libyan authorities to obtain necessary exit permissions for Indian nationals wanting to return," he said.[527]
  •  Italy – The Italian embassy has remained open during the civil war[528] and the government has always pushed for the success of UN-hosted talks among Libya's political parties in Geneva. Prime Minister Matteo Renzi said "If there's no success, Italy is ready to play a leading role, above all a diplomatic role, and then, always under the aegis of the UN, one of peacekeeping inside Libya", adding that "Libya can’t be left in the condition it is now."[529] Between February 2015 and December 2016, however, Italy was forced to close its embassy and every Italian citizen in Libya was advised to leave. The embassy reopened on January 9, 2017.
  •  Russia – In February 2015, discussions on supporting the Libyan parliament by supplying them with weapons reportedly took place in Cairo when President of Russia Vladimir Putin arrived for talks with the government of Egypt, during which the Russian delegates also spoke with a Libyan delegation. Colonel Ahmed al-Mismari, the spokesperson for the Libyan Army's chief of staff, also stated that "Arming the Libyan army was a point of discussion between the Egyptian and Russian presidents in Cairo."[530] The deputy foreign minister of Russia, Mikhail Bogdanov, has stated that Russia will supply the government of Libya with weapons if UN sanctions against Libya are lifted.[531] In April 2015, Prime Minister Abdullah al-Thani visited Moscow and announced that Russia and Libya will strengthen their relations, especially economic relations.[532] He also met with Sergei Lavrov, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and said that he request Russia's assistance in fixing the country's government institutions and military strength.[533] The prime minister also met with Nikolai Patrushev, the Russian president's security adviser, and talked about the need to restore stability in Libya as well as the influence of terrorist groups in the country. Patrushev stated that a "priority for regional politics is the protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Libya."[534]
  •  Thailand – In late July 2014, the Thai government asked Libya's authorities to facilitate the evacuation of its nationals by exempting the need for exit visas.[535] As of 14 August, over 800 Thai workers have been successfully evacuated from the country,[536] while Thailand's Ministry of Labour announced that it would prepare jobs for more than 2,800 workers residing in Libya.[537]
  •  United Kingdom – Following France's evacuation of some British nationals, the UK's embassy in Tripoli was the only diplomatic mission still open in the war-torn city. However, British diplomats residing there have sought refuge in a fortified compound south-west of the city to avoid the repetitive rocket attacks by warring militias.[538] Three days earlier, a convoy carrying British diplomats from Tripoli to Tunisia came under fire when their vehicles refused to stop at an unofficial checkpoint in the outskirts of the city.[539] On 2 August, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office finally announced that it would temporarily close its embassy in the capital and evacuate its staff. Ambassador Michael Aron said that the embassy would continue to operate from Tunisia.[540] The following day, the Royal Navy ship HMS Enterprise managed to evacuate more than a hundred foreign nationals from the country to Malta, most of whom were British, in an operation off the coast of Tripoli.[541] In March 2016, Ambassador Peter Millett called for "a much more coordinated approach between the different groups, regions and forces and the armed groups in Libya" in order to defeat ISIL in Libya.[542]
  •  United States In 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama stated that not preparing for a post-Gaddafi Libya was the "worst mistake" of his presidency.[543]
Sports

See also

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Further reading

  • Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Terrorism in North Africa After Benghazi: The Jihadist Regional Outlook (International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague, 2013)
  • Pelham, Nicolas. Libya Against Itself (February 2015). "Libyans feel even more isolated than when the UN imposed sanctions on Qaddafi. The civil society that briefly emerged after the colonel's downfall has all but disappeared. Each activist can reel off the names of colleagues shot dead or kidnapped, often by Islamists." New York Review of Books
  • Kampmark, Binoy. How Interventions Come Back to Haunt Us: Demolishing Libya (Feb. 2015). CounterPunch
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