Lampung

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Lampung
Province
Lampung banner.JPG
Uprising-mt anak krakatau.jpg Pahawang Island, Indonesia.jpg
Bukit barisan.jpg Bakauheni Port and Siger Tower.JPG
Klara Beach.JPG Bandar Lampung.JPG
Clockwise, from top left : View of Lampung Bay, Pahawang Islands, Bakauheni Port and Siger Tower, Bandar Lampung, Klara Beach, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, Mount Anak Krakatau
Official seal of Lampung
Seal
Motto: Sai Bumi Ruwa Jurai ("One area occupied by two customs or traditions which are Saibatin and Pepadun")
Location of Lampung in Indonesia
Location of Lampung in Indonesia
Coordinates: 5°27′S 105°16′E / 5.450°S 105.267°E / -5.450; 105.267Coordinates: 5°27′S 105°16′E / 5.450°S 105.267°E / -5.450; 105.267
Country  Indonesia
Capital Lambang Kota Bandar Lampung.jpg Bandar Lampung
Established 18 March 1964
Government
 • Body Lampung Regional Government
 • Governor Muhammad Ridho Ficardo (Democratic)
 • Vice Governor Bachtiar Basri
Area
 • Total 35,376 km2 (13,659 sq mi)
Area rank 22nd
Highest elevation 2,262 m (7,421 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 7,972,246
 • Rank 8th
 • Density 230/km2 (580/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Lampungese
Warga Lampung (id)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Javanese (62%), Sundanese (9%), Lampung (25%), Malay (4%), Bantenese (3%)[2]
 • Religion Muslim (92%), Protestant (1.8%), Catholic (0.8%), Hinduism (1.7%), Buddhist (0.3%)
 • Languages Indonesian (official), Lampung (lingua franca), Javanese, Sundanese
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
Postcodes 30xxx, 31xxx, 32xxx
Area codes (62)7xx
ISO 3166 code ID-LA
Vehicle registration BE
HDI Decrease 0.664 (Medium)
HDI rank 24th (2014)
Largest city by area Bandar Lampung – 118.50 square kilometres (45.75 sq mi)
Largest city by population Bandar Lampung – (879,651 – 2016)
Largest regency by area Tulang Bawang Regency – 6,851.32 square kilometres (2,645.31 sq mi)
Largest regency by population Central Lampung Regency – (1,170,048 – 2016)
Website Government official site

Lampung is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the southern tip of the island of Sumatra and borders the provinces of Bengkulu and South Sumatra which lie to the north. Lampung is the original home of the Lampung people, who speak their own language and have their own script. Its capital is Bandar Lampung.

The province had a population of 7,596,115 at the 2010 census;[1] the latest official estimate (as at January 2014) is 7,972,246. Three-quarters of the current population of Lampung is descended from migrants from Java, Madura, and Bali. These migrants came on their initiative, in search of more land than was available on the more densely populated islands, and as part of the national government's transmigration program, for which Lampung was one of the earliest and most significant transmigration destinations.

Lampung is commonly known for its geological instability in terms of earthquakes and volcanoes. On 10 May 2005, an earthquake measuring 6.4 on the Richter scale struck the province. The historical volcano blast of Krakatau which occurred in 1883, had disastrous consequences.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 2,777,008 —    
1980 4,624,785 +66.5%
1990 6,017,573 +30.1%
1995 6,657,759 +10.6%
2000 6,741,439 +1.3%
2010 7,596,115 +12.7%
2014 7,972,246 +5.0%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010

History

In the 7th century, word spread in China about a region located in the far south (Namphang) about a kingdom called "Tolang Pohwang". "To" in Lampung language means "people" while "Lang Pohwang" is the region in what is now called Lampung . There is strong evidence that Lampung was part of the kingdom of Srivijaya, based in Jambi and controlled most parts of Southeast Asia including Lampung and prevail to the 11th century. Srivijaya came to Lampung as this area was once a source of gold and amber.

Relics found in Lampung shows that the region was under the influence of Srivijaya kingdom among others, with the discovery of Palas Pasemah inscriptions and the Batu Bedil inscriptions in the Tenggamus region which was dated from kingdom of Srivijaya. Other smaller kingdoms Tulang Bawang and Scale Brak also once stood at Lampung in about 7–8 century. The center of the Tulang Bawang kingdom was estimated around the Tulang Bawang river. The entry of the Banten Sultanate in Lampung at the 16th century marked the beginning of the spread of Islam in the region. Since the past, Lampung is known for pepper which at that time were much in demand. At that time the Dutch began pressing for control of the region.

The control of pepper production exercised by the Banten Sultanate has made Lampung as one of the greatest and most prosperous harbor in the archipelago. Similarly pepper plants that also attract foreign immigrants from Europe as trading companies of the Dutch East India Company. The trading company in the late 17th century to build a processing plant in Menggala. But the efforts finally Dutch managed to control 1856. The colonial government for the first time introduced the transmigration program to residents on the island of Java, which involved the migration of people from Java to Lampung. The transmigration program was quite well received and many residents of the island of Java origin who moved to the transmigration sites located in the eastern region of Lampung. The transmigration program is then increased again at the time of independence in the 1960s and 1970s. A native of the island of Java have brought along their culture device to Lampung like gamelan and wayang. People on the island of Bali then also came to Lampung to follow this transmigration program. The presence of migrants from other regions in Lampung has made this region as an area with diverse cultures (multi-cultural). Ethnic diversity that there would be a tourist attraction especially in various districts scattered potential of nature tourism, cultural tourism. The existence of art studios and culture as a preserver of art and culture.

The area was part of the Banten Sultanate until it was annexed by the Dutch in 1752 and then became known as Residentie Lampoengse Districten.[3] It was part of the Dutch East Indies.

Geography

Lampung Province has an area of 35,376.50 km2 and lies between the latitudes of 105°45'-103°48 'E and 3°45'-6°45'S. The province borders the Sunda Strait to the southeast and the Java Sea to the east. There are islands located within Lampung Province, which are mostly located in the Bay of Lampung, among them Daro, Legundi, Tegal, Sebuku, Ketagian, Sebesi, Poahawang, Krakatoa, Putus, and Tabuan. There is also Pisang Island at the entrance to the regency of West Lampung.

Lampung natural state, along the coast in the west and the south, is an area of rolling hills connected to the Bukit Barisan range, which runs throughout Sumatra from north to south. In the center of the province is mostly lowland. Close to the coast in the east, along the shores of the Java Sea, further north, is the great waters.

The mountains are high enough at the top, among others:

  • Mount Pesagi (2,262 m) in Liwa, West Lampung
  • Mount Seminung (1,881 m) in Sukau, West Lampung
  • Mount Tebak (2,115 m) in Sumberjaya, West Lampung
  • Mount Rindingan (1,506 m) on the island stage, Tanggamus
  • Mount Pesawaran (1,662 m) in Kedondong, Pesawaran
  • Mount Betung (1,240 m) in Teluk Betung, Bandar Lampung
  • Mount Rajabasa (1,261 m) at the Trump, South Lampung
  • Mount Tanggamus (2,156 m) in Kotaagung, Tanggamus
  • Mount Krakatau in the Sunda Strait, South Lampung
  • Mount Sekincau Liwa, West Lampung
  • Mount Ratai in Padang Cermin, Pesawaran

The rivers that flow in Lampung by length and cathment area (c.a) are:

  • Way Sekampung, length 265 km, C.A. 4795.52 km2
  • Way Semaka, length of 90 km, C.A. 985 km2
  • Way Seputih, length 190 km, C.A. 7149.26 km2
  • Way Jepara, a length of 50 km, C.A. 1,285 km2
  • Way Tulangbawang, length 136 km, C.A. 1,285 km2
  • Way Mesuji, length 220 km, C.A. 2,053 km2
  • Way Sekampung flows in the district Tanggamus, Pringsewu, Pesawaran and South Lampung. Many tributaries, but no length to 100 km. There is only one long river 51 km to C.A. 106.97 km2 is in the Trump Way Ketibung.
  • Way Putih flows in Central Lampung regency with tributaries that are longer than 50 km are:
  • Way Terusan, 175 km long, C.A. 1,500 km2
  • Way Pengubuan, length 165 km, C.A. 1143.78 km2
  • Way Pegadungan, a length of 80 km, C.A. 975 km2
  • Way Raman, length 55 km, C.A. 200 km2
  • Way Tulangbawang flows in the district Tulangbawang with creeks more than 50 km in length, of which:
  • Way Kanan, length 51 km, C.A. 1,197 km2
  • Way Rarem, length 53.50 km, C.A. 870 km2
  • Way Umpu, a length of 100 km, C.A. 1,179 km2
  • Way Tahmy, a length of 60 km, C.A. 550 km2
  • Way Besay also supplies, a length of 113 km, C.A. 879 km2
  • Way Giham, a length of 80 km, C.A. 506.25 km2
  • Way Mesuji flowing on the border of the provinces of Lampung and South Sumatra to the north has a tributary named Crocodile River, along the 70 km by C.A. 347.5 km2.

Great forests in the lowlands can be said to have been exhausted appropriated for development of agriculture, to the migrants who are constantly entering this area. Timber forest products are exported abroad. The forests are still there, where the land can be said not many open lies mostly in the west, in the area of Bukit Barisan Selatan.

Some cities in the provinces of Lampung height of 50 m over sea level is: Tandjungkarang (96 m), Kedaton (100 m), Metro (53), Gisting (480 m), State sakti (100 m), Pringsewu (50 m ), Pekalongan (50 m), Batang (65 m), Punggur (50 m), Padang queen (56 m), Wonosobo (50 m), Kedondong (80 m), Sidomulyo (75 m), Kasui (200 m), Sri Menanti (320 m) and Liwa (850 m).

Administrative divisions

Lampung Province is subdivided into twelve regencies (kabupaten) and two autonomous cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and at the most recent (January 2014) estimates. A thirteenth regency – West Pesisir Regency – was formed on 25 October 2012 from part of West Lampung Regency, but no separate statistics are yet available.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2010
Population
Estimate 2014
Capital
Bandar Lampung City 118.50 879,651 923,970 Bandar Lampung 0.743 (High)
Metro City 68.74 145,346 152,428 Metro 0.749 (High)
Central Lampung Regency
(Lampung Tengah)
4,789.80 1,170,048 1,226,702 Gunung Sugih 0.670 (Medium)
East Lampung Regency
(Lampung Timur)
5,325.03 950,574 997,147 Sukadana 0.664 (Medium)
Mesuji Regency 432.60 187,286 196,369 Mesuji 0.587 (Low)
North Lampung Regency
(Lampung Utara)
2,725.63 583,925 612,218 Kotabumi 0.648 (Medium)
Pesawaran Regency 2,243.51 397,294 417,921 Gedong Tataan 0.617 (Medium)
Pringsewu Regency 625.00 364,825 382,841 Pringsewu 0.665 (Medium)
South Lampung Regency
(Lampung Selatan)
2,109.74 909,989 956,126 Kalianda 0.637 (Medium)
Tanggamus Regency 3,356.61 534,595 562,274 Kota Agung 0.626 (Medium)
Tulang Bawang Regency 6,851.32 397,079 416,934 Menggala 0.658 (Medium)
Way Kanan Regency 3,921.63 406,735 425,544 Blambangan Umpu 0.643 (Medium)
West Lampung Regency
(Lampung Barat)
4,950.40 418,560 439,076 Liwa 0.635 (Medium)
West Pesisir Regency
(Pesisir Barat)
* * * Krui 0.597 (Low)
West Tulang Bawang Regency
(Tulang Bawang Barat)
1,201.00 250,208 262,696 Panaragan Jaya 0.624 (Medium)
Total Province 34,623.80 7,596,115 7,972,246 Bandar Lampung 0.664 (Medium)
Note

* – The area and population for West Pesisir Regency are included in the figures for West Lampung Residency given above.

Agriculture

Some of the major crop in the country includes robusta coffee beans, cocoa beans, coconuts and cloves. This has resulted in a thriving agricultural sector with companies like Nestlé procuring coffee beans from the region. This agriculture has included illegal growing in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park.[4] In addition, nata de coco is also manufactured in the region by domestic companies like Wong Coco.

Textiles

A couple from Lampung in traditional outfit during the colonial period.

Up until the 1920s, Lampung had a rich and varied weaving tradition. Lampung weaving used a supplementary weft technique which enabled coloured silk or cotton threads to be superimposed on a plainer cotton background. The most prominent Lampung textile was the Palepai, ownership of which was restricted to the Lampung aristocracy of the Kalianda Bay area.[5] There were two types of smaller cloths, known as tatibin and tampan, which could be owned and used by all levels of Lampungese society. Weaving technologies were spread throughout Lampung. High quality weavings were produced by the Paminggir, Krui, Abung and Pesisir peoples. Production was particularly prolific among the people of the Kalianda Bay area in the south and the Krui aristocracy in the north.

Lampung textiles, Palepai, tatebin and tampan were called 'ship cloths' because ships are a common motif.[6] The ship motif represents the transition from one realm of life to the next, for instances from boyhood to manhood or from being single to married and also represents the final transition to the afterlife.[5]

Traditionally, Lampung textiles were used as part of religious ceremonies such as weddings and circumcisions. For instance, the Palepai cloths were used as long ceremonial wall-hangings behind the bridal party in aristocratic marriages. The smaller, more humble tampan cloths were exchanged between families at the time of weddings.

Production of many fine cloths blossomed in the late nineteenth century as Lampung grew rich on pepper production, but the devastating eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 destroyed many weaving villages in the Kalianda area.[7] By the 1920s the increasing importance of Islam and the collapse of the pepper trade brought production to a halt[8] Today Lampung textiles are highly prized by collectors.

Railroads

A 270 kilometer long rail track is planned from Tanjung Enim to Lampung. This rail track would be used for coal transportation to boost coal exports.[9]

Tourism

Tourism is not Lampung Province's main income, although the administration will boost tourism by organising a tourism event, Flamboyant Tanjung Setia, to draw tourists to Tanjung Setia Beach which has natural panoramic view and challenging waves for surfing. Another tourist attraction is the Way Kambas National Park, which is popular with local tourists. In 2010, there were 400,000 tourists who visited Lampung Province, including 10,000 foreign tourists who mainly came from Australia and New Zealand.[10]

Way Kambas National Park is a national park and elephant sanctuary located in Lampung, precisely in the district of Labuhan Ratu, East Lampung, Indonesia. In addition to Way Kambas, another elephant school (Elephant Training Centre) can also be found in Minas, Riau. The number of Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) living in the region is decreasing. Way Kambas National Park was established in 1985 is the first elephant school in Indonesia is expected to become a center for elephant conservation in taming, training, breeding and conservation. Until now, this PKG has trained about 300 elephants that have been deployed to other parts of the country.

In the recent years, the province has been largely popular for snorkeling and diving. Many domestic tourists as well as international ones from various diving communities had been visiting the different spots the province offers, such as Pantai Ringgung, Pulau Tegal, Pulau Pahawang, Pulau Kelagian, Pulau Balak, Pulau Mahitam, and Tanjung Putus.

Demographics

Religion in Lampung (2010 census)[11]
religion percent
Islam
  
95.48%
Christianity
  
2.42%
Hinduism
  
1.49%
Buddhism
  
0.32%
other, not stated or not asked
  
0.28%
Confucianism
  
0.01%

Transport

Land

Up to now there is no highway in the province of Lampung, but the Bakauheni-Bandar Lampung-Terbanggi Besar tollway is currently being built which have begun the construction process since 30 April 2015, from Bakauheni in South Lampung to Terbanggi Besar in Central Lampung along the 139 kilometer which is planned fully operational in 2019.[12]

The regional toll roads Bakauheni-Terbanggi Besar is expected to be completed in four years with funding from the private sector, government, private and government combined. As for the cost of this development, is predicted to reach Rp 53 trillion, including land acquisition and construction of approximately Rp30 trillion.[13] Lampung has a bus terminal is Terminal Rajabasa which is one of the biggest and busiest in Sumatra and Lampung, besides there Talbot terminal that is in Bandar Lampung. Rajabasa airport s terminal at close range, intermediate, and far (AKAP) which has bus routes to cities in Sumatra and Java. Although Terminal Rajabasa has been renovated, but the eerie impression had not fully disappeared. Some passengers are still reluctant to enter the terminal area.

In addition to these two terminals, there are plenty of bus terminals located throughout the capital district in Lampung.

Sea

In this province there are the Port of Panjang which is an import-export harbor and also the Port Srengsem which served the traffic coal distribution from South Sumatra to Java. About 92 kilometers south of Bandar Lampung, there is Bakauheni , which is a port city in the province of Lampung, precisely at the southern tip of Sumatra. Located at the southern end of the Trans-Sumatran Highway, the Bakauheni port connects Sumatra with the Port of Merak in Java via sea transportation.

Air

Radin Inten II Airport is currently the only airport in the province. It serves flights to Jakarta, Medan, Bandung, Palembang, etc.

References

  1. ^ a b Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010 Archived 13 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 17 January 2011 (in Indonesian)
  2. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. 
  3. ^ "Lampung Arms". Retrieved 24 July 2016. 
  4. ^ Claire Leow. Nestlé to scrutinize Indonesia coffee amid wildlife-endangerment fears, International Herald Tribune.
  5. ^ a b "Ceremonial Hanging (palepai)". Pacific Islands art. Dallas Museum of Art. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  6. ^ Gittinger, M. Splendid Symbols, Textiles and Tradition in Indonesia. Textile Museum, Washintom D.C. 1979.Library of Congress No 79-50373 p.88
  7. ^ Gittinger, Mattiebelle S, SOUTH SUMATRAN SHIP CLOTHS. 1979 www.cs.arizona.edu/patterns/.../nb74_shp.pdf p.15
  8. ^ Sudha Rajagopalan; Navigating Culture: Trade and Transformation in the Island State. The Permanent Exhibition on Indonesia. Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden.
  9. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". Waspada.co.id. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  10. ^ "Waspada Online – Pusat Berita dan Informasi Medan Sumut Aceh". Waspada.co.id. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  11. ^ "Population by Region and Religion in Indonesia". BPS. 2010. 
  12. ^ Presiden Jokowi Hari ini Akan Lakukan Groundbreaking Jalan Tol Bakauheni
  13. ^ Pemerintah bangun tol Bakauheni Terbanggi Besar di 2015

Further reading

  • Elmhirst, R. (2001). Resource Struggles and the Politics of Place in North Lampung, Indonesia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 22(3):284–307.
  • Pain, Marc (ed). (1989). Transmigration and spontaneous migrations in Indonesia : Propinsi Lampung. Bondy, France: ORSTOM.

External links

  • Early Indonesian textiles from three island cultures: Sumba, Toraja, Lampung, an exhibition catalogue from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Lampung
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