Lake Ohrid

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Lake Ohrid
Ohridsko ezero, Makedonija.jpg
Lake Ohrid as seen from Ohrid
Ohrid and Prespa lakes topographic map.svg
Topographic map with Lake Ohrid to the left
Location AlbaniaMacedonia border
Coordinates 41°00′N 20°45′E / 41.000°N 20.750°E / 41.000; 20.750Coordinates: 41°00′N 20°45′E / 41.000°N 20.750°E / 41.000; 20.750
Primary inflows Sateska River, Biljana's springs, underground link with Lake Prespa
Primary outflows Black Drin River
Catchment area 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi)
Basin countries Macedonia
Max. length 36.4 km (22.6 mi)
Max. width 16.8 km (10.4 mi)
Surface area 388 km2 (150 sq mi)
Average depth 155 m (509 ft)
Max. depth ~300 m (980 ft)
Water volume 55.49 km3 (13.31 cu mi)
Residence time 70 years
Shore length1 87.53 km (54.39 mi)
Macedonia: 56.02 km (34.81 mi);
Albania: 31.51 km (19.58 mi)
Surface elevation 693 m (2,274 ft)
Islands none
Settlements Pogradec (Albania)
Ohrid, Struga (Macedonia)
Official name Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region
Type Natural, Cultural
Criteria i, iii, iv, vii
Designated 1979 (3rd session)
Reference no. 99
State party Macedonia
Region Europe and North America
Extensions 1979
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Lake Ohrid (Macedonian: Охридско Езеро Ohridsko Ezero [ˈɔxridzkɔ ˈɛzɛrɔ]; Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit [liˈcɛni i ˈɔhrit], Liqeni i Pogradecit[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]) straddles the mountainous border between southwestern Macedonia and eastern Albania. It is one of Europe's deepest and oldest lakes, preserving a unique aquatic ecosystem that is of worldwide importance, with more than 200 endemic species.[8] The importance of the lake was further emphasized when it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979 and when, in 2010, NASA decided to name one of Titan's lakes after Lake Ohrid.[9] In 2014, the Ohrid-Prespa Transboundary Reserve between Albania and Macedonia was added to UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves.[10] The towns situated at the lakeside are Pogradec in Albania, along with Ohrid and Struga in Macedonia. The lake is otherwise densely surrounded by settlements in the form of villages and resorts in both basin countries.

Geography

Map of the Ohrid Basin showing major hydrological and geological features

Lake Ohrid is the deepest lake of the Balkans, with a maximum depth of 288 m (940 ft) and a mean depth of 155 m (508 ft). It covers an area of 358 km² (138 sq mi), containing an estimated 55.4 km³ of water. It is 30.4 km long by 14.8 km wide at its maximum extent with a shoreline length of 87.53 km, shared between Macedonia (56.02 km) and Albania (31.51 km). Of the total surface area, 248 square kilometres (96 sq mi) belongs to the Republic of Macedonia and 110 km2 belongs to Albania.

Origin

Reconstruction of Bronze Age stilt houses on Lake Ohrid, near Peštani

The Ohrid and Prespa Lakes belong to a group of Dessaret basins that originated from a geotectonic depression during the Pliocene epoch up to five million years ago[11][12] on the western side of the Dinaric Alps. Worldwide, there are only a few lakes with similarly remote origins with Lake Baikal and Lake Tanganyika being the most famous. Most other, short-lived lakes have a life span of less than 100,000 years before they are eventually filled up with sediments. It is believed that in the case of Lake Ohrid this process was delayed by its great depth and small sediment input from its filtered spring inflows. Moreover, the Ohrid-Korca graben to the south of the lake is still tectonically active and might compensate sedimentation by subduction. In contrast to Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa is likely to have turned dry several times in its history, as a result of its karstic underground.[13] In 2008, Macedonian media reported that international experts will be researching the lake in order to determine its age.[14]

Hydrology

View of Ohrid and Ohrid Lake from Samuil's Fortress
View of old Ohrid

The lake drains an area of around 2600 km² and is fed primarily by underground springs on the eastern shore (about 50% of total inflow), with roughly 25% shares from rivers and direct precipitation. Over 20% of the lake's water comes from nearby Lake Prespa, about 10 km (6.2 mi) to the southeast and at 150 m higher altitude than Lake Ohrid. The water leaves Lake Prespa trickling through underground watercourses in the karstic landscape, where it is joined by mountain range precipitation and eventually emerges in numerous springs along the eastern shore and below the water surface of Lake Ohrid. The water leaves Lake Ohrid by evaporation (~40%) and through its only outlet, the Black Drin River, which flows in a northerly direction into Albania and thus to the Adriatic Sea. The relatively dry, Mediterranean climate and the small drainage basin of 2600 km² (catchment/lake surface ratio of ~7) of Lake Ohrid results in a long hydraulic residence time scale of ~70 yr.[15][16][17]

Physical and geochemical properties

The water at the surface of Lake Ohrid moves predominantly in a counter-clockwise direction along the shore, as a result of wind forcing and earth rotation, similar to the Ekman-phenomenon known from oceans. In terms of vertical water exchange, convective mixing during winter cooling is the dominant process. However, in an average winter only the top 150–200 meters of the lake are mixed, whereas the water below is stably stratified by salinity. The stability due to this salinity gradient allows complete convective mixing events only roughly once every 7 years.[16][18]

Both in terms of nutrient concentration (4.5 μg L−1 of phosphorus), as well as biological parameters Lake Ohrid qualifies as oligotrophic. Thanks to this oligotrophy and the filtered spring inflows, the water is exceptionally clear with transparencies to a depth of as much as 22 meters (66 feet). Lake Ohrid lacks an annual deep water exchange which in other lakes can bring complete overturn; plunging rivers are also absent. Despite this, dissolved oxygen never drops below ~6 mg L−1.[19][20]

Wetland Habitats

Previously extensive wetland habitats in the vicinity of Lake Ohrid have been lost due to conversion into agricultural or urban land. These include Struga Marsh, large portions of which were drained for agriculture in the 1940s[21] and again in the 1960s when the River Sateska was rerouted[22].

Nowadays, the last remaining significant coastline wetland at Lake Ohrid is Studenchishte Marsh[21], which is located on the eastern shore near the city of Ohrid. Despite degradation from a variety of sources such as large-scale disposal of construction waste, major land conversion, disruption of water connections to Lake Ohrid, beach urbanization and loss of reed belts[21], Studenchishte Marsh is still an important buffer to prevent lake eutrophication[23] and a key habitat for biodiversity, including relict plants and endemic species[21]. These values, and the comparative rareness of similar habitats in Macedonia, prompted an expert team in 2012 to recommend designation of a 63.97-hectare area at Studenchishte Marsh to be protected as a Natural Monument under Macedonian law[24].

Changes to the General Urban Plan for Ohrid 2014-2020, however, made provisions for Studenchishte Marsh to be drained and replaced with infrastructure for tourism and water-sports[21][25], a proposal which, together with other regional developments, was opposed by numerous local and international experts[26], including the Society of Wetland Scientists[27]. A Strategic Environmental Assessment also concluded that no measure except non-implementation could reduce the direct negative impact on Studenchishte and the indirect negative impact on Lake Ohrid if the proposed construction was to take place at the wetland[28]. Plans to drain the area have subsequently been reversed and the Macedonian government announced in 2018 that it would move forward with proclamation of Studenchishte Marsh as a protected area and its designation together with Lake Ohrid as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention[29]. Nonetheless, the precise surface area to be protected is yet to be defined and plans for a new-build marina at the location are still being considered[30].

The IUCN identifies wetland rehabilitation as one of five potential site needs for the UNESCO Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region[31]. However, the potential to restore Struga Marsh is likely to be reduced by construction of the European Corridor VIII railway, while Studenchishte's future is yet to be fully resolved[32].

Fauna

Ohrid sponge (Ochridaspongia rotunda) is endemic to Lake Ohrid

While Lake Ohrid is special as such, by far the most spectacular quality is its impressive endemism. Similar to Lake Baikal or Lake Tanganyika, Lake Ohrid harbors endemic species covering the whole food-chain, from phytoplankton and sessile algae (20 species; e.g., Cyclotella fottii), over plant species (2 species; e.g., Chara ohridana), zooplankton (5 species; e.g., Cyclops ochridanus), cyprinid fish (8 species; e.g., Pachychilon pictus), to predatory fish (two trout species; the Ohrid trout complex Salmo letnica, and "Belvica" Salmo ohridanus) and finally its diverse endemic bottom fauna (176 species; e.g. Ochridagammarus solidus), with particularly large endemism among crustaceans, molluscs, sponges and planarians. There were recorded 68 species of freshwater snails from the Lake Ohrid basin.[33] 73.5% (50 species) of the total freshwater gastropod fauna appear to be endemic to the Lake Ohrid basin.[33] Whereas the endemic species list cited above is based on morphological and ecological characteristics, some recent applications of molecular genetic techniques underline the difference of the fauna from common European taxa, as well as the old age of the lake.[13][34][35]

Quite remarkably, exotic species do not seem to be a major issue in Lake Ohrid, although they have been recorded in small populations for several decades or exist in nearby rivers or lakes. The reason lies very probably in the ideal adaptation of the endemic species to the specific conditions in the lake, such as low nutrient availability, good living conditions in greater depth thanks to high water transparency and oxygen content, as well as subaquatic spring inflows supplying cool and oxygen-rich water.[13] In total, seven introduced fish species are known from the lake.[36]

Despite the exceptionally high level of endemism in Lake Ohrid (for example, a third of the 21 native fish species and almost 80% of its 72 mollusc species are endemic), a significant number of non-endemic species are found in Lake Ohrid. This includes species, which are mobile (e.g., via water birds) or migratory, such as the European eel.[36][37][38]

The lakeshore reed beds and wetlands provide critical habitat for hundreds of thousands of wintering water birds, including rare and threatened species such as the Dalmatian pelican, ferruginous duck, swan, spotted eagle, and eastern imperial eagle.

Socio-economy

Church of St. John Kaneo and the Ohrid Lake
Lake Ohrid and the small village of Lin, near Pogradec in Albania

There are three cities on the lake's shores: Ohrid and Struga on the Macedonian side; Pogradec in Albania. There are also several fishing villages, although tourism is now a more significant part of their income. The catchment area of the lake has a population of around 170,000 people, with 131,000 people living directly at the lake shore (43,000 in Albania and 88,000 in Macedonia). The population in the catchment has increased greatly by 100,000 people in the last half century, putting the lake's fragile ecosystem under pressure. The historic monuments, as well as the pristine lake environment make the area around Lake Ohrid a prime site for tourism. In the 1980s, more than 200,000 national and international tourists went on a literal pilgrimage to the Macedonian lake side every year. During the Yugoslav crisis and particularly after the interethnic conflicts within Macedonia in 2001 international tourism collapsed but has been slowly recovering during the past years. Even though many of the above visitors are staying for a weekend only, tourism makes an important share of local economy (~1 visitor/inhabitant).[15][19]

Human influence

The lake coast at St. Naum Monastery, with Galičica Mountain in the background.

Shore habitats are under particular pressure from human activities. Particular threats are the building of tourist facilities directly at the shore, destroying of reed belts to gain agricultural land and intense pollution close to the mouth of tributaries. Although the effects of these human impacts have not been evaluated in detail they are of great concern, as the shallow water sites are particularly rich in endemic bottom fauna and form important spawning grounds for several endemic fish species. Moreover, reed belts have great importance for water birds.[20]

Commercial fish yield, i.e. the two endemic trout species, has dropped significantly over the past decades, both in Macedonia and in Albania. The most probable reason is overfishing and possibly destruction of spawning grounds. Pollution may also be a factor[39]. Although there are regulations regarding fishing practice (e.g. minimal mesh size) and only a limited number of licensed fishermen, these rules are always not obeyed as a result of the high market value of the endemic trout. As a reaction to the situation, a seven-year moratorium on fishing Ohrid trout was imposed from 2004 to help the population recover and to allow scientists collect further data. Nonetheless, even though thorough assessment of fish stocks has not been conducted since the 1990s[22] and trout populations are still believed to be in decline[39], fishing with quotas was restarted in 2012 under the auspices of a concessionaire[32]. More data is required to determine whether these current fishing levels are sustainable[31] and illegal fishing, particularly on the Albanian side of the lake[32], remains a problem.

While most of the endemic fish species are non-migratory, the European eel spawns in the distant Sargasso Sea while its offspring return to the lake. Unfortunately, as in many European lakes, it is very unlikely today that eels can reach Lake Ohrid naturally and return to the Sargasso Sea, as a result of several hydropower dams on the Black Drin and the Drin River, both in Macedonia and Albania. As a result, eel found in Lake Ohrid are stocked populations.[20]

Pogradec along Lake Ohrid

Given the population growth over the past 50 years, a particular concern is the potential eutrophication of currently oligotrophic Lake Ohrid from increased pollution. Indeed, sediment cores show a ~3.5 fold increase in phosphorus concentration over the past century. On the one hand, shifts from endemic to common European species, which are better adapted to higher nutrient conditions, have already been observed close to polluted inflows. On the other hand, higher nutrient levels have reduced the water transparency, as well as the oxygen availability in the deep water and at the lake bottom, two properties which are requisite for the endemic flora and fauna. Still, the lake is in a comparably good state at the moment. However it may take more than a decade to see the effects of today's pollution level in the lake, because of its long water residence time. Moreover, it was shown that the negative effects from eutrophication would be significantly amplified by global warming. Although there is time to react, computer simulations indicate that at least a 50% reduction in phosphorus input must be reached to keep the deep water oxygenated for the next 50 years at predicted atmospheric warming. This aim could be reached by controlling household wastewater, which is by far the biggest phosphorus source at the moment. First steps in that direction have been taken by extending and improving the existing sewage system in Macedonia in the framework of a GEF (Global Environment Facility) program. The most important next task would be a solution for three remaining, severely polluted tributaries, one in Macedonia and two in Albania.[19][20]

Namesakes

Lake Ohrid, is also the namesake of Ohrid Lacus a hydrocarbon lake on the Saturnian moon Titan. That lake is composed of liquid methane and ethane,[40] is located 71.8°N 221.9°W on Titan's globe.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pëllumb Gorica: Liqeri i Lasgushit, parajsa e shpirtit tonë..." Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "Sondazhi: Liqeni i Pogradecit më i bukuri në Shqipëri". Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  3. ^ "LIQENI I POGRADECIT". Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  4. ^ "LIQENI I POGRADECIT, DALLGËT KTHEHEN NË AKULL (FOTO)". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  5. ^ "Liqeni i Ohrit kjo perlë e natyrës". Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  6. ^ "Liqeni i Ohrit, syri dhe shpirti i Pogradecit". Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  7. ^ "Liqeni i Pogradecit, Albania Lexo më shumë në". Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  8. ^ "Lake Ohrid; Invest in Macedonia – Agency for Foreign Investments of the Republic of Macedonia". InvestInMacedonia.com. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  9. ^ "One of Titan lakes to be named Ohrid Lacus". MIA.com.mk. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  10. ^ "Single View News - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.UNESCO.org. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  11. ^ Albrecht, Christian and Wilke, Thomas: Ancient Lake Ohrid: biodiversity and evolution; in Patterns and Processes of Speciation in Ancient Lakes, Developments in Hydrobiology, Springer Netherlands, 2009, pp 103 to 140. ISBN 978-1-4020-9582-5 doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9582-5_9
  12. ^ Korovchinsky, Nikolai M.; Petkovski, Trajan K. (1 April 2014). "The ancient Balkan lakes harbor a new endemic species of Diaphanosoma, Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)". Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 3784 (5): 539–549. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3784.5.3. 
  13. ^ a b c S. Stankovic, "The Balkan Lake Ohrid and its living world", Monographiae Biologicae, Vol. IX (Uitgeverij Dr. W. Junk, Den Haag, Netherlands, 1960)
  14. ^ "Makfax – World experts will work to determine the age of Ohrid Lake". Makfax.com.mk. Retrieved 3 June 2017. 
  15. ^ a b Z. Spirkovski, Z. Krstanovski, L. Selfo, M. Sanxhaku, V.I. Puka, "The Monitoring Programme of the Lake Ohrid Conservation Project", in Transboundary Water Resources in the Balkans: Initiating a Sustainable Co-Operative Network, ed. Jacques Ganoulis, I L Murphy, Mitja Brilly (Springer, 2000)
  16. ^ a b A. Matzinger, Z. Spirkovski, S. Patceva, A. Wüest, "Sensitivity of ancient Lake Ohrid to local anthropogenic impacts and global warming" (Journal of Great Lakes Research 2006, 32: 158–179)
  17. ^ A. Matzinger, M. Jordanoski, E. Veljanoska-Sarafiloska, M. Sturm, B. Müller, A. Wüest, "Is Lake Prespa jeopardizing the ecosystem of ancient Lake Ohrid?" (Hydrobiologia 2006, 553: 89–109)
  18. ^ S. D. Hadzisce, "The mixo-phenomenon of Lake Ohrid in the course of the years 1941/42-1964/65 (in German)" (Proceedings of the International Association of Theoretical and Applied Limnology 1966, 16: 134–138)
  19. ^ a b c A. Matzinger, M. Schmid, E. Veljanoska-Sarafiloska, S. Patceva, D. Guseska, B. Wagner, B. Müller, M. Sturm, A. Wüest, "Eutrophication of ancient Lake Ohrid: Global warming amplifies detrimental effects of increased nutrient inputs", (Limnology and Oceanography 2007, 52: 338–353), download from ASLO Archived 2007-07-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ a b c d M. Watzin, V. Puka, T. B. Naumoski (eds), "Lake Ohrid and its watershed, state of the environment report" (Lake Ohrid Conservation Project. Tirana, Albania and Ohrid, Macedonia)
  21. ^ a b c d e Apostolova,, N.; et al. (2016). "Studenchishte Marsh as an Integral Part of Ancient Lake Ohrid: Current Status and Need for Protection". Wetland Science & Practice. 33, No. 2: 35–45. 
  22. ^ a b Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (2015) Initial Characterisation of Lakes Prespa, Ohrid and Shodra/Skadar. Implementing the EU Water Framework Directive in South-Eastern Europe.
  23. ^ Dr. Thomas Wilke and Dr. Christian Albrecht (31 August 2015). "Lake Ohrid: A Paradise in Peril". Fokus. Retrieved 25 March 2018. 
  24. ^ Spirovska, M., et al. (2012) Integrated Study on the State of the Remains of Studenchishte Marsh and Measures for its Revitalization, Dekons-Ema Drustvo za ekoloshki consulting. (Macedonian language)
  25. ^ Pearce, Fred (18 December 2015). "Europe's oldest lake faces destruction to make way for tourists". New Scientist. Retrieved 25 March 2018. 
  26. ^ "Declaration on Preserving the World Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region". ohridsos.org. Retrieved 25 March 2018. 
  27. ^ Society of Wetland Scientists (2015) Letter to Mr Nikola Bakračeski, Mayor of the City of Ohrid.
  28. ^ Dr. Borka Kovachevic (2015) Draft Report on the Strategic Environmental Assessment for Changes and Additions to the General Urban Plan for Ohrid.
  29. ^ "From the 60th Session of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia". Government of the Republic of Macedonia. 20th March 2018. Retrieved 25th March 2018.  Check date values in: |access-date=, |date= (help)
  30. ^ Jakovleva, Lionela (21 March 2018). "Marina at Studenchishte". TVM Television Ohrid. Retrieved 25 March 2018. 
  31. ^ a b International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (2017) Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid region 2017 Conservation Outlook Assessment, Gland, Switzerland.
  32. ^ a b c World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS and IUCN (2017) Reactive Monitoring Mission Report Natural and Cultural Heritage of the Ohrid Region (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), World Heritage Centre, Paris, France.
  33. ^ a b Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T. (2011). "Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid". Biogeosciences. 8: 175–188. doi:10.5194/bg-8-175-2011. 
  34. ^ H. Salemaa, "Lake Ohrid", in Speciation in Ancient Lakes, eds. K. Martens, B. Goddeeris, G. Coulter (Archiv für Hydrobiologie – Advances in Limnology 1994, 44: 55–64)
  35. ^ Sell, J.; Spirkovski, Z. (2004). "Mitochondrial DNA differentiation between two forms of trout Salmo letnica, endemic to the Balkan Lake Ohrid, reflects their reproductive isolation". Molecular Ecology. 13: 3633–3644. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2004.02362.x. PMID 15548279. 
  36. ^ a b Talevski, Milosevic; Maric, Petrovic; Talevska; Talevska (2009). "Biodiversity of Ichtyofauna from Lake Prespa, Lake Ohrid and Lake Skadar". Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 23 (2). [permanent dead link]
  37. ^ M.R. Frogley, R.C. Preece, "A faunistic review of the modern and fossil molluscan fauna from Lake Pamvotis, Ioannina, an ancient lake in NW Greece; implications for endemism in the Balkans", in Balkan Biodiversity: Pattern and Process in the European Hotspot, eds. Huw I. Griffiths, Jane M. Reed, Boris Kryštufek (Springer, 2004)
  38. ^ Segers, H.; and Martens, K; editors (2005). The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems. p. 46. Developments in Hydrobiology. Aquatic Biodiversity. ISBN 1-4020-3745-7
  39. ^ a b Jordanova, Maja; Rebok, Katerina; Rocha, Eduardo. "Liver pathology of female Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica kar.) from the eastern coast of lake ohrid: Baseline data suggesting the presence of a pollution gradient" (PDF). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 16 (2). doi:10.4194/1303-2712-v16_2_03. 
  40. ^ Coustenis, A.; Taylor, F. W. (21 July 2008). Titan: Exploring an Earthlike World. World Scientific. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-981-281-161-5. 

External links

  • Ohrid Municipality
  • Official website for Info, Places to visit and reservations in Ohrid
  • Macedonian Tourism portal
  • Ohrid Information portal
  • Struga Tourism portal
  • Pogradec Travel Guide
  • LakeNet Profile
  • Lake Ohrid Travel and Tourism Guide
  • Ohrid Travel Guide
  • Ohrid SOS
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