Labiodental approximant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Labiodental approximant
ʋ
IPA number 150
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʋ
Unicode (hex) U+028B
X-SAMPA P or v\
Kirshenbaum r<lbd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Listen

The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is similar to an English w pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter V. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\.

The labiodental approximant is the typical realization of /v/ in the Indian South African variety of English. As the voiceless /f/ is also realized as an approximant ([ʋ̥]), it is also an example of a language contrasting voiceless and voiced labiodental approximants.[1]

Features

Features of the labiodental approximant:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ոսկի [ʋɔski] 'gold'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hawa [haːʋa] 'wind' Predominant in the Urmia dialects. For some speakers, [v] is used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
Catalan Balearic treballava [t̪ɾəbəˈʎ̟aʋə] 'worked' Allophone of /v/.[3] See Catalan phonology
Valencian[3] [t̪ɾe̠bäˈʎ̟aʋä]
Danish Standard[4] véd [ʋe̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ] 'know(s)' Also described as a short plosive [b̪̆]; rarely realized as a fricative [v] instead.[5] See Danish phonology
Dutch Netherlandic wang [ʋɑŋ] 'cheek' In southern dialects of the Netherlands realised as bilabial [β̞]. See Dutch phonology
English Indian South African[1] vine [ʋaɪn] 'vine' Corresponds to a fricative [v] in other accents.
Some speakers red [ʋe̞d̥] 'red' Mostly idiosyncratic but somewhat dialectal[6] (especially in London and South East England). See English phonology and R-labialization
Faroese[7] ða [ˈɹøːʋa] 'speech' Word-initial and intervocalic allophone of /v/. In the first case, it is in a free variation with a fricative [v].[7] See Faroese phonology
Finnish vauva [ˈʋɑuʋːɑ] 'baby' See Finnish phonology
German Standard was [ʋas] 'what' Some speakers, especially in the South. See Standard German phonology
Swiss Corresponds to /v/ in Standard German[8]
Guaraní avañe'ẽ [ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ] 'Guaraní language' Contrasts with /w/ and /ɰ/
Hawaiian wikiwiki [ʋikiʋiki] 'fast' May also be realized as [w] or [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi रुण [ʋəruɳ] 'Varuna' See Hindustani phonology
Italian Northern dialects[9] raro [ˈʋäːʋo] 'rare' Some speakers, especially in Parma. May also be uvular, either a fricative [ʁ] or a trill [ʀ].[9] See Italian phonology
Marathi जन [ʋə(d)zən] 'weight' See Marathi phonology
Miyako[10] [ʋ̩tɑ] 'thick' May be syllabic.
Norwegian Urban East[11][12] venn [ʋe̞nː] 'friend' Sometimes realized as a fricative [v].[12][13] See Norwegian phonology
Nsenga ŵanthu [ʋaⁿtʰu] 'people'
Portuguese Some speakers[14] louvo [ˈloːʋu] 'I praise' Very rare intervocalic allophone of /v/ in unstressed syllables. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਵਾਲ [ʋäːl] 'hair'
Serbo-Croatian цврчак / cvrčak [t͡sʋř̩ːt͡ʃak] 'cricket' May also be realized as [v], depending on dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[15] voda About this sound [ˈʋo̞dä]  'water' Usual realization of /v/.[15] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[16] veter [ˈʋéːtər] 'wind' Also described as fricative [v].[17][18] See Slovene phonology
Swedish vän [ʋɛn] 'friend' Some speakers. See Swedish phonology
Spanish[19] Chilean hablar [äˈʋläɾ] 'to speak' Allophone of /b/. See Spanish phonology
Tamil வாய் [ʋɑj] 'mouth' See Tamil phonology
Ukrainian[20] він [ʋin] 'he' Possible prevocalic realization of /w/, most commonly before /i/.[20] See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian wêr [ʋɛːr] 'where' See West Frisian phonology

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Mesthrie (2004:960)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
  3. ^ a b Saborit Vilar (2009:52)
  4. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  5. ^ Basbøll (2005:27 and 66)
  6. ^ Foulkes & Docherty (1999:?)
  7. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)
  8. ^ Schmid, Stephan (2010), Segmental features of Swiss German ethnolects, retrieved 2015-04-27 
  9. ^ a b Canepari (1999), pp. 98–101.
  10. ^ Thomas Pellard, Why it is important to study the Ryukyuan languages (presentation)
  11. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:22 and 25)
  12. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  13. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  14. ^ Principais Fenómenos de Variação Registados nas Transcrições das Amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  15. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  16. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  17. ^ Priestley (2002:394)
  18. ^ Greenberg (2006:18)
  19. ^ "El alófono labiodental sonoro [v] del fonema /b/ en el castellano de Concepción (Chile): Una investigación exploratoria" (PDF). 
  20. ^ a b Žovtobrjux & Kulyk (1965:121–122)

Bibliography

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011). The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199229317. 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard J., eds. (1999), Urban Voices, Arnold 
  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas 
  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (2004), "Indian South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 953–963, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Priestley, T.M.S. (2002), "Slovene", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville. G., The Slavonic Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 388–451, ISBN 0-415-28078-8 
  • Saborit Vilar, Josep (2009), Millorem la pronúncia, Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua 
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Žovtobrjux, M.A.; Kulyk, B.M. (1965), Kurs sučasnoji ukrajins’koji literaturnoji movy. Častyna I., Kiev: Radjans’ka škola 
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Labiodental_approximant&oldid=806279476"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labiodental_approximant
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Labiodental approximant"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA