LGBT rights in Tunisia

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LGBT rights in Tunisia Tunisia
Location Tunisia AU Africa.svg
Same-sex sexual activity legal? Illegal since 1913
Up to 3 years imprisonment
Gender identity/expression
Military service yes
Family rights
Recognition of
No recognition of same-sex relationships

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Tunisia face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Tunisia, and there is only one official organised LGBT-rights movement named "Association Shams".[1]


Dictatorship of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

In 2008, the government of Tunisia was one of the co-sponsors opposing statement the 2008 General Assembly resolution and declaration calling for the decriminalization of same-sex sexual intercourse worldwide.[citation needed]

During the dictatorship of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the regime pervasively filtered several gay and lesbian information or dating pages.[citation needed]

Post-dictatorship of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

In March 2011, Tunisia's first online magazine for the country's LGBT community, Gayday Magazine, was launched.[2] In 2014, Shams Association was formed as Tunisia's first LGBT rights organization.[3] On 18 May 2015, Shams received official government recognition as an organization.[4] On 10 December 2015, which is International Human Rights Day, Shams group joined with local activist groups to protest the ongoing discrimination against Tunisia’s LGBT community.[5]

Several civil organizations, such as the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, have been pushing for the repeal of Article 230.[6]

Criminal laws

Article 230 of the Penal Code of 1913 (largely modified in 1964) decrees imprisonment of up to three years for private acts of sodomy between consenting adults.[7][Note 1]

Cross-dressing is not expressly illegal, although transgender people, along with gay people, are oftentimes accused of violating Article 226 of the national penal code which outlaws "outrages against public decency."[8]

On December 7, 2016, two Tunisian men were arrested on suspicion of homosexual activity in Sousse, "anally probed" and forced to sign confessions of having committed "sodomy." On March 11, 2017, while on bail, they were given eight-month prison sentences, to be confirmed in April 2017.[9][10]

Family law

Marriage is defined as a union between a man and a woman in Tunisia. Same-sex marriage, or the more limited civil unions, are not legally recognized in Tunisia.


In mid 2011 (March), Tunisia's first online magazine for the country's LGBT community, Gayday Magazine, was launched. Running stories and interviews related to the country’s community, the publications covers consisted on English and French titles. In 2012, Gayday was hacked; homophobic hackers took over the publication’s email, Twitter and Facebook accounts.[11] These attacks took place at the height of an international campaign of which Gayday Magazine is a part, to raise awareness about the massacre of emo and gay people in Iraq.

Human Rights Minister Samir Dilou with the encouragement of popular TV celebrity host Samir Wafi have called for the magazine to be denied to the right of expression and stating that LGBT is a sickness not a human right. He was asked about Gayday magazine on a talk show, the Tunisian Minister for Human Rights, who is a member of the Islamic Ennahdha Party, said even freedom of expression has limits. "Of course these people are also citizens, but there is a red line and that line is our morals, our history and our culture," he said, adding - to the presenter's consternation - that that sick people needed to be treated.[12]

"That was a politically-correct type of insult," says Houssem, with a wry smile. After all, he explains, the minister did not explicitly refer to homosexuals as sick.

Fadi Krouj is the editor-in-chief and creator of Gayday Magazine, an e-magazine that's been addressing LGBT issues with a focus on the Maghreb region. Commenting on International Day Against Homophobia in 2012, Fadi stated this to "The Tunisian LGBT community in Tunisia has started to mobilize and discretely form its support-base. Reactions to the thus far mainly online activism were met with radical, homophobic statements from the current Minister of Human Rights, Samir Dilou. He described homosexuality as a mental illness that requires treatment and isolation, and described social values and traditions as red lines not to be crossed." [13]

As of today, the site is still running, however expired for a couple of months (Late January), and the latest Facebook update was December 2015. And so far there isn't any publication related to the local Tunisian LGBT community.

Human rights

The U.S. Department of State's 2011 human rights report found that:[14]

Consensual same-sex sexual activity remained illegal [in 2011] under the penal code, which criminalizes it with sentences of up to three years in prison. There was anecdotal evidence that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals faced discrimination, including allegations that police officers sometimes harassed openly gay persons and accused them of being the source of HIV/AIDS. There were no known reports of persons arrested for consensual same-sex sexual activity; however, a local LGBT activist reported an uptick during the year in harassment of and assaults by unknown individuals on persons perceived to be LGBT, including multiple incidents in which individuals were followed to their homes and assaulted by people the victims described as Salafists. Human rights activists also alleged that government forces continued to assault individuals perceived as LGBT.

A Facebook page campaigning for LGBT rights in Tunisia also has several thousand "likes".[15]

During a television interview in February 2012, Minister for Human Rights Samir Dilou stated that "freedom of speech has its limits," homosexuality is "a perversion," and gay people needed to be "treated medically".[16] His comments were condemned by some in Tunisian society who posted pro-LGBT pictures on social networking sites.[17]

In June 2012, Dilou rejected the recommendation of the United Nations Human Rights Committee for Tunisia to decriminalize same-sex sexual acts, stating that the concept of "sexual orientation is specific to the West" and is overridden by Tunisian law, which "clearly describes Tunisia as an Arab Muslim country". In response, Amanullah De Sondy, Assistant Professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Miami said, "It appears that the minister is stating that Article 230 is about upholding Islam yet it is a French Colonial law that was imposed on Tunisia in 1913 and has nothing to do with Islam or Tunisian Arab traditions."[18]

In 2014, a campaign was launched on Facebook, to repeal the criminal laws used against LGBT people in Tunisia. A representative of this campaign expressed an interest to create a registered group in Tunisia to campaign for these legal reforms. Several NGOs in Tunisia, including the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, have asked the government to repeal the criminal law against homosexuality.[8]

In May of 2016, several LGBTI associations organized a small, discreet gay pride reception in Tunis. Associations also organized events and public demonstrations to mark the International Day against Homophobia in May.[19]

Male prostitution

Male prostitution occurs in some Tunisian tourist resorts. In 2013, Ronny De Smet, a Belgian tourist, was sentenced to three years in prison for attempted homosexual seduction in what he believes was a sting operation by local police to extort money. De Smet was released after three months.[20]

Public opinion

Circle frame.svg

Should same-sex marriage be legal? (2014)[21]

  Yes (18%)
  Against (62%)
  Don't know (21%)

Public opinion regarding LGBT right is complex. According to a 2014 poll by the International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, 18% of Tunisian people were in favor of legalizing same-sex marriage, with 62% were opposed to the legalization.[21]

Summary table

Yes/No Notes
Same-sex sexual activity
Same-sex sexual activity legal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment
Equal age of consent
Discrimination laws
Anti-discrimination laws in employment only
Anti-discrimination laws in the provision of goods and services
Anti-discrimination laws in all other areas (incl. indirect discrimination, hate speech)
Same-sex unions
Same-sex marriages
Civil partnerships
Recognition of same-sex couples
Adoption and children
Adoption by individuals
Step-child adoption by same-sex couples
Joint adoption by same-sex couples
Commercial surrogacy for gay male couples
Access to IVF for lesbians
Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly in the military
Right to change legal gender
MSMs allowed to donate blood

See also


  1. ^ The official text of Article 230 in French (Jurisite Tunisie):

    La sodomie, si elle ne rentre dans aucun des cas prévus aux articles précédents, est punie de l'emprisonnement pendant trois ans.


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Gay Tunisians speak out", PinkNews, reported by Farah Samti and Jaber Belkhiria, 26 January 2012
  3. ^ Tunisia’s LGBT activists push forward
  4. ^ Victory in Tunisia: Activist group Shams wins in court
  5. ^ Tunisia’s War On LGBT People Is Heating Up
  6. ^ Tunisia’s New Gay Rights Fight
  7. ^ Laws: Tunisia, Gay Law Net
  8. ^ a b "Tunisia’s New Gay Rights Fight". The Huffington Post. 11 December 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  9. ^ "Two Men Sentenced To 8 Months In Jail For Suspicion Of Being Gay". Instinct Magazine. March 14, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  10. ^ McCormick, Joseph Patrick (March 14, 2017). "Two Tunisian men to be imprisoned for 8 months for ‘looking gay’". Pink News. Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. "2011 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Tunisia" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. pp. 18–19. 
  15. ^ "Tunisia Gays (official page)". Facebook. 
  16. ^ Littauer, Dan (6 February 2012). "Tunisian human rights minister: No free speech for gays". Pink News. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  17. ^ "Tunisia: LGBT Outrage at Human Rights Minister's Comments". Global Voices Online. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  18. ^ Littauer, Dan (6 June 2012). "Tunisia rejects UNHRC recommendation to decriminalise gay sex". Pink News. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  19. ^ Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (29 March 2017). "Tunisia 2016 Human Rights Report" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ a b "Attitudes Towards Marriage Equality in 51 Countries" (PDF). Geneva, Switerzland: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 

External links

  • Tunisian LGBT Online Community
  • Cordall, Simon Speakman. "Tunisia's lesbian community mobilises against deep-rooted prejudice" (Archive). The Guardian. Wednesday 2 September 2015.
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