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L

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Writing cursive forms of L

L (named el /ɛl/)[1] is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.

History

Egyptian hieroglyph Phoenician
lamedh
Etruscan L Greek
Lambda
S39
PhoenicianL-01.svg EtruscanL-01.svg Lambda uc lc.svg

Lamedh may have come from a pictogram of an ox goad or cattle prod. Some have suggested a shepherd's staff.[2]

Use in writing systems

Phonetic and phonemic transcription

In phonetic and phonemic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet uses ⟨l⟩ to represent the lateral alveolar approximant.

English

In English orthography, ⟨l⟩ usually represents the phoneme /l/, which can have several sound values, depending on whether it occurs before or after a vowel. The alveolar lateral approximant (the sound represented in IPA by lowercase [l]) occurs before a vowel, as in lip or blend, while the velarized alveolar lateral approximant (IPA [ɫ]) occurs in bell and milk. This velarization does not occur in many European languages that use ⟨l⟩; it is also a factor making the pronunciation of ⟨l⟩ difficult for users of languages that lack ⟨l⟩ or have different values for it, such as Japanese or some southern dialects of Chinese. A medical condition or speech impediment restricting the pronunciation of ⟨l⟩ is known as lambdacism.

In English orthography, ⟨l⟩ is often silent in such words as walk or could (though its presence can modify the preceding vowel letter's sound), and it is usually silent in such words as palm and psalm; however, there is some regional variation.

Other languages

⟨l⟩ usually represents the sound [l] or some other lateral consonant.

Common digraphs include ⟨ll⟩, which has a value identical to ⟨l⟩ in English, but has the separate value voiceless alveolar lateral fricative (IPA [ɬ]) in Welsh, where it can appear in an initial position. In Spanish, ⟨ll⟩ represents [ʎ], [j], [ʝ], [ɟʝ], or [ʃ], depending on dialect.

A palatal lateral approximant or palatal ⟨l⟩ (IPA [ʎ]) occurs in many languages, and is represented by ⟨gli⟩ in Italian, ⟨ll⟩ in Spanish and Catalan, ⟨lh⟩ in Portuguese, and ⟨ļ⟩ in Latvian.

Other uses

The capital letter L is used as the currency sign for the Albanian lek and the Honduran lempira. It was often used, especially in handwriting, as the currency sign for the Italian lira. It is also infrequently used as a substitute for the pound sign (£), which is based on it.

The Roman numeral Ⅼ represents the number 50.[3]

Forms and variants

In some fonts, the lowercase letter ⟨l⟩ may be difficult to distinguish from the digit one, ⟨1⟩, or an uppercase letter ⟨I⟩. In recent times, many new fonts have curved the lowercase form to the right, and it is increasingly common, especially on European road signs and advertisements. A more modern version based on the handwritten letter-like ⟨ℓ⟩ is sometimes used in mathematics and elsewhere. In Japan, for example, this is the symbol for the liter. Its LaTeX command is \ell, its codepoint is U+2113, and its numeric character reference is "ℓ".

Related characters

Descendants and related characters in the Latin alphabet

  • IPA-specific symbols related to L: ʟ ɫ ɬ ɭ ɺ ɮ ˡ
  • Uralic Phonetic Alphabet-specific symbols related to L:[4] U+1D0C LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL L WITH STROKE and U+1D38 MODIFIER LETTER CAPITAL L
  • ₗ : Subscript small l was used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet prior to its formal standardization in 1902[5]
  • ȴ : L with curl is used in Sino-Tibetanist linguistics[6]
  • Ꞁ ꞁ : Turned L was used by William Pryce to designate the Welsh voiced lateral spirant [ɬ][7]
  • Other variations are used for phonetic transcription:[8]
  • Ꝇ ꝇ : Broken L was used in some medieval Nordic manuscripts[9]
  • Teuthonista phonetic transcription-specific symbols related to R:[10]
    • U+AB37 LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH INVERTED LAZY S
    • U+AB38 LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH DOUBLE MIDDLE TILDE
    • U+AB39 LATIN SMALL LETTER L WITH MIDDLE RING
    • U+AB5D MODIFIER LETTER SMALL L WITH INVERTED LAZY S
    • U+AB5E MODIFIER LETTER SMALL L WITH MIDDLE TILDE
  • L with diacritics: Ĺ ĺ Ł ł Ľ ľ Ḹ ḹ L̃ l̃ Ļ ļ Ŀ ŀ Ḷ ḷ Ḻ ḻ Ḽ ḽ Ƚ ƚ Ⱡ ⱡ

Derived signs, symbols and abbreviations

Ancestors and siblings in other alphabets

  • 𐤋 : Semitic letter Lamedh, from which the following symbols originally derive
    • Λ λ : Greek letter Lambda, from which the following letters derive
      • Л л : Cyrillic letter El
      • Ⲗⲗ : Coptic letter Lamda
      • 𐌋 : Old Italic letter L, which is the ancestor of modern Latin L
        • ᛚ : Runic letter laguz, which probably derives from old Italic L
      • 𐌻 : Gothic letter laaz

Computing codes

Character L l
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L     LATIN SMALL LETTER L
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 76 U+004C 108 U+006C
UTF-8 76 4C 108 6C
Numeric character reference L L l l
EBCDIC family 211 D3 147 93
ASCII 1 76 4C 108 6C
1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.

Other representations

NATO phonetic Morse code
Lima ·–··
ICS Lima.svg Semaphore Lima.svg ⠇
Signal flag Flag semaphore Braille
dots-123

References

  1. ^ "L" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989) Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. (1993); "el", "ells", op. cit.
  2. ^ "Ancient Hebrew Research Center". Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  3. ^ Gordon, Arthur E. (1983). Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy. University of California Press. p. 44. ISBN 9780520038981. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  4. ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). "L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS" (PDF). 
  5. ^ Ruppel, Klaas; Aalto, Tero; Everson, Michael (2009-01-27). "L2/09-028: Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet" (PDF). 
  6. ^ Cook, Richard; Everson, Michael (2001-09-20). "L2/01-347: Proposal to add six phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  7. ^ Everson, Michael (2006-08-06). "L2/06-266: Proposal to add Latin letters and a Greek symbol to the UCS" (PDF). 
  8. ^ Constable, Peter (2004-04-19). "L2/04-132 Proposal to add additional phonetic characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  9. ^ Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF). 
  10. ^ Everson, Michael; Dicklberger, Alois; Pentzlin, Karl; Wandl-Vogt, Eveline (2011-06-02). "L2/11-202: Revised proposal to encode “Teuthonista” phonetic characters in the UCS" (PDF). 
  11. ^ Everson, Michael; Baker, Peter; Emiliano, António; Grammel, Florian; Haugen, Odd Einar; Luft, Diana; Pedro, Susana; Schumacher, Gerd; Stötzner, Andreas (2006-01-30). "L2/06-027: Proposal to add Medievalist characters to the UCS" (PDF). 

External links

  • The dictionary definition of L at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of l at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of at Wiktionary
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